Lobivia grandis sp nov
Depressed-globose to short-cylindric, 2.5 dm. high, bright green; ribs 14 to 16, prominent, 2 cm. high, broad at base, rounded on margin; areoles somewhat depressed, circular, 2 to 3 cm. apart, white-felted when young; spines 10 to 15, yellow with brown tips, acicular to slender-subulate, elongated, 6 to 8 cm. long; flowers lateral, straight, 6 cm. long, with a stout funnelform tube 2 cm. thick and a rather small limb; inner perianth-segments ovate, acuminate, subulate-tipped, 1.5
cm. long, probably white; scales on ovary and flower-tube ovate, 10 to 12 mm. long, narrowly ovate, acute, their axils filled with long black silky hairs.
Collected by J. A. Shafer on a cliff, at an altitude of 2,400 meters, between Andalgala and Concepción, Argentina, December 28, 1916 (No. 25, type). Dr. Shafer's No. 23 collected at the same locality is similar, but the flowers are much smaller, being only about 3 cm. long, and the plant is much larger, up to 12 dm. high. This plant is referred to this genus with hesitancy; it is much larger than any of the other species.
Figure 78 is from a photograph of the plant collected by Dr. Shafer; figure 76 shows its flower.
20. Lobivia cumingii (Hopffer).
Echinocactus cumingii Hopffer, Allg. Gartenz. 11: 225.
Plants small, 5 to 6 cm. in diameter, simple, globular, bluish green, tubercled; tubercles arranged in about 18 spiraled rows; radial spines about 20, straight, 10 mm. long; central spines 2 to 8, 11 mm. long; flowers from the upper part of the plant but not central, orange-colored (sometimes shown as lemon-yellow), narrow, 2.5 cm. long; inner perianth-segments oblong, acute; scales on the ovary small, described as naked in their axils.
Type locality: Mountains of Peru.
Distribution: Bolivia and Peru.
The first two illustrations cited below are so different in the shape of the tubercles and in the color and form of the flowers that we suspect that they may belong to different species. The one from the Botanical Magazine has lemon-yellow flowers, while the other has deep-orange or brick-red flowers.
We have not studied living plants of this species.
Schumann refers Echinocactus rostratus Ja-cobi (Allg. Gartenz. 24: 108. 1856) here; but it was based on specimens from Valparaiso, Chile, and is probably to be referred to E. subgibbosus, now taken up in another genus (see page 97).
Although this species was described by Hopffer in 1843, Salm-Dyck* much later (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 174. 1850) published it as a new species of his own. In his description he makes the significant remark that it is similar to Echinocactus cinnabarinus which confirms our conclusion that it is probably a Lobivia. In i860 Regel and Klein (Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 48. i860) described also as a new species, Echinocactus cumingii. They say it was brought by Cuming from Chile and, if so, is doubtless different from our plant. They state that it was referred to Echinocactus cinerascens, a plant occurring in Chile, but it is certainly not that species. It may be a species of Neoporteria, but in any case the name is a homonym and its exact identification is not of much importance.
The type was collected by Thomas Bridges, but the plant was named for Hugh Cuming (1791-1865).
Echinocactus cumingii flavispinus (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 77. 1904) is a form.
Illustrations: (?)Curtis's Bot. Mag. 100: pl. 6097; (?)Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 19, as Echinocactus cumingii.
Figure 79 is a reproduction of the second illustration cited above.
*His original was cummingii.
Dr. Shafer collected many specimens of a plant at Villazon, Bolivia, in February 1917 (No. 86), which may represent another species of this genus, but they were at that time without flowers or fruit, and none has flowered since brought by him to the New York Botanical Garden.
This cactus is tufted, forming clumps to 2 dm. broad; its joints are short-cylindric to turbinate, 8 to 15 cm. high and 5 to 7.5 cm. thick, 14 to 18-ribbed; areoles few in each rib, white-felted when young, elliptic; spines 2 to 5, somewhat flattened and appressed, about 1 cm. long, white with black tips. Dr. Shafer was told that its flowers are white.
6. ECHINOPSIS Zuccarini, Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 2: 675. 1837.
Echinonyctanthus Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 10. 1839.
Stems usually low, rarely over 3 dm. high, usually much shorter, generally globular or short-cylindric, but some species large, columnar, either solitary or clustered, with ribs either continuous or more or less undulate; areoles usually circular, borne on the ribs, felted and spiny; flowers arising from old areoles just above the spine-clusters, with a very long narrowly funnelform tube; perianth-segments comparatively short and broad, more or less spreading, usually white, rarely yellow or rose-colored*; filaments and style projecting beyond the throat but not beyond the perianth-segments; stamens in 2 series, weak; stigma-lobes of various colors, narrow; fruit globose to ovoid or sometimes narrowly oblong, splitting open on one side; seeds minute, oblique, obovate, truncate at base.
Echinocactus eyriesii Turpin is the type of the genus.
The generic name is from e^ivog hedgehog, and (Ojig appearance, referring to the armament of the plant.
Some of the species have been taken up in Echinocactus or Echinonyctanthus, many in Cereus, while one species, though excluded from Echinopsis in our treatment, has also been referred to Cleistocactus and Pilocereus.
In its flowers Echinopsis is like Trichocereus and somewhat like Harrisia, but in habit it is abundantly distinct from these genera. In habit, although not in flowers, it seems to be the South American counterpart of the North American genus Echinocereus. Gardeners and botanists generally have recognized it as a well-defined genus, but Bentham and Hooker in their Genera Plantarum reduced it to Cereus, and their course has been followed by some other English authors. While the genus as treated by Schumann contains mostly species of low stature there are some striking diversities in flowers and we have consequently segregated these under the generic names Lobivia and Rebutia. Schumann recognized 18 species of this genus. Von Rother states that he had 55 forms growing in his collection; some of these must have been hybrids of which there are many. We here recognize 28 species, but further field observations may prove that this number should be reduced. There are, however, more than 200 names published under Echinopsis to be accounted for. The known species inhabit southern South America, east of the Andes.
Continue reading here: Key to Species
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