Key to Species

Tubercles not grooved on upper side Tubercles grooved on upper side.

Plants small, 3 to 5 cm. broad . Plants large, 10 to 15 cm. broad

1. Ariocarpus retusus Scheidweiler, Bull. Acad. Sci. Brux. 5: 492. 1838.

Anhalonium prismaticum Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 1. 1839. Anhalonium retusum Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 15. 1845. Anhalonium elongatum Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 77. 1850. Anhalonium areolosum Lemaire, Illustr. Hort. 6: Misc. 35. 1859. Anhalonium pulvilligerum Lemaire, Illustr. Hort. 16: Misc. 72. 1869.+ Mammillaria areolosa Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1: 503. 1880.

Mammillaria elongata Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1: 509. 1880. Not De Candolle, 1828.

Mammillariaprismatica Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1: 519. 1880.

Mammillaria furfuracea\ S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 25: 150. 1890.

Cactusprismaticus Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 261. 1891.

Anhalonium trigonum Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 90. 1893.

Anhalonium furfuraceum Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 130. 1894.

Ariocarpuspulvilligerus Schumann, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 24: 550. 1898.

Ariocarpus furfuraceus Thompson, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9: 130. 1898.

Ariocarpus trigonus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 606. 1898.

Ariocarpus prismaticus Cobbold, Journ. Hort. Home Farm. III. 46: 332. 1903.

Plants globular or more or less depressed, usually 10 to 12 cm. broad, grayish green to purplish, very woolly at the center; tubercles horny, imbricated, 5 cm. long or less, ovate, more or less 3-angled, acute to acuminate, often with a woolly areole on the upper side near the tip and this sometimes spinescent; flowers borne at the axils of young tubercles near the center, white or nearly so, up to 6 cm. long; outer perianth-segments pinkish, narrow, acute to acuminate; inner perianth-segments at first white, afterwards pinkish, narrowly oblanceolate, with a mucronate tip; stamens numerous, erect; style white; stigma-lobes 9, linear, white; fruit oblong, white, naked; seeds globular, 1.5 mm. in diameter, black, tuberculate-roughened.

2. A. kotschoubeyanus

3. A. fissuratus

*Sometimes in Ariocarpus retusus small spines are produced in the areoles near the tip of the tubercles. fLemaire gives for this species a reference (Herb. Gener. Amat. Nouvel Ser. Misc. 45) which we have not been able to locate. Coulter (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 130. 1894) refers this name to Lemaire "Cact. 1839." the Index Kewensis to "Hort. Monv. 1: 275," and Labouret to "Hort. Univ. 1: 275, figure," but we have not been able to confirm them. If this name were published in 1839, it would transfer the publication of Anhalonium elongatum Salm-Dyck back to 1845 (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 15).

^Reported in the Index Kewensis (Suppl. 1. 263. 1906) as Mammillaria purpuracea.

Type locality: San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

Distribution: States of Coahuila, Zacatecas, and San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

This species, as here described, is extremely variable in the shape, size, color, and markings of the tubercles, and in the presence or absence of woolly areoles near the tips of the tubercles. Several species have been described from these various forms, but there seems to be no good ground for such a course. The plant is called chaute by the Mexicans.

The plant usually grows in the open in rocky places where it is nearly covered with broken stones and only its long tubercles are visible.

Mammillaria retusa Mittler (Handb. Liebh. 11) is referred here by Schumann, but we have not seen this reference.

Mammillaria aloides Monville (Cat. 1846) is referred by Labouret as a synonym of An-halonium prismaticum, by Schumann as a synonym of Ariocarpus retusus, and by the Index Kewensis as a synonym of Mammillaria prismatica. Anhalonium aloides pulvilligerum Monville we know only from Lemaire (Illustr. Hort. 16: Misc. 72. 1869) who gives it as a synonym

Fig. 94.—Ariocarpus retusus. Fig. 95.—Ariocarpus fissuratus.

of A. pulvilligerum. Mammillaria pulvilligera Monville (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 231. 1885) is given by Rümpler as a synonym of Anhalonium elongatum. Mammillaria aloidaea pulvili-gera which appeared in Monville's Catalogue of 1846 is referred by Labouret to Anhalonium elongatum. To Mammillaria trigona is referred Ariocarpus trigonus by the Index Kewensis (Suppl. 2. 16. 1904).

Illustrations: Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 29: 76. f. 5, 6; 77. f. 7, 8, as Ariocarpus trigonus; Gartenwelt 15: 538, as Anhalonium trigonum; Gartenwelt 15: 538; Cact. Journ. 2: 109; Hort. Univ. 1: pl. 30; Balt. Cact. Journ. 2: 266. f. 1; Herb. Génér. Amat. II. 2: pl. 16; Arch. Exper. Path. 34: pl. 1, f. 2; Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc. 18: f. 5; Palmer, Cult. Cact. 123; Garten-Zeitung 4: 541. f. 126; 182. f. 42, No. 16, as Anhalonium prismaticum; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 119: pl. 7279, as Mammillaria prismatica; Cact. Journ. 1: pl. for November; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9: pl. 34; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 15, f. 2, as Ariocarpus furfuraceus; Möllers Deutsche Cart. Zeit. 25: 477. f. 11, No. 7; Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 48; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 15, f. 1; Bull. Acad. Sci. Brux. 5: pl. 1; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9: pl. 35; Cact. Journ. 1: pl. for September and November; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. f. 199; Hort. Belge 5: pl. 21, 22.

Plate ix, figure 2, is from a photograph of a plant sent Dr. Edward Palmer from San Luis Potosí, Mexico, in 1905, which afterwards flowered in Washington. Figure 94 is from a photograph of a plant sent by Professor Lloyd from Zacatecas in 1908.

2. Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus (Lemaire) Schumann in Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. Nachtr.

259. i897.

Anhalonium kotschoubeyanum Lemaire, Bull. Cercle Confer. Hort. Dep. Seine. 1842.

Anhalonium sulcatum Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 5. 1850.

Cactus kotschubeyi* Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 260. 1891.

Ariocarpus sulcatus Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7: 9. 1897.

Plants grayish green, 3 to 5 cm. broad, only the flat crown appearing above the surface of the ground, with a thickened, fleshy rootstock, and with several spindle-shaped roots from the base; upper part of tubercle flattened, triangular, 6 to 8 mm. long, grooved along its middle, almost to the tip, the groove very woolly; flowers 2.5 to 3 cm. long, originating in the center of the plant from the axils of the young tubercles, surrounded by a cluster of hairs; outer perianth-segments few, brownish, obtuse; inner perianth-segments up to 2 cm. long, oblanceolate, obtuse or apiculate, sometimes retuse, rose-colored to light purple, widely spreading; filaments, style, and stigma-lobes white; ovary naked; seeds oblong, 1 mm. long.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Central Mexico.

This species was collected in Mexico and sent to Europe by Karwinsky about 1840. Only three specimens were sent in the first shipment, one of which sold for $200. As a medium-sized plant weighs less than half an ounce, this price was somewhat in excess of its weight in gold! This plant was named for Prince Kotschoubey who was a prominent patron of horticulture. He paid a thousand francs for one of these plants.

We have not seen Lemaire's original reference to Anhalonium kotschoubeyanum, but in all his subsequent references the name is spelled as given here. Schumann, however, spells the name as follows: Ariocarpus kotschubeyanus.

Stromatocactus kotschoubeyi Karwinsky and Anhalonium fissipedum Monville were given by Lemaire (Illustr. Hort. 16: Misc. 72. 1869) as synonyms of A. kotschoubeyanum and by Rümpler (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 232. 1885) as synonyms of A. sulcatum. Ariocarpus mcdowel-lii (Haage and Schmidt, Cat. 225. 1908), unpublished, belongs here. Dr. Rose obtained living specimens from McDowell in 1906.

Cactus kotschoubeyi Karwinsky (Hort. Univ. 6: 63. 1845) was recorded by Lemaire while the Index Kew- Fig 96.-A"ocarpus ^tsdioub^us. ensis refers the name to Otto Kuntze (Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 206. 1891), where the transfer is technically made.

The plant, as Mammillaria sulcata, is described in the Gardeners' Chronicle (III. 30: 255. 1901) but no author is given and the article is unsigned. The name also occurs in the Index Kewensis (3: 160. 1894), credited to Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 78. 1850), but he never used this combination. The reference of Salm-Dyck which is cited is to Anhalonium sulcatum.

Illustrations: Gartenwelt 15: 538, as Anhalonium kotschubeyanum; Gard. Chron. III. 30: 255. f. 74, as Mammillaria sulcata; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7: 10; Cact. Journ. 1: 44, as Ariocarpus sulcatus; Bot. Jahrb. Engler 24: 544; Cact. Journ. 1: pl. for January and September; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 96; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 3, f. 4; Journ. Hered. Washington 6: f. 5; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 184; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9: pl. 33; Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 52 a; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 477. f. 11, No. 8; 29: 75. f. 4; Gartenwelt 15: 217.

*Sometimes spelled kotschubei.

Plate vin, figure 3, shows a plant sent by Professor Lloyd from Zacatecas in 1908, which flowered at the New York Botanical Garden in 1911. Figure 96 is from a photograph of a plant sent by Dr. Elswood Chaffey from Zacatecas, Mexico, in 1910.

3. Ariocarpus fissuratus (Engelmann) Schumann in Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: 195. 1894.

Mammillariafissurata Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 270. 1856.

Anhaloniumfissuratum Engelmann, Cact. Mex. Bound. 75. 1859.

Anhalonium engelmannii Lemaire, Cactées 42. 1868.

Ariocarpus lloydii Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 308. 1911.

Plant body scarcely appearing above the ground, flat or somewhat rounded, sometimes 15 cm. broad; tubercles imbricated, ovate, the upper part 2 to 3 cm. broad at base, acute or obtuse, the whole surface more or less fissured and irregularly warty; areoles filled with a dense mass of hairs; flowers 3 to 4 cm. broad, white to purple; inner perianth-segments oblong-oblanceolate; style and stigma-lobes white; fruit oval, pale green, 10 mm. long; seeds black, tuberculate-roughened.

Type locality: Near the junction of the Pecos with the Rio Grande.

Distribution: Western Texas and northern Coahuila and Zacatecas, Mexico.

Engelmann refers here (Cact. Mex. Bound. 74) Mammillaria heteromorpha Scheer (Anhalonium heteromorphum Trelease in Engelmann's Botanical Works 537. 1887), basing his conclusions on a skeleton specimen so labeled in Salm-Dyck's collection. The species described under that name by Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 128. 1850) is certainly not of this genus.

This plant is generally known as living rock. It is dull gray to brown in color and grows on dry stony ground and, when not in flower, is easily mistaken for the rocks which surround it.

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 16; Dict. Gard. Nicholson 4: 563. f. 34, as Mammillaria fissurata; Illustr. Hort. 16: pl. [65a]; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 20, as Anhalonium engelmannii; Cact. Journ. 2: 109; Gartenwelt 15: 538; Amer. Gard. 11: 465; Dict. Gard. Nicholson Suppl. 51. f. 48; Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc. 18: f. 4; Arch. Exper. Path. 34: 70. f. 1; 376; Goebel, Pflanz. Schild. 1: f. 14, 44; pl. 2, f. 7, as Anhalonium fissuratum; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: pl. 63; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 1: f. 373; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 29: 73. f. 1, as Ariocarpus lloydii; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: pl. 62; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9: pl. 32; Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 52, b; Bull. Univ. Texas 82: pl. 4, f. 1; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: f. 68; Cact. Journ. 1: pl. for January and September; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 5, f. 1; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. f. 200; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 477. f. 11, No. 6; 29: 74. f. 2, 3; Gartenwelt 15: 343; Alianza Cientifica Universal 3: Opp. 150 (2 plates); Arch. Exper. Path. 34: 376; West Amer. Sci. 13: 2; Floralia 42: 369.

Figure 95 is from a photograph of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at Langtry, Texas, in 1908.

3. LOPHOPHORA Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 131. 1894.

Plant small, simple or proliferous, spineless (seedlings having a few weak pubescent bristlelike spines), very succulent; ribs very broad and rounded, bearing few low tubercles; areoles round, bearing flowers only when young, always filled with a tuft of erect matted hairs; flowers borne at the center of the plant, small, rotate-campanulate, white to rose-tinted; fruit club-shaped, naked, red to pinkish, maturing rapidly; seeds black, tuberculate-roughened.

Type species: Echinocactus williamsii Lemaire.

One species is here recognized but some writers have accepted two.

The generic name is from lofoç crest, and fopem I bear, referring to the pencil of hairs borne at the areole.

This very curious little plant, although referred in turn to Echinocactus, Mammillaria, and Anhalonium, has very little in common with any of those genera. In the origin of the flower it is like Echinocactus, but otherwise it is very different. In its globular habit and the shape and size of the flowers it resembles many of the plants heretofore passing as Mammillaria, but it has very different seeds, flowers, areoles, and structure. In its fruits, seeds, and flowers it approaches Ariocarpus, but in other respects it is very different.

1. Lophophora williamsii (Lemaire) Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 131. 1894.

Echinocactus williamsii Lemaire in Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 385. 1845.

Anhalonium williamsii Lemaire in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 233. 1885.

Anhalonium lewinii Hennings, Gartenflora 37: 410. 1888.

Mammillaria williamsii Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 2: 129. 1891.

Lophophora williamsii lewinii Coulter, Contr. Nat. Herb. 3: 131. 1894

Echinocactus lewinii Hennings, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 94. 1895.

Mammillaria lewinii Karsten, Deutsche Fl. ed. 2. 2: 457. 1895.

Lophophora lewinii Thompson, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9: 133. 1898.

Plants dull bluish green, globular to top-shaped or somewhat flattened at top, 5 to 8 cm. broad, with a thickened tap-root sometimes 10 cm. long or more; ribs 7 to 13, nearly vertical or irregular and indistinct, tubercled; flowers central, each surrounded by a mass of long hair, pale pink to white, 2.5 cm. broad when fully open, with a broad funnelform tube; outer perianth-segments and scales green on the back, callous-tipped; filaments much shorter than the perianth-segments, nearly white; style white below, pinkish above, shorter than the perianth-segments; stigma-lobes 5, linear, pinkish; ovary naked; fruit 2 cm. long or less; seeds 1 mm. in diameter, with a broad hilum.

Type locality: Not cited. Distribution: Central Mexico to southern Texas.

This plant contains a narcotic and has been the subject of much study regarding its chemical, medicinal, and therapeutic properties. Dr. L. Lewin isolated an alkaloid which he named an-halonin. Since then one or more other alkaloids have been discovered. The active drug contained in this plant, however, it is claimed, does not lie in the alkaloids but in certain resinous bodies discovered by Dr. Erwin E. Ewell. The dried plants have been used since pre-Columbian times by certain North American Indians in some of their religious ceremonies and dances. The physiological effects which follow the eating of the dried plants are remarkable visions, and these have been described in considerable detail by writers who have visited the Indians and who have recorded laboratory experiences. There is considerable commerce carried on in this plant by some of the Indian tribes, although it is forbidden by law. The globular plants are sliced into 3 or 4 sections and then dried in the sun and these dried pieces form the mescal buttons of the trade.

According to Safford (Journ. Hered. Washington 8: f. 5, 6, 7. 1916), Bernardo Sahagun in the sixteenth century spoke of its use by the Indians of Mexico; Sahagun, however, supposed the plant was a fungus, and called it teonanactl or "sacred mushroom."

This species is known variously as pellote, peyote, mescal button, devil's root, or sacred mushroom; it is sometimes also called the dumpling cactus and, according to Mr. Robert Runyon, challote in Starr County, Texas.

The name Ariocarpus williamsii Voss (Vilm. Blumengärtn. 368), according to the Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde (7: 32. 1907), has been used, but whether it was formally published we do not know.

Anhalonium rungei Hildmann and A. subnodusum Hildmann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3:68. 1893) are only names, but doubtless belong here; A. visnagra (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 6: 174. 1896) should perhaps also be referred here.

Figg. 97.—Lophophora williamsii.





1. Lophophora williuamsii.

2. Ariocarpus retusus.

Here probably belong Anhalonium jourdanianum Lewin (Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gess. 12: 289. 1894), Anhalonium jourdanianum (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 6: 180. 1896), and Echinocactus jourdanianus Rebut (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 122. 1905).

Illustrations: Journ. Hered. Washington 6: f. 10, as Lophophora; De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 13, as Echinocactus williamsii lewinii; Cact. Journ. 1: pl. for September, December; Journ. Hered. Washington 6: f. 9; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9: pl. 37, as Lophophora lewinii; Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc. 18: f. 2, 7; Arch. Exper. Path. 34: pl. 1, f. 4; also 376. f. 1; Gartenflora 37: f. 92; Gartenwelt 15: 538; Journ. Hered. Washington 67: f. 8; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: facing 93, as Anhalonium lewinii; Arch. Exper. Path. 34: pl. 1, f. 3; Rümpler, Sukkulenten 190. f. 107; Gartenwelt 15: 538; Gartenflora 37: f. 93; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 29: 78. f. 9; Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc. 18: f. 1, 3; Cact. Journ. 2: 109, as Anhalonium williamsii; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 73: Pl. 4296; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 37;i3: 52; Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 21; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 55; Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 149; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3. 1377. f. 19372; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 150. f. 77; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 477. f. 11, No. 23; De Laet, Cat. Gén. f. 12, as Echinocactus williamsii; Gartenwelt 15: 538, as Anhalonium jourdanianum; Smiths. Misc. Coll. 70: f. 111; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9: pl. 36; Journ. Hered. Washington 67: f. 1 to 3, 6, 7, 9; Saunders, Useful Wild Plants U. S. Canada 253; Cact. Journ. 1: pl. for September, December; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 3, f. 5; 1916: 424. pl. , 6, 7.

Plate ix, figure 1, is from a photograph of a plant sent from Zacatecas, Mexico, by Dr. Elswood Chaffey, in 1910; plate x, figure 3, shows a flowering plant from Zacatecas in the collection of the New York Botanical Garden; figure 4 shows another plant received from France in 1901. Figure 97 is from a photograph taken by Robert Runyon near Brownsville, Texas, in 1921.

Simple, globular to elongate-cylindric, or in one species forming large clumps or mounds containing hundreds of simple globular stems; areoles borne on definite ribs; top of plant covered with dense soft wool; flowers from the top of the plant, nearly hidden in the wool, campanulate to funnelform, yellow or sometimes tinged with red, with very short but broad tube; ovary short, turbinate, naked; fruit small, smooth, crowned with green, persistent, sepal-like scales; seed large, glossy, black, with large depressed hilum.

Type species: Echinocactus marginatus Salm-Dyck.

To this genus we are able to refer some 14 described species heretofore included in Echinocactus by authors. Most of the species are to be found in Salm-Dyck's section, Cepha-loidei, while Schumann scatters them through his subgenus Cephalocactus which is a very unnatural group, containing 11 very diverse species. All the species of Copiapoa are from the coastal region of northern Chile. This region, although large and varied, does not possess this number of species. We recognize 6. Dr. Rose who collected here in 1914 obtained 3 of these of which he brought back living and herbarium specimens.

The generic name is derived from Copiapo, one of the provinces of Chile.

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