R6the cactaceae

18. Echinocereus subinermis Salm-Dyck in Seemann, Bot. Herald 291. 1856.

Cereus subinermis Hemsley, Biol. Contr. Amer. Bot. 1: 546. 1880.

At first simple, 10 to 12 cm. high, afterwards a little branching at base, when young pale green, afterwards bluish and finally darker green, erect; ribs 5 to 8, broad, somewhat sinuate; spines all radial, small, conic, 1 to 2 mm. long, yellow, 3 or 4, deciduous; flowers large, 5 to 7 cm. long, yellow; perianth-segments oblanceolate, acute; spines of areoles on ovary and flower-tube short, white; fruit not known.

Type locality: Near Chihuahua, Mexico. Distribution: Northern Mexico.

This species was introduced into Europe in 1845. It recently flowered in Germany. We have studied a plant sent from Berlin to the New York Botanical Garden, in 1902, which died before blooming. This plant is the least armed of the genus.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 3; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 26: 99. Figure 15 is copied from the first illustration cited above.

19. Echinocereus luteus Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 239. 1913.

Stem short to elongated,* sometimes branching near base, bluish green, more or less purplish, 8 or 9-ribbed; ribs rather thin, barely undulate, rounded; areoles small, 10 to 12 mm. apart; spines small, the radials 6 to 8, unequal,

2 to 8 mm. long, widely spreading, white with darker tips; central spine single, porrect; flowers on each rib appearing near top of plant and from second or third areole; flower-buds acute, reddish, covered with long, brownish bristles; areoles on ovary and flower-tube bearing white wool and light-colored spines with dark tips; flowers pale yellow, delicately sweet-scented, 7 cm. long, including the ovary; outer perianth-segments streaked with red; inner perianth-segments lemon-yellow, oblanceolate, acute; filaments light yellow.

Type locality: Above Alamos, Sonora, Mexico.

Distribution: Western Mexico.

pl 67 Fig. 15.—Echinocereus subinermis.

Figure 16 is from a photograph of the type specimen.

20. Echinocereus chloranthus (Engelmann) Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 814. 1885.

Cereus chloranthus Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 278. 1856.

Cylindric, usually simple, 8 to 15 cm. long, 5 to 7 cm. in diameter; ribs about 13, often nearly hidden by the densely set spines; areoles nearly circular; radial spines several, spreading; centrals

3 or 4, not angled, in a vertical row, one much more elongated than the others, 2 to 3 cm. long; flowers yellowish green, 2 cm. long; fruit small, nearly globular, 5 to 10 cm. long, dark purplish red, covered with small bristly spines; seeds black, dull, pitted, the hilum nearly basal, round.

Type locality: About El Paso, Texas.

Distribution: Western Texas, southeastern New Mexico, and northern Mexico. This species is somewhat like Echinocereus viridiflorus, having similar small flowers. It is usually more elongated, with longer central spines and with the flowers appearing lower down on the plant, generally below the middle.

*Senor Ortega has sent us an unusual specimen, 2 dm. high, from Mazatlan (exact locality not given).

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 37, 38; Amer. Gard. 11: 473, as Cereus chloranthus; Cact. Journ. 2: 19; Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 2: f. 747; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: f. 57, D; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 2: f. 1375; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 128. f. 59; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 815. f. 107.

Plate ii, figure 3, shows a flowering plant sent by Dr. Rose to the New York Botanical Garden in 1913 from the east side of the Franklin Mountains near El Paso, Texas.

21. Echinocereus viridiflorus Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 91. 1848.

Cereus viridiflorus Engelmann in Gray, Pl. Fendl. 50. 1849.

Cereus viridiflorus cylindricus Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 278. 1856.

Echinocactus viridiflorus Pritzel, Icon. Bot. Index 2: 113. 1866.

Echinocereus viridiflorus cylindricus Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 812. 1885. Echinocereus strausianus Haage jr. in Quehl, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 70. 1890. Cereus viridiflorus tubulosus Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 383. 1896. Echinocereus viridiflorus tubulosus Heller, Cat. N. Amer. Pl. ed. 2. 8. 1900.

Plants small, nearly globular, but sometimes cylindric and 20 cm. high, simple, or more or less cespitose; ribs 14, low; areoles elongated; spines white, dark brown or variegated, usually arranged in circular bands of light and dark about the plant; radial spines about 16, appressed; centrals, when present, 2 or 3, arranged in a perpendicular row, often elongated and then 2 cm. long; flowers greenish, 2 to 2.5 cm. long; perianth-segments obtuse; fruit 10 to 12 mm. long; seeds 1 to 1.2 mm. long.

Fig. 16.—Echinocereus luteus. Fig. 17.—Echinocereus viridiflorus.

Type locality: Prairies about Wolf Creek, New Mexico.

Distribution: Southern Wyoming to eastern New Mexico, western Kansas, western Texas, and South Dakota.

This species is very common on the plains of the West. It is usually deeply seated, with the low top hidden in the grass, so that it is not easily seen. It is widely distributed, rather variable in its habit and spines, but is easily distinguished from all the other species of this genus. It is frequently introduced into our collections, but lasts only a few years. It extends farther north than any other species of the genus and was one of the first to be collected in the United States, having been found by Dr. Wislizenus in 1846. It is known in Wyoming as green-flowered petaya (M. Cary).

Echinocereus viridiflorus var. gracilispinus (Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 814. 1885) and var. major (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 16: 142. 1906) are simply garden forms.

Echinocereus labouretii Förster (Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 811. 1885) is given as a synonym of this species. Echinocereus labouretianus Lemaire (Cactées 57. 1868) is also to be referred here.

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 36; Gartenwelt 1: 89; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 125: pl. 7688, as Cereus viridiflorus; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 813. f. 106; Cact. Journ. 2: 19; Britton and Brown, Illustr. Fl. 2: 460. f. 2522; ed. 2. 2: 569. f. 2981; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 57; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 129. f. 60; Gartenwelt 4: 159; Blanc, Cacti 59. No. 842.

Plate 11, figure 4, shows a flowering plant sent to the New York Botanical Garden by Dr. Rose from Syracuse, Kansas, in 1912. Figure 17 15 from a photograph of a plant from Colorado Springs collected by F. W. Homan in 1912.

22. Echinocereus grandis sp. nov.

Stems usually single or in small clusters, sub-cylindric, 1 to 4 dm. high, 8 to 12 cm. in diameter; ribs 21 to 25, low; areoles large, longer than broad, about 1 cm. apart; spines dull white or cream-colored, rather short and stiff, the radials 15 to 25, the centrals 8 to 12, often in 2 rows; flower 5 to 6 cm. long, unusually narrow, with a short limb; ovary and flower-tube densely clothed with clusters of pale, straw-colored spines intermixed with white hairs; outer perianth-segments white, with a green medial line; inner perianth-segments narrow, 1.5 cm. long, white with green bases; filaments green; style white; stigma-lobes green; fruit densely spiny.

Fig. 18.—Echinocereus grandis. Fig. 19.—Echinocereus dasyacanthus.

Collected on San Esteban Island in the Gulf of California, April 13, 1911, by J. N. Rose (No. 16823); on San Lorenzo Island by Ivan M. Johnston in 1921 (Nos. 3541, 4198); and on Nolasco Island by Mr. Johnston (No. 3137).

This plant was very common in a dry creek bed and in an adjoining valley as well as on the low hills on the Island of San Esteban, which Dr. Rose visited in 1911. Many fine plants were collected. One flowered in the New York Botanical Garden in 1912; three plants were grown in the Cactus House, U. S. Department of Agriculture, in 1913, of one of which a photograph was taken.

Plate iii, figure 3, shows a flowering plant sent by Dr. Rose to the New York Botanical Garden from the type locality in 19 11. Figure 18 is from a photograph of one of the plants which bloomed in Washington.

23. Echinocereus dasyacanthus Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 100. 1848.

Cereus dasyacanthus Engelmann in Gray, Pl. Fendl. 50. 1849. Cereus dasyacanthus neo-mexicanus Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 384. 1896. Echinocereus spinosissimus Walton, Cact. Journ. 2: 162. 1899. Echinocereus rubescens Dams, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 92. 1905.

Plants usually simple, cylindric, 1 to 3 dm. high, very spiny; ribs 15 to 21, low, 2 to 3 cm. high; areoles approximate, 3 to 5 mm. apart, short-elliptic; radial spines 16 to 24, more or less spreading, 1.5 cm. long or less, at first pinkish but gray in age; central spines 3 to 8, a little stouter than the radials, never in a single row; flowers from near the apex, often very large, often 10 cm. long, yellowish, or drying reddish; outer perianth-segments linear-oblong, 4 to 5, cm. long, acute; inner perianth-segments oblong, 5 cm. long; ovary very spiny; fruit nearly globular, 2.5 to 3.5 cm. in diameter, purplish, edible.

Type locality: El Paso, Texas.

Distribution: Western Texas, southern New Mexico, and northern Chihuahua. It has been reported from Arizona, but doubtless wrongly.

Echinocereus papillosus rubescens (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 92. 1905) was only a garden name for E. rubescens.

Echinocereus degandii (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 123. 1895), only a catalogue name from Rebut, is here referred by Schumann in his monograph.

This is undoubtedly the plant which Walton calls the "true E. spinosissimus' (Cact. Journ. 2: 162. 1899), although we do not find the name referred to elsewhere.

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 39, 40, 41, f. 1, 2 Gard. Chron. III. 32: 252; West Amer. Sci. 13: 10, as Cereus dasyacanthus; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 89, as Echinocereus rubescens; Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 81; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 110; Gartenwelt 7: 290; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 130. f. 61; Cact. Journ. 1: 89; 2: 19.

Figure 19 is from a photograph of a flowering plant collected by Elmer Stearns at Juarez, Mexico, in 1906.

24. Echinocereus ctenoides (Engelmann) Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 819. 1885.

Cereus ctenoides Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 279. 1856. So far as known simple, cylindric, elongated, so to 40 em. long, 8 to 10 cm. in diameter, decidedly banded with pink and gray as in the rainbow cactus; ribs 15 to 17, low; areoles crowded together, short elliptic; radial spines often as many as 20, not spreading but standing out at an angle to the ribs; central spines 8 to 10, arranged in a single row or sometimes a little irregular; flowers up to 10 cm. long, about as wide as long when fully expanded, bright to reddish yellow; filaments yellow; style white; ovary and fruit very spiny.

Type locality: Eagle Pass, Texas. Distribution: Southern Texas and Chihuahua.

This species is near Echinocereus dasyacanthus; it differs somewhat in its spines and it has a more southern range. It may not be specifically distinct.

Echinocactus ctenoides (Index Kewensis Suppl. 1. 476) is a mistake for Echinocereus ctenoides.

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 42*; Dict. Gard. Nicholson 4: 511, f. 7; Suppl. 217. f. 229; Watson, Cact. Cult. 73. f. 20, as Cereus ctenoides; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 820. f. 109.

Figure 20 is a copy of the first illustration above cited.

25. Echinocereus papillosus Linke in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 783. 1885.

Echinocereus texensis Rünge, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 61. 1894. Not Jacobi, 1856. Echinocereus ruengei Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 124. 1895. Cereus papillosus Berger, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 16: 80. 1905.

* All the additional illustrations cited here are copied from this plate.

More or less cespitose, rather dark green, decumbent or ascending, 5 to 30 cm. long, 2 to 4 cm. in diameter; ribs 6 to 10, prominent, strongly tubercled; radial spines acicular, spreading, about 7, white to yellowish, 1 cm. long or less; central spine solitary, acicular, porrect, 12 mm. long or more; flowers large, 10 to 12 cm. broad, yellow with a reddish center, with rather few perianth-segments 4 to 6 cm. long, oblong-spatulate, acuminate, more or less serrate; scales on ovary red, spreading; fruit not known.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Western Texas.

Although this species is supposed to come from the vicinity of San Antonio, Texas, no specimens are known to us from that place but we have an herbarium specimen collected by Miss Mary B. Croft at San Diego, Texas. It is one of the few species in the genus with yellow flowers and ought easily to be distinguished from other Texan species.

Illustration: Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 115.

Fig. 2o.—Echinocereus ctenoides. Fig. 20a.—Echinocereus pentalophus.

26. Echinocereus blanckii* (Poselger) Palmer, Rev. Hort. 36: 92. 1865.

Cereus blanckii Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 134. 1853.

Cereus berlandieri Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 286. 1856.

Echinocereusposelgerianus Linke, Allg. Gartenz. 25: 239. 1857.

Echinocereus berlandieri Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 776. 1885.

Echinocereus leonensis Mathsson, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: 66. 1891.

Cereus leonensis Orcutt, West Amer. Sci. 13: 27. 1902.

Cereus poselgerianus Berger, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 16: 80. 1905.

*The specific name is often spelled blankii.

Procumbent; joints slender, 3 to 15 cm. long, 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter; ribs 5 to 7, strongly tuberculate, or when turgid scarcely tubercled; areoles 1 to 1.5 cm. apart; radial spines 6 to 8, 8 to 10 mm. long, white; central spine solitary, 10 to 50 mm. long, brownish to black; flowers purple, 5 to 8 cm. long; perianth-segments narrow, oblanceolate, acute.

Type locality: Near Camargo, state of Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Distribution: Northeastern Mexico and southern Texas.

Dr. Rose in 1912 examined specimens labeled E. leonensis in the collection of Mr. Haage jr. at Erfurt which seemed to be E. blanckii.

Echinocereusflaviflorus Hildmann (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 264. 1898), unpublished, is referred to E. leonensis, its flowers not being yellow as the name would imply.

This species is named for P. A. Blanck, a pharmacist in Berlin and a friend of H. Poselger. It is closely related to E. pentalophus.

Echinocactus leonensis (Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 76) seems to have been intended for Echinocereus leonensis Mathsson.

Fig. 21.—Echinocereus blanckii.

Illustrations: Diet. Gard. Nicholson 4: 511. f. 5; Suppl. 217. f. 227, as Cereus blankii; Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 37; Cact. Journ. 1: 135; 2: 19 Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 97; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7: 154; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 3, f. 2; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 122. f. 55, as Echinocereus berlandieri; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 58; Dict. Gard. Nicholson 4: 510. f. 4; Suppl. 216. f. 226, as Cereus berlandieri; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: opp. 66, as Echinocereus leonensis; Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 70; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 98; Rev. Hort. 36: following 92.

Plate iii, figure 4, shows a flowering plant sent to the New York Botanical Garden from the Berlin Botanical Garden in 1902. Figure 21 is from a photograph taken by Robert Runyon at Reynosa, Mexico, July 8, 1921.

27. Echinocereus pentalophus (De Candolle) Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 774. 1885.

Cereus pentalophus De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 117. 1828. Cereus pentalophus simplex De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 117. 1828. Cereus pentalophus subarticulatus De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 117. 1828. Cereus pentalophus radicans De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 117. 1828. Cereuspropinquus De Candolle in Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 1: 366. 1833.

Cereusprocumbens Engelmann in Gray, Pl. Fendl. 50. 1849.

Cereuspentalophus leptacanthus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 42. 1850.

Echinocereusprocumbens Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 781. 1885.

Echinocereus leptacanthus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 260. 1898.

Procumbent, with ascending branches, deep green; ribs 4 to 6, somewhat undulate, bearing low tubercles; radial spines 4 or 5, very short, white with brown tips; central spine 1, rarely wanting; flowers reddish violet, large, 7 to 12 cm. long; perianth-segments broad, rounded at apex; stamens borne on the lower half of throat for a distance of about 12 mm.; tube proper not much broader than the style, purple within, 8 mm. long; filaments short; style a little longer than the filaments; scales on the ovary and flower-tube bearing long cobwebby hairs and brownish spines; style stiff, 3.5 cm. long.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Eastern Mexico and southern Texas.

This is an attractive species and does fairly well in greenhouse cultivation, usually producing its beautiful flowers very early in the spring; its growth is much modified by indoor treatment, where the spines, especially, are changed.

Echinocereus procumbens longispinus (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 135. 1902) is only a form with very long spines. The wild plants in this and the following species have longer spines than the cultivated ones.

Echinocereus procumbens has usually been recognized as a distinct species but we believe we are justified in referring it as above.

In 1837 when Pfeiffer redescribed the varieties of this species he added Cereus propinquus De Candolle (Echinocereus propinquus Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 124. 1895), as a synonym of variety simplex, and C. leptacanthus De Candolle, as a synonym of variety subarticulatus, but we do not find that De Candolle himself ever published these names.

This species was figured in Curtis's Botanical Magazine in 1839, about 10 years after its introduction from Mexico by Thomas Coulter. Although we have no definite information on this point, it is not unlikely that it was made from a part of the original stock. As the type of the species is lost, we have assumed that this illustration is typical. The species was taken up by Schumann, and by all writers since, under the much later name, Echinocereus leptacanthus Schumann; this is the name used by Pfeiffer, but as a synonym as mentioned above.

Illustrations: Dict. Hort. Bois 280. f. 198; Deutsches Mag. Gart. Blumen. 1868: pl. opp. 8, as Cereus pentalophus; Dict. Gard. Nicholson 4: 512. f. 9; Suppl. 218. f. 232; Rev. Hort. 36: opp. 171, as Cereus leptacanthus; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 65: pl. 3651, as Cereus pentalophus subarticulatus; Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 15; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 785. f. 100; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 125. f. 57, as Echinocereus leptacanthus; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 117: pl. 7205; Dict. Gard. Nicholson 4: f. 12; Suppl. f. 234; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 59, f. 1 to 11, as Cereus procumbens; Cact. Journ. 1: 109, 136, 164; 2: 173; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 782. f. 99; Rümpler, Sukkulenten 136. f. 72; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 124. f. 56, as Echinocereus procumbens.

Plate ill, figure 1, shows a flowering joint of a plant sent by Dr. Rose to the New York Botanical Garden in 1913. Figure 20 a is copied from the first illustration above cited.

28. Echinocereus sciurus (K. Brandegee).

Cereus sciurus K. Brandegee, Zoe 5: 192. 1904.

Densely cespitose, with many individuals forming clumps sometimes 60 cm. broad; stems slender, often 20 cm. long, often nearly hidden by the many spines; ribs 12 to 17, low, divided into numerous tubercles 5 to 6 mm. apart; areoles small, approximate, circular, at first woolly, becoming naked; radial spines 15 to 18, sometimes 15 mm. long, slender, pale except the brownish tips; centrals usually several, shorter than the radials; flower-buds covered with numerous slender brown-tipped spines; flowers described as 7 cm. long, about 9 cm. broad when fully open; inner perianth-segments in 2 to 4 rows, bright magenta; stamens numerous, with greenish filaments; pistil green with obtuse stigma-lobes; seeds 1 mm. long, tuberculate.

BRITTON AND ROSE, VOL. III

PLATE III

BRITTON AND ROSE, VOL. III

PLATE III

M. E. Eaton del. 1. Top of flowering plant of Echinocereuspentaloph us. A. Hoen & Co.

2. Flowering plant of Echinocereusfitchii.

3. Top of flowering plant of Echinocereus grandis.

4. Flowering plant of Echinocereus blanckii.

(All natural size.)

Type locality: Hills near San José del Cabo, Lower California.

Distribution: Southern end of Lower California.

This species was first collected by Mr. T. S. Brandegee near San José del Cabo, Lower California, in April 1897, and described by Mrs. Brandegee in 1904 as a new species of Cereus of the subgenus Echinocereus.

In 1911 Dr. Rose re-collected it in some abundance at the type locality, and living plants were grown in the cactus collections in New York, Washington, and St. Louis. So far as we are aware it is not offered in the trade and is rare in living or herbarium collections. It has been collected in recent years also by Dr. C. A. Purpus and the name Echinocereus sciurus was incidentally used in referring to his collection (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 130. 1904).

Plate iv, figure 1, shows a plant collected by Dr. Rose at San José del Cabo, Lower California, in 1911.

29. Echinocereus cinerascens (De Candolle) Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 786.1885.

Cereus cinerascens De Candolle, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 116. 1828.

Cereus cinerascens crassior De Candolle, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 116. 1828.

Cereus cinerascens tenuior De Candolle, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 116. 1828.

Cereus deppei Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 338. 1834.

Cereus cirrhiferus Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 311. 1853.

Echinocereus cirrhiferus Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 778. 1885.

Echinocereus glycimorphus Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 800. 1885.

Cereus glycimorphus Orcutt, Seed Pl. Co. Cat. Cact. 5. 1903.

Growing in patches 6 to 12 dm. broad, branching at base, the stems ascending to about 3 dm.; ribs about 12, not very prominent, obtuse; areoles rather scattered, orbicular; spines white or pale, straight, rough, 1.5 to 2 cm. long; radials about 10; centrals 3 or 4; flowers, including ovary, 6 to 8 cm. long, the tube very short; scales on ovary and tube small, acute, their axils crowded with short white wool and 6 to 8 long white bristles; inner perianth-segments, when dry, deep purple, 3 to 4 cm. long, obtuse; stamens short; fruit not seen.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Central Mexico.

Cereus aciniformis (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 101. 1837) is only a garden name supposed to be the same as Echinocereus cinerascens var. crassior (Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 787. 188).

Echinocereus deppei, unpublished, belongs here according to Schumann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 123. 1895). Echinocereus cirrhiferus monstrosus is an abnormal form.

Echinocereus glycimorphus was described from a sterile plant of unknown origin, obtained of F. A. Haage jr. of Erfurt; it was redescribed by Schumann, who cites definitely Mathsson's plant from Hidalgo between Ixmiquilpan and Cardonal, but whether this latter plant is the type or not is uncertain. Schumann made for it a subseries Oleosi of which it is the only species.

We feel justified in reducing E. glycimorphus to E. cinerascens; we have living plants of both from the Berlin Botanical Garden and they must represent essentially the same species, while the differences pointed out by Schumann seem trivial. Not only have we had Echinocereus cinerascens from various authentic sources, but Dr. Rose has repeatedly obtained it from the Valley of Mexico and adjacent regions. The plant is of wide distribution and has been reported from farther south than any of the other species of this genus.

Echinocereus undulatus Hildmann (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 261. 1898) is only a catalogue name for it.

Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 137.

30. Echinocereus adustus Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 104. 1848.

Echinocereus rufispinus Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 104. 1848.

Echinocereus radians Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 105. 1848.

Cereus adustus Engelmann in Gray, Pl. Fendl. 50. 1849.

Cereus rufispinus Engelmann in Gray, Pl. Fendl. 50. 1849.

Cereus pectinatus armatus Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 134. 1853.

Cereuspectinatus spinosus Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 387. 1896.

Cereus adustus radians Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 387. 1896.

Echinocereuspectinatus adustus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 271. 1898.

Echinocereuspectinatus armatus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 271. 1898.

Echinocereus pectinatus rufispinus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 272. 1898.

Simple, short-cylindric, often only 4 to 6 cm. high; ribs 13 to 15; areoles closely set, elliptic; radial spines 16 to 20, appressed-pectinate, pale; the central spines wanting or solitary, sometimes elongated and porrect; flowers purplish, 3 to 4 cm. long; inner perianth-segments narrow; ovary and calyx-tube covered with clusters of short brown spines arid long wool.

Type locality: Cosihuiriachi, Chihuahua.

Distribution: Mountains near type locality.

Figure 22 is from a photograph of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at the type locality in 1908.

Fig. 22.—Echinocereus adustus. Fig. 23.—Echinocereus standleyi.

31. Echinocereus standleyi sp. nov.

Nearly globular or short-cylindric, 4 to 5 cm. in diameter; ribs 12; areoles elongated, closely set; radial spines about 16, stoutish, whitish but yellow at base; central spine one, similar to but much larger and stouter than the radials, 2 to 2.5 cm. long, porrect.

Collected by Mrs. S. L. Pattison in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, and obtained from her by Mr. Paul C. Standley in 1906.

It is a little known species, resembling Echinocereus adustus and E. viridiflorus, but with different spines; neither flower nor fruit has been obtained.

Figure 23 is from a photograph of the type specimen, preserved in the U. S. National Herbarium.

32. Echinocereus perbellus sp. nov.

Stem either simple or clustered, 5 to 10 cm. high; ribs 15, low and broad; distance between the areoles about equal to the length of the areoles themselves; areoles elongated; spines all radials, 12 to 15, spreading but not widely, 5 to 7 mm. long, pale brown to reddish or nearly white below; flowers purple, 4 to 6 cm. long; perianth-segments broad, oblong to oblanceolate, acuminate, nearly 4 cm. long; areoles on flower-tube very woolly as well as spiny.

Collected by Rose and Standley at Big Springs, Texas, February 23, 1910 (No. 12215). This is a very beautifUl species which flowers abundantly in cultivation. If heretofore collected, it has doubtless passed as the next species to which it is related. Rose and Standley, who discovered it wild in 1910, also found it in cultivation in Texas.

Figure 24 is from a photograph of the type specimen.

33. Echinocereus reichenbachii (Tercheck) Haage jr., Index Kewensis 2: 813. 1893.

Echinocactus reichenbachii Terscheck in Walpers Repert.

Bot. 2: 320. 1843. Cereus caespitosus Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 5: 247. 1845.

Echinopsis pectinata reichenbachiana Salm-Dyck, Cact.

Hort. Dyck. 1844. 26. 1845. Echinocereus caespitosus Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem.

Tour North. Mex. no. 1848. Cereus caespitosus castaneus Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat.

Hist. 6: 203. 1850. Cereus reichenbachianus Lahouret, Monogr. Cact. 318.

1853.

Cereus reichenbachianus castaneus Labouret, Monogr.

Cact. 319. 1853. Cereus caespitosus minor Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad.

3: 280. 1856. Cereus caespitosus major Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 280. 1856.

Echinocereus texensis Jacobi, Allg. Gartenz. 24* no. 1856. Mammillaria caespitosa A. Gray, First Lessons in Botany 96. 1857. Echinocereus rotatus Linke, Wochenschr. Gärtn. Pflanz. 1: 85. 1858. Echinocereus caespitosus castaneus Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 811. 1885.

Echinocereus caespitosus major Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 811. 1885.

Echinocereus Pectinatus caespitosus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 272. 1898.

More or less cespitóse; stems simple, globose to short-cylindric, 2.5 to 20 cm. long, 5 to 9 cm. in diameter; ribs 12 to 19; areoles approximate, elliptic; spines 20 to 30, white to brown, but usually those of each individual plant of one color, pectinate, interlocking, 5 to 8 mm. long, spreading, more or less recurved; centrals 1 or 2, like the radiáis, or often wanting; flowers fragrant, rather variable as to size, often 6 to 7 cm. long and fully as broad, opening during the day, always closing at night and sometimes opening the second day, light purple, often reflexed; perianth-segments narrow, the margin more or less erose; filaments pinkish; fruit ovoid, about 1 cm. long; seeds black, nearly globose, 1.2 to 1.4 mm. in diameter.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Texas and northern Mexico; recorded from western Kansas.

The plant grows in a limestone country, usually among rocks.

Brandegee in 1876 reported Cereus caespitosus castaneus from the mesas of Saint Charles, south of Pueblo, Colorado, but we Fig 25.—Echin°cereus reichen, , ^^^ Dachii.

have seen no specimens. The species is not credited to Colorado in recent manuals. We have seen specimens from as far south as Saltillo, Mexico (Runyon, 1921).

Cereus concolor Schott (Pac. R. Rep. 4: Errata and Notes 11. 1856) is referred here by Coulter. The original description indicates a very different plant and it is surprising

* According to Walpers, the specfic name is reichenbachii, but Labouret, when he transferred it to Cereus, changed it to reichenbachianus and this spelling is used in the Index Kewensis where the plant is taken up under Echinocereus. There the binomial is credited to Engelmann.

Fig. 24.—Echinocereus perbellus.

that it has not been re-collected. It was collected at Escondido Springs, near the Pecos, Texas. Schott points out how it differs from Echinocereus caespitosus in the following words:

"In C. caespitosus the flower-buds are clothed with a dense grayish wool and bear beautiful flowers 2 inches in diameter and 2 inches in length. In Cereus concolor the flower-buds are perfectly naked, small, campanulate blossoms with yellowish sanguineus petals perfectly like the spines in color, 0.5 inches in diameter and 0.8 inches in length."

Echinopsis reichenbachiana Pfeiffer (Förster, Handb. Cact. 365. 1846) was used only as a synonym.

Echinocereuspectinatus castaneus (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: 144. 1891), unpublished, doubtless belongs here.

Illustrations: Gray, First Lessons Bot. 96; Gray, Struct. Bot. ed. 5. 421. f. 838; ed. 6. 170. f. 317, as Mammillaria caespitosa*; West Amer. Sci. 7: 238; Dict. Gard. Nicholson 4: 511. f. 6; Suppl. 217. f. 228; Cact. Mex. Bound. Pl. 43, 44; Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 5: 209; Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 19; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 109: pl. 6669; Gartenflora 29: 52, as Cereus caespitosus; Gartenflora 30: 413; Garten-Zeitung 3: 16. f. 7; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: f. 56, F; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 105, 138; Cact. Journ. 1: 107, 135; Britton and Brown, Illustr. Fl. 2: 461. f. 2523; ed. 2. 2: 559. f. 2982; Rümpler, Sukkulenten 140. f. 75; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: Pl. 4 f. 6, as Echinocereus caespitosus; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 171; Floralia 42: 369, as Echinocereus pectinatus caespitosus.

Figure 26 is copied from plate 43 of the Mexican Boundary Survey, above cited; figure 25 is from a photograph furnished by Robert Runyon of a plant collected near Saltillo, Mexico.

34. Echinocereus baileyi Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 403. 1909.

Plant body cylindric, about 10 cm. high; ribs 15, straight or sometimes spiral; areoles elongated, separated from the adjacent ones by a space of about their own length; radial spines at first white, when mature brownish or yellowish, about 16, somewhat spreading, those at the top and base of the areole smaller; central spines none; areoles when young clothed with dense white wool, this nearly or quite wanting in age; flowers from the youngest growth appearing terminal; perianth widely spreading, 6 cm. broad or more; inner segments light purple, oblong to spatulate-oblong, the broad apex toothed or erose, the terminal teeth tapering into a slender awn; filaments short, yellow; style stout, longer than the filaments; stigma-lobes 10, obtuse; areoles of the ovary bearing 10 to 12 slender spines intermixed with cobwebby wool, the spines whitish or the central ones brownish; areoles of the tube crowning an elongated tubercle, not so closely set, bearing spines subtended by minute leaves.

Type locality: Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma.

Distribution: Mountains of Oklahoma.

This very interesting species was collected in August 1906 by Mr. Vernon Bailey, for whom it was named, in the Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma. The following August it flowered and then died. Until recently we supposed that this was the only collection known but, while restudying the genus, we find that a plant sent by a Mr. Merkel from Oklahoma flowered in July 1908. We have since endeavored to collect specimens, but without success until we were reading the second proof. On Major B. A. Goldman's return from Oklahoma in August 1921 he informed us that Echinocereus baileyi was very common in the Wichita National Forest near Cache and he arranged with the forest

* On inquiring of Miss Mary A. Day regarding these references we received the following reply under date of June 15, 1921:

"The name Mammillaria caespitosa used by Dr. Gray in his Structural Botany, edition 5, 1858, appears one year earlier in his First Lessons in Botany and Vegetable Physiology, page 96, 1857. This is the earliest reference I find for it. In the foot-note at the bottom of the page where this name is given, Dr. Gray himself has crossed out Mammillaria caespitosa and written in Cereus caespitosus. He has also crossed off the words 'Upper Missouri,' and written in 'Texas.' This would indicate that Dr. Gray himself considered the flame Mammillaria caespitosa, or the figure of it in his First Lessons, and Structural Botany, the same as Engelmann's Cereus caespitosus of Texas."

supervisor, Mr. Frank Rush, to have living plants sent on to Washington. These arrived in November. Besides several single plants there was a large clump, 3 dm. in diameter, consisting of 25 branches.

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pl. 56, 57. Figure 27 is a copy of the first illustration above cited.

Fig. 26.—Echinocereus reichenbachii. Fig. 27.—Echinocereus baileyi.

35. Echinocereus rigidissimus (Engelmann) Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 293. 1909.

Cereuspectinatus rigidissimus Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 279. 1856.

Echinocereus pectinatus rigidissimus Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 818. 1885.

Echinocereus pectinatus robustus Bauer, Gartenflora 39: 513. 1890.

Fig. 26.—Echinocereus reichenbachii. Fig. 27.—Echinocereus baileyi.

35. Echinocereus rigidissimus (Engelmann) Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 293. 1909.

Cereuspectinatus rigidissimus Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 279. 1856.

Echinocereus pectinatus rigidissimus Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 818. 1885.

Echinocereus pectinatus robustus Bauer, Gartenflora 39: 513. 1890.

Plants simple, erect, rigid, short-cylindric, 1 to 2 dm. high, 4 to 10 cm. in diameter, usually hidden by the closely set interlocking spines; ribs numerous, 18 to 22, low; areoles approximate, elliptic, 5 to 6 mm. long; radial spines about 16, gray to reddish brown, arranged in horizontal bands, pectinate, rigid, 15 mm. long or less, often recurved; central spines none; flowers purple, 6 to 7 cm. long, fully as broad when expanded; perianth-segments oblong, 3 to 4 cm. long, acute; stamens numerous, shorter than the style; areoles on ovary somewhat floccose, very spiny; fruit globular, 3 cm. in diameter, very spiny; seeds black, tuberculate, 1.5 mm. in diameter.

Type locality: Sonora.

Distribution: Southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora.

This species is a great favorite in collections, although it does not last long. Its varicolored spines arranged in bands have given it the appropriate name of rainbow cactus, while in Mexico it is called cabeza del viego. It has often been regarded as a variety of E. reichenbachii, but it is abundantly distinct. It is known in the trade under various names, among which are Cereus candicans and Echinocereus candicans, a name which belongs properly to a very different plant from Argentina, Cereus rigidissimus, C. robustior, and Echinocereus robustior, but none of which has been formally published. Here also belong the names Echi-nocereus rigidispinus, E. pectinatus robustior (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7: 95. 1897), and perhaps E. pectinatus candicans (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 111. 1893).

Figs. 28 and 29.— Echinocereus rigidissimus.

The largest specimen which we have seen was collected by Dr. J. W. Gidley near Benson, Arizona, in 1921. This plant was fully 2 dm. tall and 1 dm. in diameter. The spines were nearly all red, separated by very narrow bands of white ones giving the plant a brilliant and striking appearance.

Illustrations: Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 2: 519. f. 748; De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 36; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 133. f. 63, as Echinocereus pectinatus rigidissimus; Gartenflora 39: pl. 1331, as E. pectinatus robustus; Cact. Journ. 1: pl. for September; 2: 18; (?) Balt. Cact. Journ. 2: 88; West Amer. Sci. 7: 236, as Echinocereus candicans; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 2: f. 1376.

Figure 28 is from a photograph of a plant sent from Sonora, Mexico, by Carl Lum-holtz in 1909; figures 29 and 30 are from photographs taken by F. E. Lloyd at the Desert Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution, Tucson, Arizona; figure 31 is from a photograph of a plant in its natural habitat, taken by Dr. MacDougal at Calabasas, Arizona, in 1908.

36. Echinocereus weinbergii Weingart, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 22: 83. 1912.

Very stout, usually simple, at first globose, becoming conical, at least in cultivation, 13 cm. in diameter; ribs 15, acute, more or less undulate; areoles elliptic, approximate; radial spines 9 to 12, pectinate, 3 to 12 mm. long, at first white or rose but in age yellowish; central spines none; flowers diurnal, 3.6 cm. broad, rose-colored; inner perianth-segments in several series, 1.5 to 3 cm. long, 4 to 5 mm. broad, lanceolate, acuminate; fruit not known.

Figs. 30 and 31.—Echinocereus rigidissimus.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Doubtless Mexico, but known only from garden plants.

This is one of the stoutest plants of the genus known to us. It was named in honor of Frank Weinberg, a cactus dealer.

Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 24: 105.

Figure 32 is from a photograph contributed by Mr. Frank Weinberg.

37. Echinocereus pectinatus (Scheidweiler) Engelmann in Wis-

lizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 109. 1848.

Echinocactus pectinatus Scheidweiler, Bull. Acad. Sci. Brux. 5: 492.

1838.

Echinocactus pectiniferus Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 25. 1839.

Echinocactus pectiniferus laevior Monville in Lemaire, Cact. Gen.

Echinopsispectinata Fennel, Allg. Gartenz. 11: 282. 1843.

Cereuspectinatus Engelmann in Gray, pl. Fendl. 50. 1849.

Cereuspectiniferus Lahouret, Monogr. Cact. 320. 1833.

Echinocereus pectinatus chrysacanthus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 272. 1898.

Plants simple, erect, cylindric, 1 to 1.5 dm. long, 3 to 6 cm. in diameter, almost hidden by the many short interlocking spines; ribs 20 to 22, usually straight; areoles approximate, but not touching one another, elliptic, 3 mm. long; radial spines about 30, pectinate, usually much less than 10 mm. long, white or rose-colored, the colors more or less in bands about the plant; central spines several, more or less porrect; flowers purplish, 6 to 8 cm. long; areoles on ovary and flower-tube felted, very spiny; fruit spiny, becoming naked, 2 to 3 cm. in diameter.

Type locality: Near Villa del Pennasco, central Mexico.

Distribution: Central Mexico.

This species was first collected by Galeotti who sent a collection to Belgium from the states of San Luis Potosí and Guanajuato, Mexico. The type station, Villa del Pennasco, we have not located. It was soon after figured by Lemaire (Icon. Cact. Pl. 14 or 15) and

Fig. 32.— Echinocereus weinbergii.

Pfeiffer (Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 10), very likely from the type collection. These illustrations are not very good, especially as to the areoles. In 1845 it was again described and illustrated, this time in Curtis's Botanical Magazine, plate 4190, from a specimen sent by a Mr. Staines from San Luis Potosí. This is from the region of Galeotti's type. We refer here Lloyd's No. 4 from Zacatecas.

Cereus pectinatus laevior Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 43. 180; Echinocereus pectinatus laevior, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. Index 56. 1912) is only a name to be referred here. Echinocereus pectinatus cristatus is an abnormal form of no taxonomic importance. A very unusual illustration of it appeared in Floralia 42: 372. This variety may or may not belong to this species. Echinopsis pectinata laevior Monville (Förster, Handb. Cact. 365. 1846) belongs here.

Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 71: pl. 4190; Lemaire, Icon. Cact.* Pl. 14 or 15; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3, 1377. f. 19371; Fl. Serr. 2: July, pl. 7, as Echinocactus pectiniferus; Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 10, as Echinopsis pectinata; Cact. Journ. 2: 18; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 108; Rümpler, Sukkulenten 141. f. 76; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 2, f. 6; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk, 132. f. 62.

Figure 33 is copied from the first illustration cited above.

38. Echinocereus fitchii sp. nov.

Plants short-cylindric or somewhat narrowed above, 8 to 10 cm. long, 4 to 5 cm. in diameter; ribs 10 to 12, low, rounded; areoles 4 to 6 mm. apart, small, circular; radial spines about 20, white, spreading, 4 to 6 mm. long; central spines 4 to 6, slightly spreading, 12 mm. long or less, acicular, brownish, but sometimes white at base; flowers 6 to 7 cm. long, pink; perianth-segments, oblanceolate, widely spreading, acute, serrate on the margin; ovary 2.5 cm. long, hearing numerous areoles, these spiny and with cobwebby hairs.

Living specimens were collected by Dr. Rose near Laredo, Texas, in 1913 (No. 18037) which flowered in the New York Botanical Garden, April 10, 1914.

This plant is named for Mr. William R. Fitch who accompanied Dr. Rose on collecting trips to the West Indies and to western Texas in 1913.

Plate ill, figure 2, is of the type plant cited above.

39. Echinocereus scopulorum sp. nov.

Stems single, cylindric, 10 to 40 cm. long, nearly hidden by the closely set spines; ribs 13 or more, low, somewhat tuberculate; areoles circular, devoid of wool (at least in areoles of the previous year); spines highly colored, pinkish or brownish with blackish tips, in age, however, gray and stouter; radials somewhat spreading; centrals 3 to 6, similar to the radials; flower-buds or some of them appearing near the top of the plant, developing very slowly; flowers with a delicate rose perfume, widely spreading when fully expanded, 9 cm. broad; tube 2 cm. long, broadly funnelform, bearing greenish tubercles; inner perianth-segments 4 cm. long, rose or purplish rose in color, much paler on the outside, sometimes nearly white, rather loose and usually only in about 2 rows, oblanceolate to spatulate, erosely dentate, acute; stamens greenish; style stout, much longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes linear, 12.

Fig. 33.—Echinocereus pectinatus.

* See Britton and Rose, Cactaceae 2: 6. 1920.

Collected near Guaymas, Mexico, March 10, 1910, by Rose, Standley, and Russell (No. 12570, type), and by Ivan M. Johnston, April 14, 1921 (No. 3103). It also was found as far south as Topolabampo, Sinaloa, March 23, 1910, by Rose, Standley, and Russell (No. 13349) and at San Pedro Bay, Sonora (No. 4291), and at San Carlos Bay, Sonora (No. 4344), by Mr. Johnston in 1921.

It is related to E. reichenbachii, but is very distinct from it.

Mr. Johnston's No. 3103 flowered in Washington, July 22, 1921.

Figure 34 is from a photograph made in Washington from a living plant collected by Rose, Stand-ley, and Russell at Topolabampo, Mexico.

'A f

Fig. 34.—Echinocereus scopulorum

40. Echinocereus roetteri (Engelmann)

Cereus dasyacanthus minor Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 279. 1856

Cereus roetteri Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 345. 1856.

Echinocereus kunzei Gürke, Monats-schr. Kakteenk. 17: 103. 1907.

Cespitose, or perhaps sometimes simple and occasionally budding above, 1 to 2.5 dm, high; ribs 13, straight, more or less undulate; areoles circular, or a little longer than broad, about 1 cm. apart; radial spines 15 to 17, acicular, about 1 cm. long, white or purplish; central spines 1 to 5, not in a single row, a little stouter but scarcely longer than the radials; flowers appearing below the top of the plant, large, 6 to 7

cm. long, perhaps even broader than long, light purple; outer perianth-segments greenish yellow; inner perianth-segments oblanceolate, acute, 3 to 4 cm. long; ovary and fruit spiny.

Type locality: Near El Paso, Texas.

Distribution: Southwestern Texas; Chihuahua, near El Paso, and southeastern New Mexico.

Echinocereus kunzei which we have referred here as a synonym is usually stated to be from Arizona. It was doubtless sent out from Phoenix, Arizona, where Dr. Kunze lived, but we have a specimen in the U. S. National Herbarium labeled "southern New Mexico" in Dr. Kunze's handwriting. The illustration which Dr. Kunze uses (Price List of Cactaceae, 1913) suggests Echinocereus viridiflorus.

According to Engelmann it is similar to E. dasyacanthus from which it is distinguished by its fewer ribs, stouter spines, purple flowers, smaller fruit, and larger seed.

This species was named for Paulus Roetter, the artist, who made the cactus drawings for the Mexican Boundary Survey.

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 41 f. 3 to 5, as Cereus roetteri; Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 128, as Echinocereus kunzei.

Fig. 34.—Echinocereus scopulorum

Figs. 35 and 36.—Flower and spine-clusters of Echinocereus roetteri. X 0.9.

Figures 35 and 36 are drawn from a co-type herbarium specimen collected by Charles Wright in New Mexico, 1851-1852.

41. Echinocereus chlorophthalmus (Hooker) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 242. 1913.

Echinocactus chlorophtalmus Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 74 pl. 4373. 1848. Cespitose, nearly globose, glaucous-green; ribs 10 to 12, somewhat tuberculate; areoles circular; radial spines 7 to 10, slender, needle-like, 12 to 18 mm. long, spreading; central spine one, stouter than the radials, the central as well as the radials pale brown but reddish at base when young; inner perianth-segments spatulate, acute, somewhat serrate towards the tip, glossy above, purple, whitish at base; stigma-lobes bright green; ovary and fruit spiny.

Fig. 37.—Echinocereus chlorophtalmus. Fig. 38.—Echinocereus knippelianus.

Type locality: Real del Monte, Mexico.

Distribution: Known only from the type locality.

This species, although described as an Echinocactus, is undoubtedly an Echinocereus, but it is not near Echinocereus conglomeratus as Schumann suggests.

In 1905 Dr. Rose visited Real del Monte, the type locality, where he collected the flowers of an Echinocereus (No. 8730) which correspond very well to the cited illustrations.

Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 74: pl. 4373; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3. 1377. f. 19374, as Echinocactus chlorophthalmus.

Figure 37 is copied from the first illustration above cited.

42. Echinocereus knippelianus Liebner, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 170. 1895.

Echinocereus liebnerianus Carp,* Balt. Cact. Journ. 2: 262. 1 896.+

Echinocereus inermis Haage jr., Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 130. 1898.

Cereus knippelianus Orcutt, West Amer. Sci. 13: 27. 1902.

*The authority for this name was given as Carp or as an abbreviation, Carp., which suggested that it might he an abbreviation for Carpenter, but as there was no cactus authority of this name the explanation seemed unsatisfactory. It was known that various short articles appeared in the Baltimore Cactus Journal under this name with a California address. This led us to write to C. R. Orcutt and then to Ernest Braunton, both of whom have long been in touch with horticultural interests in California. From them we obtained the following information:

Carp's real name was Daniel R. Crane. At one time he was a dealer of cacti and advertised freely under the name of the California Cactus Company, Soldiers' Home, Los Angeles County, California. His pen name, he explained, was a reversal of the first syllable of practical, which is of doubtful significance. Crane served in the Union Army and was somewhat erratic in his later years. He died about 1901.

fThis reference is taken from Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 252. 1897) who cites Carp as the authority for this binomial. The original publication of E. liebnerianus does not refer to Carp but to Liebner. It occurs in the following letter of K. Schumann to the editor of the Baltimore Cactus Journal (2: 262. 1896):

"The cactus found by McDowell and pictured twice in the November number of the Baltimore Cactus Journal is described in the November number of the Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde and named by Mr. C. Liebner, Echinocereus liebnerianus."

At first simple, stout, a little higher than broad, about 10 cm. high, but in cultivation elongated, 20 cm. high or more, branching, very deep green, becoming turgid and flabby; ribs 5 to 7, more prominent towards the top of the plant, sometimes strongly tuberculate, at other times only slightly sinuate; areoles minute, white-felted, 5 to 6 mm. apart; spines 1 to 3, weak, 3 to 6 mm. long, yellow; flowers pinkish, 2.5 to 3 cm. long; perianth-segments spreading, oblanceolate, acute; style cream-colored; fruit not known.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Mexico, but range unknown.

The origin of this species is unknown but it is supposed to have come from Mexico.

It is not uncommon in European collections and Dr. Rose studied it in Berlin in 1912. At one time we had it in our collection but it has since disappeared; otherwise the plant is known to us only from the descriptions and illustrations.

This species is doubtless named for Karl Knippel, a well-known dealer in cacti.

Illustrations: Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 47; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 170; Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 12; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 120. f. 54; Balt. Cact. Journ. 2: 215, 228. f. 3 Kirtcht, Kakteen Zimmergarten 57.

Figure 38 is copied from the third illustration above cited.

43. Echinocereus pulchellus (Martius) Schumann in Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36": 185. 1894.

Echinocactuspulchellus Martius, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 16: 342. 1828.

Cereuspulchellus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 74. 1837.

Echinonyctanthuspulchellus Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 8. 1839.

Echinopsispulchella Zuccarini in Förster, Handb. Cact. 363. 1846.

Stems obovate-cylindric, 5 to 7 cm. high, simple, glaucous; ribs 12, obtuse, more or less divided into tubercles; spines 3 to 5, short, straight, deciduous, yellowish; flowers rosy-white, about 4 cm. broad; inner perianth-segments lanceolate, acuminate.

Fig. 39.—Echinocereus Fig. 40.—Echinocereus amoenus.

pulchellus.

Fig. 39.—Echinocereus Fig. 40.—Echinocereus amoenus.

pulchellus.

Type locality: Pachuca, Mexico, fide Pfeiffer. Distribution: Probably central Mexico.

This species is known to us only from descriptions and illustrations, but it seems quite distinct.

Illustrations: Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 16: Pl. 23, f. 2, as Echinocactus pulchellus; Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 33; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 26: 177.

Figure 39 is copied from the first illustration above cited.

44. Echinocereus amoenus (Dietrich) Schumann in Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36": 185. 1894.

Echinopsis amoena Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 12: 187. 1844. Echinopsis pulchella amoena Förster, Handb. Cact. 364. 1846. Cereus amoenus Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1: 540. 1880. Echinocereus pulchellus amoenus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 253. 1897.

Plants low, almost buried in the ground; ribs usually 13, low, somewhat tuberculate; young areoles bearing 6 to 8 rather stout, short, spreading spines; old areoles spineless; flowers about 5 cm. broad, magenta-colored; inner perianth-segments spatulate, with an ovate acute tip; filaments rose-colored; areoles of the ovary and flower-tube bearing brown spines and cobwebby wool.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

This plant has recently been introduced into Europe in great quantities. It is rather inconspicuous, but has very pretty flowers.

Echinopsis pulchella rosea (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 292. 1853) was given as a synonym of the species.

Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 171. f. 4, as Echinopsis amoena. Figure 40 is from a photograph of a plant sent from San Luis Potosí, Mexico, by Mrs. Irene Vera.

45. Echinocereus palmeri sp. nov.

Plants small, 5 to 8 cm. high, 2 to 3 cm. in diameter; areoles closely set, round; radial spines 12 to 15, spreading, slender, brown-tipped; central spine one, porrect, 15 to 20 mm. long, brown to blackish; flower 3.5 cm. long, purple; areoles on the ovary bearing a cluster of brown spines and white wool.

Collected by Dr. E. Palmer on a small hill near Chihuahua City, April 1908 (No. 121). Only three specimens were seen, of which one was in flower.

Fig. 41.—Echinocereus brandegeei. Fig. 42.—Echinocereus hempelii.

46. Echinocereus brandegeei (Coulter) Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 290. 1898.

Cereus brandegeei Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 389. 1896.

Cereus sanborgianus Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 391. 1896.

Echinocereus sanborgianus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 274. 1898.

Always growing in clumps; joints sometimes one meter long or more, 5 cm. in diameter, but usually much narrowed toward the base; ribs strongly tubercled; areoles circular; spines at first light yellow tinged with red, in age dark gray; radial spines about 12, spreading, acicular; central spines usually 4, very much stouter, more or less flattened, erect or porrect, the lowest one decidedly so, sometimes 8 cm. long; flowers purplish, about 5 cm. long; areoles on ovary and tube closely set, filled with pale acicular spines and long white wool; fruit globular, 3 cm. in diameter, spiny; seeds black, tuberculately roughened.

Type locality: El Campo Allemand, Lower California.

Distribution: Very common on the low hills along the coast of southern Lower California and adjacent islands.

The species is named for Townsend S. Brandegee, a well-known botanical collector and writer.

Figure 41 is from a photograph of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at the head of Concepción Bay, Lower California, in 1911 (No. 16672).

47. Echinocereus hempelii Fobe, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7: 187. 1897.

Plant, so far as known, simple, erect, 1.5 dm. long or more, 6 to 7 cm. in diameter, dark green; ribs 10, strongly tuberculate; radial spines 6, spreading, white with brown tips, acicular, 1 cm. long or less; central spines none; flowers from near the top of plant, rather large, 6 to 8 cm. broad, violet; inner perianth-segments few, about 14, loosely arranged, oblong, 3 cm. long, strongly toothed above; style longer than the stamens; ovary bearing conspicuous red scales, spiny; fruit not known.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Known only from cultivated plants.

In 1912 Dr. Rose studied this plant in Berlin and thought it might be a form of E. fendleri but it has since been illustrated in color and shows some striking differences, as, for instance, its lack of central spines, the strongly tubercled ribs and the very loosely arranged perianth-segments.

This species was named for George Hempel (1847-1904) who collected in Mexico and South America.

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7: 185; Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 142.

Figure 42 is copied from the second illustration above cited.

48. Echinocereus merkeri Hildmann in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 277. 1898.

Cereus merkeri Berger, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 16: 81. 1905.

Cespitose; joints erect, 12 to 15 cm. in diameter, light green; ribs 8 or 9, sinuate; radial spines 6 to , white, shining; central spines 1 or rarely 2, often yellowish, larger than the radials, red at base; flowers purple, about 6 cm. long; inner perianth-segments short-oblong, 3 cm. long, rounded at apex, sometimes mucronate; scales on ovary 2 to 3 cm. long, ovate, acuminate, bearing 2 to 5 long spiny bristles in their axils.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Durango to Coahuila and San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

In the original description several localities in Durango and Coahuila are assigned for this species and it is possible that some other species was confused with it.

To this species we refer Palmer's herbarium specimens from Saltillo, Mexico, 1905

(No. 510), and C. A. Purpus's specimen from northern Mexico; the latter we have living also, and it is unlike any other plant in our collections.

Echinocereus jacobyi (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 278. 1898), undescribed, belongs here.

Figure 43 is from a photograph of a plant collected by Dr. C. A. Purpus in northern Mexico.

49. Echinocereus fendleri (Engelmann) Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 801. 1885.

Cereus fendleri Engelmann in Gray, Pl. Fendl. 50. 1849.

Cereus fendleri pauperculus Engelmann in Gray, Pl. Fendl. 51. 1849.

Cespitose; sterns about 8, ascending or erect, 1 to 3 dm. long, 5 to 7.5 cm. in diameter; ribs rather prominent, 9 to 12, somewhat undulate; spines very variable as to color, length, and form; radial spines 5 to 10, more or less spreading, 1 to 2 cm. long, acicular to subulate; central spine solitary, usually porrect, 4. cm. long or less, dark colored, often black-bulbose at base; flowers borne at the upper part of the plant, often very large, 10 cm. broad when fully expanded, but sometimes smaller, deep purple; inner perianth-segments spatulate, 3 to 4 cm. long, acute, the margin sometimes serrulate; filaments purple, very short, 1 cm. long or less; style very pale; ovary deep green, its areoles bearing white felt and white bristly spines; fruit ovoid, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, purplish, edible; seeds 1.4 mm. long.

Type locality: Near Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Distribution: Texas to Utah, Arizona, and northern Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico.

The species shows considerable variation in armament and in the size of the flowers and, except in its erect habit, much resembles the next following species.

This species was named for August Fendler (1813-1883) who collected extensively in New Mexico and Venezuela.

Related to Echinocereus fendleri but growing at higher elevations is a plant obtained by D. T. MacDougal and Forrest Shreve from the eastern side of the Santa Catalina Mountains in March 1921 and again at Oracle, Arizona, Mayo, 1921. This plant grows singly or in clumps with 13 to 16 low ribs and short spines. The central spines are from 1 to 4. More detailed field studies may prove this to be a distinct species. Figure 45 may represent this form.

Fig. 43.—Echinocereus merkeri. Fig. 44.— Echinocereus fendleri

Echinocereus hildmannii Arendt (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: 146. pl. 11. 1891) should be compared with E. fendleri.

Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 106: pl. 6533; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 51 to 53; Gartenflora 32: 341, as Cereus fendleri; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 104; Plant World 1110: f. 1; Rümpler, Sukkulenten 137. f. 73; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 134. f. 64; Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. :43; Floralia 42: 369.

Plate iv, figure 3, shows a flowering plant sent by W. H. Long to the New York Botanical Garden from Albuquerque, New Mexico, in 1915. Figure 44 is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal in the Tucson Mount

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