Echinopsis nigricans Linke, Allg. Gartenz. 25: 239. 1857.
Echinocactus nigricans Dietrich in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 420. 1898.
Simple, short-cylindric, somewhat narrow at base; ribs 55, strongly tuberculate, glaucous-green, compressed; radial spines 8 or 9, somewhat curved, 7 mm. long; central spines 1 or 2, 1.2 cm. long; flowers 4.5 to 5 cm. long, white or yellowish green; inner perianth-segments spreading, somewhat toothed above, acute; stigma-lobes reddish or purplish; scales on ovary and flower-tube acute, bearing a few hairs or bristles in their axils.
Type locality: Chile or Bolivia.
Distribution: West coast of South America, doubtless Chile.
According to Mr. Juan Söhrens, this plant is found in the mountains of northern Chile. We know it only from description and the single illustration cited below.
According to Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 420. 1898), Echinocactus cupreatus Poselger (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 602. 1885) is related to this species. He states that it is distinguished by the darker brown color and fewer spines of a brown-black color, lighter at the base.
Illustration: Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 45, as Echinocactus nigricans. Figure 105 is copied from the illustration above cited.
4. Neoporteria jussieui (Monville).
Echinocactus jussieui Monville in Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 170. 1850.
Simple, globose or short- cylindric, dark or bluish green; ribs 13 to 16, rather stout, divided into prominent tubercles; radial spines 7 or perhaps more, dark brown, somewhat spreading; central spines 1 or 2, 2.5 cm. long; flowers from near the center of the plant, 3 to 3.5 cm. long; perianth-segments linear-oblong, acute, pinkish, but sometimes described as yellow; style and stigma-lobes reddish; ovary bearing scales and these woolly in their axils; fruit not known.
Type locality: Not cited.
Echinocactus niger (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 34. 1850) and E. jussianus Lemaire (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 247. 1853), undescribed, belong here. A variety, en status (Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 581. 1885), is described as having 18 to 20 ribs.
The original description of this species is very meager while recent descriptions are scarcely more satisfactory. Both Schumann and Weber describe the flowers as yellow, while Gürke in Blühende Kakteen illustrates them as pinkish. The illustration cited below suggests relationship with E. subgibbosus. The flowers of both are pinkish. So far as we know, N. jussieui never has bristles in the axils of the scales on the ovary, and this seems to be true of all the species of the genus.
The plant illustrated in the Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde (27: 53. 1917) seems to be some species of Malacocarpus.
Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 67; (?) Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 27 53, as Echinocactus jussieui.
Figure 107 is copied from the first illustration above cited. 5. Neoporteria subgibbosa (Haworth).
Echinocactus subgibbosus Haworth, Phil. Mag. 10: 419. 1831.
Cactus berteri Colla, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino 37: 77. 1833.
Echinocactus acutissimus Otto and Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 3: 353. 1835.
Echinocactus exsculptus Otto in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 65. 1837.
Cereus dichroacanthus Martius in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 76. 1837.
Mammillaria atrata Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 65: pl. 3642. 1839.
Mammillaria floribunda Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 65: pl. 3647. 1839.
Echinocactus thrincogonus Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 22. 1839.
Echinocactus thrincogonus elatior Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 23. 1839.
Echinocactus berleri Remy in Gay, Fl. Chilena 3: 15. 1847.
Echinocactus rostratus Jacobi, Allg. Gartenz. 24: 108. 1856.
Cactus atratus Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 259. 1891.
Cactusfloribundus Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 259. 1891.
Globose when young, soon cylindric, usually 3 dm. high and erect, but sometimes much elongated, a meter long or more, either prostrate or hanging over cliffs, very spiny; ribs numerous, often 20, 1 cm. high; areoles approximate, often large, sometimes x cm. in diameter; spines numerous, acicular, brownish in age, often paler at base, straight, the longest ones 3 cm. long; flowers usually abundant, 4 cm. long, the buds dark red, pointed; perianth-segments usually light pink, but sometimes darker, very numerous, the outer ones spreading, the central ones erect, concealing the stamens, acute; filaments attached below middle of flower-tube, erect, white, included; style slender, pale, slightly exserted; scales on ovary minute, acute, horny, those on tube hairy and bristly; fruit 1. to 2 cm. long, reddish; seeds brown, 1 mm. in diameter.
Type locality: Near Valparaiso, Chile.
Distribution: Along the seacoast of Chile, both north and south of Valparaiso.
Echinocactus exsculptus Otto, when first described, was a complex. Pfeiffer (Enum. C act. 65. 1837) says it comes from Chile, Mexico, and Montevideo; he referred here several synonyms; one of them is Echinocactus subgibbosus which Haworth states in his original description comes from Valparaiso. This is doubtless Pfeiffer's Chilean element of the species. Another synonym is Cereus montevidensis Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 65. 1837) which is the Montevideo element. Two other names, but not described until later, E. acanthion and E. interruptus, seem to represent the Mexican element. In the Addenda (181. 1837) he adds two synonyms, E. crenatus and E. guyannensis. In addition to this synonymy Pfeiffer described plants in the Berlin Botanical Garden, the origin of which was not stated.
Förster's treatment (Handb. Cact. 291. 1846) is still more complex. He gives the distribution: Mexico, Buenos Aires, Chile, and Brazil. With Brazil he includes Montevideo, Para, and Guiana. Here he refers as synonyms those given by Pfeiffer and adds: Echinocactus valparaiso, Cereus hoffmannseggii, Mammillaria hoffmannseggii, and M. gibbosa (Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 343. 1834). He also mentions or describes the following varieties: fulvispinus, dichroacanthus (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 18. 1845; Cereus dichroacanthus Martius in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 76. 1837), foveolatus (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 18. 1845; Cereus foveolatus Haage jr. in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 77. 1837), tenuispinus and thrincogonus (Förster, Handb. Cact. 293. 1846; Echinocactus thrincogonus Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 22. 1839).
Echinocactus pseudo-cereus Meinshausen (Wochenschr. Gärtn. Pflanz. 1: 29. 1858) is described from a barren plant supposed to have been grown from Mexican seed obtained by Karwinsky. If related to Echinocactus exsculptus, as stated by Meinshausen, it is more likely to have come from South America.
Echinocactus acutissimus cristatus (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 567. 1885) probably belongs here.
Echinocactus exsculptus gayanus Monville (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 241. 1853) and Echinocactus gayanus (Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 22. 1839) were never described.
Schumann has also referred here Echinocactus hoffmannseggii (Gesamtb. Kakteen 426. 1898). He would also refer here Cactus berteri Colla and Echinocactus rostratus, both of which were also based on Valparaiso plants.
Echinocactus exsculptus fulvispinus (Förster, Handb. Cact. 292. 1846) was supposed to be a form of the species proper, while the variety elatior (Förster, Handb. Cact. 293. 1846) was referred as a synonym of one of its varieties; Echinocactus exsculptus cristatus (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 566. 1885) is only an abnormal form; Echinocactus foveolatus Haage (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 33. 1850) was never described but doubtless belongs here.
Echinocactus gayanus intermedius Monville (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 240. 1853) appeared as a synonym of E. thrincogonus.
Mammillaria ambigua G. Don (Loudon, Hort. Brit. 194. 1830), to which Cactus am-biguus Gillies was referred, seems never to have been described. Schumann did not know it, but thought that it was some Echinocactus. If it actually came from Chile, as reported, it may possibly be referable here. It may be the same as Melocactus ambiguus Pfeiffer, which, however, is usually referred to Echinopsis leucantha.
Of this relationship is the plant described and illustrated by Walton (Cact. Journ. 1: 105. 1898) as Echinocactus rubidus superbissimus which he states is native of Chile.
Illustrations: Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino 37: pl. 17, f. 2, as Cactus berteri; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3. 1201. f. 17360; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 65: pl. 3642, as Mammillaria atrata; Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 1: pl. 20; Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 133; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 30: 139, as Echinocactus acutissimus; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 65: pl. 3647, as Mammillaria floribunda; Martius, Fl. Bras. 42: pl. 51, f. 1; Knippel, Kakteen pl. 7; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 195. f. 128, as Echinocactus exsculptus.
Plate viii, figure 4, shows the flowering top of a plant brought by Dr. Rose to the New York Botanical Garden from east of Las Vilas, Chile, in 1914.
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