Malacocarpus Courantii

Spines wanting.

Plants globular to columnar; flowers 4 to 6 cm. long 1. A. myriostigma

Plants much depressed; flowers 3 cm. long 2. A. asterias

Spines present.

Spines flat, ribbon-like, hardly pungent 3. A. capricorne

Spines subulate 4. A. ornatum

1. Astrophytum myriostigma Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 4. 1839.

Cereus callicoche Galeotti in Scheidweiler, Bull. Acad. Sci. Brux. 61: 88. 1839.

Echinocactus myriostigma Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 22. 1845.

Astrophytum prismaticum Lemaire, Cactées 50. 1868.

Echinocactus myriostigma columnaris Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 321. 1898.

Echinocactus myriostigma nudus R. Meyer, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 22: 136. 1912.

Plants solitary or cespitose, globular to cylindric, up to 6 dm. high; ribs usually 5, sometimes 6, 8, or rarely even 10, very broad, acute, usually covered with white woolly scales but sometimes naked; spines wanting, at least on old plants; flowers 4 to 6 cm. long; outer perianth-segments narrow, with brown scarious tips; inner perianth-segments oblong; scales on ovary and flower-tube scarious, imbricated, narrow, often bristly tipped, with long wool in their axils.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Northern central Mexico.

Dr. C. A. Purpus who knows this species very well writes that it has two very different forms. The gray or grayish-white form grows near Torreon, in Cerro de la Bola, and in the mountains near Viesca, all in Coahuila. The more greenish lower form is abundant in the Sierra la Tabla, near Guascama or Minas de San Rafael, San Luis Potosí. It usually grows in the open mesa among broken stones, but is sometimes associated with other plants, such as Opuntia leptocaulis.

Cereus inermis Scheidweiler (Bull. Acad. Sci. Brux. 61: 88. 1839), usually referred here as a synonym, was never published.

Echinocactus myriostigma hybridus is advertised by Haage and Schmidt, but we do not know its origin; the varieties, columnaris and nudus, are in the trade.

Many hybrids are produced with this species as one of the parents. In I896 (Monats-schr. Kakteenk. 6: zo) Fl. Radl* named and described twelve hybrids, while in I907 Schellet (Handb. Kakteenk. I5I, I5z) listed 59 hybrid names tinder Echinocactus myriostigma.

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 29: 81; Gartenwelt 15: 537, as Echinocactus myriostigma columnaris; Lemaire, Icon. Cact. pl. i6; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. f. 78; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 474. f. 6, No. ii; 486. f. I9; 39: 89. f. ii; Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 2: 5I5. f. 746; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 2: f. I374; Gardening 9: 6I7; Gard. Chron. III. 52: f. I03; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3. 1376. f. 19368; Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. iio; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: f. 56, E; f. 6z; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 6: zz; 12: 4; 18: 9; 29: i4i; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. i; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 71: pl. 4I77; Gartenwelt 15: 537; 17: pl. opp. 4iz; Journ. Hort. Home Farm. III. 59: 631; De Laet, Cat. Gén. f. i6, zz; Watson, Cact. Cult. iiz. f. 40; ed. 3. f. Z7; Gard. Chron. III. 12: 789. f. IZ9, as Echinocactus myriostigma; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. z. 46I. f. 54; Cact. Journ. i: pl. for September; I64; Illustr. Hort. 8: pl. Z9Z; Rümpler, Sukkulenten i88. f. io6; Orcutt, West Amer. Sci. 13: 3; Gartenflora 34: 56. f. I885; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: I59. f. Iii; 7: I70; Lemaire, Cactées 50. f. 4; Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 5: 369; Orcutt, Rev. Cact. opp. 4I.

Plate xxii, figure 3, shows a flowering plant in the collection of the New York Botanical Garden, received in I90I from M. Simon, St. Ouen, Paris, France, which has since bloomed several times. Figure 193 is from a photograph of a plant collected by C. A. Purpus in northern Mexico in I905.

2. Astrophytum asterias (Zuccarini) Lemaire, Cactées 50. i868.

Echinocactus asterias Zuccarini, Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 42: I3. I845.

Plant much depressed, only z to 3 cm. high, about 8 cm. broad; ribs 8, very low, almost flat on top, the surface bearing numerous depressions, containing tufts of wool; areoles prominent, circular, felted, 4 to 5 mm. apart, spineless; flowers 3 cm. long, yellow.

*The names given by Radl are as follows amabile, bedinghausii, beguinii, conspicuum, imperiale, lapaixii, lesau-nieri, mirabile, octogonum, princeps, regale, and schilinzkyi.

tUnder this species Schelle lists the following hybrids: amabilis, amoenus, bedinghausi, beguinii, bellus, candidus, cereiformis, cinerascens, cinerascens brevispinus, cinerascens crassisipinus, cinerascens longispinus, cinerascens parvimaculatus, conspicuus, cornutus, cornutus candidus, crenatus, darrahii, delaeti, diadematus, elegantissimus, erectus, formosus, gardei, glabrescens, hanburyi, imperialis, incanus, incomparabilis, inermis, insignis, jusberti, lapaixi, lau-rani, lesaunieri, lophothele, lophothele cereiformis, martini, mirabilis, nobilis, octagonus, pentagonus, pictus, princeps, quadratus, rebuti, regalis, regulare, regulare spinosum, robustum, schilinskyi, schumannii, speciosus, spectabilis, spiralis, splendidus, variegatus, weberi, and zonatus.

Fig. 193. — Astrophytum myriostigma.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Northern Mexico.

This species has, until now, been known only from the type collection of Karwinsky which should be at Munich. In 1912 Dr. Rose obtained a specimen from Dr. Radlkofer, but without label, which we now suspect is a part of the original material of Karwinsky.

Señor Octavio Solis wrote us that in 1919 he obtained specimens of this plant at Barre-tillas, Nuevo Leon, and also at Ciudad Guerrero, Tamaulipas. The four specimens which he took back to the City of Mexico soon died. In May 1921 Señor Solis sent one of the specimens from Ciudad Guerrero which had been collected by Professor Francisco Contreras and we have been able to confirm his identification. Señor Solis says that the plant is known as peyote.

Illustration: Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 42: pl. 3, as Echinocactus asterias.

Figs. 194 and 195.—Astrophytum asterias.

Figure 194 is from a photograph of the plant from Munich referred to above; figure 195 is copied from the illustration above cited.

Figs. 194 and 195.—Astrophytum asterias.

Figure 194 is from a photograph of the plant from Munich referred to above; figure 195 is copied from the illustration above cited.

3. Astrophytum capricorne (Dietrich).

Echinocactus capricornis Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 19: 274. 1851.

Echinocactus capricornis minor Rünge, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 2: 8. 1892.

Subglobose or short-cylindric, up to 25 cm. high; ribs 7 or 8, high, acute; areoles distant, 2 to 3 cm. apart; spines several, more or less flattened, weak, hardly pungent, brown, 3 to 5 cm. long; flowers 6 to 7 cm. long, widely spreading when in full bloom; outer perianth-segments reddish, gradually passing into the lemon-yellow inner perianth-segments with papery tips, orange at base, spatulate, acute or cuspidate at the apex, entire or more or less toothed; stamens numerous, attached over all the inner surface of the flower-tube; style slender, cream-colored; stigma-lobes linear, somewhat spreading, 5 to 9, cream-colored; seeds 2.5 mm. broad, shining.

Type locality: La Rinconada, Mexico.

Distribution: Northern Mexico.

Dr. C. A. Purpus writes that this plant is found on the hills of lime and slate formation south of Parras. It is very scarce and grows associated with Lophophora williamsii and Ariocarpus furfuraceus. He believes that the variety minor is specifically distinct; this he found at Peña and Villareal, Coahuila, and also on Cerro de la Bola and in the Sierra de la Paila.

Various hybrids have been produced by crossing this species with Astrophytum ornatum and A. myriostigma.

Echinocactus capricornis major (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 19: 139. 1909) has never been described.

Illustrations: Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 5, f. 2; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 183; 26: 135; Gartenwelt 15: 537; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. f. 80, 81; Alianza Cientifica Universal 3: pl. Opp. 190; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 474. f. 6, No. 1; Blanc, Cacti 41. No. 420; Karsten and Schenck, Vegetationsbilder 2: pl. 20, as Echinocactus capricornis; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 2: 82; Floralia 42: 372, as Echinocactus capricornis minor; De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 5, as Echinocactus capricornis major.

Plate xxi, figure 1, is from a painting by E. I. Schutt of a plant collected by C. A. Purpus at Parras, Mexico.

4. Astrophytum ornatum (De Candolle) Weber.*

Echinocactus ornatus De Candolle, Mew. Mus. Hist.

Echinocactus mirbelii Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 22. 1835.

Echinocactus holopterus Miquel, Linnaea 12: 2. 1838.

Echinocactus tortus Scheidweiler, Bull. Acad. Sci.

Echinofossulocactus mirbelii Lawrence in Loudon,

Echinocactus ghiesbrechtii Salm-Dyck, Allg. Garten.

Echinopsis haageana Linke, Wochenschr. Gärtn.

Echinocactus ornatus mirbelii Croucher, Gard. Chron.

Echinocactus haageanus Rümpler in Förster, Handb.

Echinocactus ornatus glabrescens Schumann, Gesamtb.

Kakteen 324. 1898.

Subglobose to cylindric, 3 dm. high or more, the surface more or less white-floccose; ribs 8, rather prominent, 2 cm. high or more, acute; areoles 1 to 5 cm. apart, felted; spines 5 to 11, subulate, yellow at first, becoming brown, often 3 cm. long; flowers large, lemon-yellow, 7 to 9 cm. broad; inner perianth-segments broadly oblong, with a broad, more or less serrated apex; scales on ovary very narrow.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Hidalgo and Queretaro, Mexico.

Dr. Rose collected this species in the deserts of eastern Queretaro, Mexico, in 1905 (No. 10286).

Astrophytum glabrescens Weber (Dict. Hort. Bois 467. 1896) is given as a synonym of this species, although it has never been described.

Echinopsis haageana Linke (Wochenschr. Gärtn. Pflanz. 1: 86. 1858), although originally described as probably from Peru, doubtless belongs to this species.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 113; Cact. Journ. 1: pl. for September; 54; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 13, f. 4; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 56; Gard. Mag. 4: 279; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 474. f. 6, No. 19, as Echinocactus ornatus; Blanc, Cacti 50. f. 581; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. f. 79, as Echinocactus ornatus mirbelii; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 485. f. 17, as Echinocactus ornatus glabrescens; Gartenwelt 15: 537, as Echinocactus mirbelii ornatus; Gard. Chron. 1873: 983. f. 196, as Echinocactus mirbelii; Cact. Journ. 2: 173.

Figure 196 is from a photograph furnished by Dr. W. F. Safford of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near Higuerillas, Mexico, in 1905.

Fig. 196.—Astrophytum ornatum.

*This binomial has several times been credited to Weber, but has never been formally published.

22. ERIOSYCE Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile 41: 721. 1872.

A very large, globular to thick-cylindric cactus; ribs numerous, very spiny; flowers from the apex of the plant, campanulate, the tube longer than the perianth-segments; outer perianth-segments linear, more or less pungent; inner perianth-segments narrow, acutish; stamens borne near the base of the flower-tube, included; ovary densely clothed with matted wool; fruit oblong, becoming dry, dehiscing by a basal pore, very spiny above; seeds rather large, dull, black-pitted with a subbasal sunken hilum.

This very interesting plant, well known to the Chileans under the name of sandillon, is not very well understood botanically. It has no near relatives in South America but resembles in habit and fruit some of our giant species of Echinocactus in Mexico. It has good technical differences and we have no hesitancy in following the late Dr. Rudolph Philippi in regarding it as constituting a distinct genus.

Only one species is here recognized, a native of Chile, although Mr. Söhrens states that there are two very definite forms, one of which is more slender, with narrow fruit, the other nearly globular and with globular fruit. The genus was based on Echinocactus sandillon Remy.

The generic name is from eptov wool, and ovkov fig, referring to the woolly fruit. 1. Eriosyce ceratistes (Otto).

Echinocactus ceratistes Otto in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 51. 1837.

Echinocactus sandillon Remy in Gay, Fl. Chilena 3: 14. 1847.

Echinocactus auratus Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: under pl. 14. 1847.

Echinopsis aurata Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 39. 1850.

Eriosyce sandillon Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile 41: 721. 1872.

Simple, 3 to 10 dm. high, usually 2 to 3 dm. in diameter or even more, very woolly at apex; ribs numerous, 21 to 35, but fewer in young plants, while in old ones sometimes more; areoles large, usually 3 cm. apart; spines 11 to 20, nearly equal, straight or somewhat curved, 2.5 to 3.5 cm. long, subulate, yellowish when young; flowers 3 to 3.5 cm. long, yellowish red, opening for 3 or 4 hours and then whitening; inner perianth-segments 1.5 cm. long; fruit 4 cm. long; seeds 3 mm. long.

Type locality: Bellavista, Chile.

Distribution: Provinces of Santiago, Aconcagua, and Coquimbo, Chile.

Dr. Rose did not see wild plants of this species but he obtained fruit through Mr. Söhrens and also obtained a photograph of a fine plant growing in the Botanical Garden at Santiago.

The plant is found only in the mountains, growing at an altitude of 2,000 meters or more, and flowers abundantly. Dr. Philippi states that he counted 74 flowers and fruits on one plant.

Although this plant was first described as an Echinocactus, Pfeiffer questions whether it might not be a Melocactus. The original spelling of the specific name, ceratistes, was changed by Salm-Dyck to ceratitis.

The two varieties Echinocactus ceratistes melanacanthus (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 246. 1853; E. melanacanthus Monville) and Echinocactus ceratistes celsii (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 246. 1853) may possibly belong here. To the latter variety Labouret doubtfully refers Echinocactus copiapensis Monville, not Pfeiffer. To the latter binomial seems to have been applied the name Ceratistes copiapensis which we have seen mentioned only by Labouret.

Fig. 197.—Eriosyce ceratistes.

Illustrations: Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 147. f. 73; Engler and Drude, Veg. Erde 8: pl. 15, f. 30; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 53, as Echinocactus ceratites; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 33, f. 7, as Echinocactus sandillon.

Figure 197 is from a photograph of a plant in the Botanical Garden at Santiago, Chile, taken by Mrs. J. N. Rose, in 1914

23. MALACOCARPUS Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 24. 1850.

Plants globose to short-cylindric, either simple or clustered; ribs definite, usually straight, either entire or. broken up into more or less definite tubercles; areoles felted, especially when young, spine-bearing; flowers from the center of the plant, broad and short, mostly yellow; perianth funnelform to subrotate; stigma-lobes in typical species red; ovary densely covered with scales bearing an abundance of wool and usually bristles in their axils; fruit soft, rose-red or crimson; seeds brown or black, tuberculate with a broad truncate base; hilum white.

Prince Salm-Dyck, who established the genus, assigned 6 species of Echinocactus to it, of which E. corynodes Pfeiffer was the first and is therefore taken by us as the generic type.

Schumann treats the group as a subgenus of Echinocactus, he assigns 3 species to it, all from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Arechavaleta, who follows Schumann's treatment, describes 6 species from Uruguay. Besides those heretofore treated in the subgenus Malacocarpus, we refer here most of the species assigned by Schumann to the subgenus Notocactus.

We recognize 29 species, all from South America and all found south of the Equator. The generic name is from ¡ualaKog soft, and Kappog fruit, referring to the fleshy fruit.

Key to Species.

A. Plants globular to stout-cylindric.

B. Areoles of the ovary and flower-tube long-hairy or long-woolly. C. Spines 4 cm. long or less, straight. D. Flowers yellow. Ribs acute.

Spines subulate 1. M. tephracanthus

S pines acicular.

Spines yellow 2. M. schumannianus

Spines white or becoming silvery.

Spines 3 to 7 3. M. grossei

Spines 9 or 10 4. M. nigrispinus

Ribs obtuse or rounded.

Ribs spirally arranged, broken into tubercles.

Spirals many; plant gray 5. M. reichei

Spirals few; plant brown 6. M. napinus

Ribs straight or nearly so, undulate or continuous. Perianth short-funnelform.

Perianth-tube very stout 7. M. apricus

Perianth-tube relatively slender.

Plant deeply umbilicate; spines slender 8. M. concinnus

Plant slightly umbilicate; spines short 9. M. tabularis

Perianth campanulate to subrotate. Spines setaceous or acicular.

Ribs 30 to 40; radial spines up to 40 or more 10. M. scopa

Ribs 21 or fewer; radial spines much fewer than 40.

Ribs very low and rounded 11. M. pulcherrimus

Ribs prominent.

Areoles only 4 to 7 mm. apart 12. M. muricatus

Areoles more separated.

Inner perianth-segments obtuse or merely apiculate 13. M. linkii

Inner perianth-segments acute or acuminate 14. M. ottonis

Spines stouter, subulate.

Inner perianth-segments 2 to 3 cm. long. Spines terete.

Spines slender, slightly curved 15. M. catamarcensis

Spines stout, rigid 16. M. patagonicus

Spines flattened.

Central spines not much longer than the radials 17. M. erinaceus

Key to Species—continued.

Central spines definitely longer than the radials.

Spines strongly curved 18. M. langsdorffii

Spines straight 19. M. mammulosus

Inner perianth-segments about 1 cm. long 20. M. islayensis

DD. Flowers salmon or red.

Ribs about 23, obtuse; flowers salmon 21. M. strausianus

Ribs 30 or more, acutish; flowers red 22. M. haselbergii

CC. Spines elongated, the central ones 1.5 to 7 cm. long, curved; flowers orange-red. . . 23. M. maassii BB. Areoles of ovary and flower-tube with tufts of short hairs.

Spines stout, subulate 24. M. tuberisulcatus

Spines slender, acicular.

Spines long, much curved 25. M. curvispinus

Spines short, nearly straight 26. M. mammillarioides

AA. Plants becoming slender-cylindric and much elongated 27. M. leninghausii

AAA. Species not grouped f28. M. graessne7ri .

{29. M. escayachensis

1. Malacocarpus tephracanthus (Link and Otto) Schumann, Fl. Bras. 42: 243. 1890.

Echinocactus tephracanthus Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: 422. 1827. Echinocactus acuatus* Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: 424. 1827. Echinocactus sellowii Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: 425. 1827. Melocactus tephracanthus Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: pl. 16, f. 2. 1827. Melocactus sellowii Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: pl. 22. 1827. Melocactus acuatus Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: pl. 23. 1827. Echinocactus sellowianus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 55. 1837. Echinocactus sessiliflorus Mackie in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 64: pl. 3569. 1837. Echinocactus tetracanthus Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 15. 1838. Echinocactus courantii Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 20. 1838.

Echinocactus sessilifloruspallidus Monville in Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 88. 1839.

Echinocactus sessiliflorus tetracanthus Monville in Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 88. 1839.

Cereus tephracanthus Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 1: 336. 1840.

Malacocarpus sellowianus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 25. 1850.

Malacocarpus sellowianus tetracanthus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 25. 1850.

Malacocarpus courantii Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 25. 1850.

Echinocactus tephracanthus spinosior Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 171. 1853.

Echinocactus courantii spinosior Monville in Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 171. 1853.

Echinocactus sellowianus tetracanthus Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 172. 1853.

Malacocarpus martinii Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 454. 1885.

Malacocarpus sellowii Schumann, Fl. Bras. 42: 238. 1890.

Malacocarpus sellowii tetracanthus Schumann, Fl. Bras. 42: 239. 1890.

Malacocarpus tetracanthus Meyer, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 543. 1894.

Echinocactus sellowii martinii Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 297. 1898.

Echinocactus acuatus sellowii Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 494. 1905.

Echinocactus acuatus tetracanthus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 49. 1905.

Echinocactus sellowii macrocanthus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 230. 1905.

Echinocactus sellowii macrogonus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 232. 1905.

Echinocactus sellowii acutatus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 234. 1905.

Echinocactus sellowii turbinatus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 235. 1905.

Echinocactus fricii Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 244. 1905.

Echinocactuspauciareolatus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 246. 1905.

Echinocactus sellowii courantii Gürke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 149. 1908.

Echinocactus sellowii typicus Gürke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 149. 1908.

Simple, globular or somewhat depressed, up to 15 cm. in diameter, woolly at apex; ribs 18 to 22, acute, rather high, hardly undulate on the margin, light green; areoles 1.5 to 2 cm. apart; spines 4 to 6, straight or curved backward, the longest 2 cm. long; flowers from the woolly apex of the plant, 4 to 4.5 cm. long, broader than long when fully expanded; perianth-segments yellow, narrowly oblong, mucronate-tipped: stamens and style slightly exserted; stigma-lobes red; perianth deciduous; fruit small, 1 cm. long, purple, fleshy, scaly; scales ovate, bearing hairs and bristles in their axils; seeds black, 1 mm. long.

Type locality: "Rio Grande," perhaps better, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Distribution: Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.

Walpers (Repert. Bot. 2: 275. 1843) referred Echinocactus acuatus spinosior Lemaire to E. courantii. This variety was not described, however, until 1839 when Lemaire (Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 87. 1839) assigned it to Monville and referred to it, as a synonym, Echinocactus suberinaceus Lemaire.

*The specific name was originally given by Link and Otto as above, but Schumann changed it, writing both

Echinocactus acutatus and Melocactus acutatus. Don (Gen. Syst. 3: 163. 2834) writes the name E. arcuatus.

Schumann refers Echinocactus martinii Cels (Gesamtb. Kakteen 297. 1898) as a synonym of E. sellowii, but we do not know that the binomial has been formally made.

Illustrations: Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 18; Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 1: pl. 1, as Echinocactus sellowii; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 143. f. 68, as E. sellowii martinii; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 21, as E. sellowii turbinatus; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 19, as E. sellowii macrocanthus; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 20, as E. sellowii macrogonus; Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: pl. 16, f. 2, as Melocactus tephracanthus; Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 6, as Echinocactus tetracanthus; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 64: pl. 3569, as E. sessiliflorus; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 25, as E. fricii; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 26, as E. pauciareolatus; Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: pl. 23, as Melocactus acuatus; Lemaire, Icon. Cact. pl. 12; Martius, Fl. Bras. 42: pl. 49; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 141, as Malacocarpus sellowii; Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: pl. 22, as Melocactus sellowii.

Fig. 198.—Malacocarpus tephracanthus. Fig. 199.—Malacocarpus schumannianus.

Plate xx, figure 1, shows the top of a plant collected by Dr. Shafer at Concordia, Argentina, in 1917 (No. 119), which flowered in the New York Botanical Garden in 1918; plate xxi, figure 2, shows a plant obtained by Dr. Rose from Dr. Spegazzini in 1915, labeled Echinocactus sellowianus, which flowered in the New York Botanical Garden in 1917. Figure 198 is copied from Pfeiffer and Otto's illustration of Echinocactus sellowii; figure 203 is copied from the illustration given by Link and Otto of Melocactus acuatus.

2. Malacocarpus schumannianus (Nicolai).

Echinocactus schumannianus Nicolai, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 175. 1893.

Echinocactus schumannianus longispinus Haage jr. in Quehl, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 43. 1899.

Simple, globose or elongated, becoming bent or procumbent, sometimes over a meter long and 1 to 4 dm. in diameter; ribs about 30, low, acute, dull green; spines 4 to 7, setaceous, brownish to yellow; flowers central, large, citron-yellow, 4.5 cm. long; perianth-segments oblong, obtuse, spreading; scales on ovary with wool and bristles in their axils.

Type locality: Said to be in the territory of Misiones, Paraguay.

Distribution: Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.

Illustrations: Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 6; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7: 55; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 178. f. 111; Chodat, Veg. Paraguay 1: f. 87, 88, 89, as Echinocactus schumannianus.

Figure 199 is copied from the first illustration cited above.

3. Malacocarpus grossei (Schumann).

Echinocactus grossei Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 44. 1899.

Globose to depressed or sometimes cylindric, sometimes up to 1.7 meters high; ribs usually 16, acute, somewhat crenate; areoles small, circular; spines 3 to 7, spreading, acicular, curved, white, the longer ones 4 cm. long; flower large, funnelform, citron-yellow, 4 cm. long, when fully expanded broader than long; perianth-segments oblanceolate to spatulate, obtuse, serrate above; stamens numerous, short; style slender, longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes 12 to 17, linear, white, recurved; scales on the ovary numerous, linear, purplish, with wool and bristles in their axils; fruit short-oblong, 2.5 cm. long, 2 cm. in diameter; seeds black, 2 mm. long.

Fig. 200.—Malacocarpus grossei. Fig. 201.—M. napinus.

Type locality: Paraguay.

Distribution: Paraguay, between Carepegua and Acaay.

The species is known to us only from illustrations and description; it and the preceding one are much the largest of the genus, as known to us. The Blühende Kakteen shows the spines as yellow, but they were originally described as white.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 89; Möllers Deutsche Cart. Zeit. 25: 474. f. 6, No. 18; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 44; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 19, as Echinocactus grossei.

Figure 200 is copied from the first illustration cited above. 4. Malacocarpus nigrispinus (Schumann).

Echinocactus nigrispinus Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 45. 1899.

Cespitose, globose to short-columnar, green; ribs 20 or more, acute; spines 9 or 10, somewhat curved, slender, reddish when young, afterward silvery; flowers yellow, funnelform; scales of the ovary filled with hairs and bristles.

Type locality: Between Carepegua and Acaay, Paraguay.

Distribution: Paraguay.

We have had small plants of this species growing which do not differ very much, if any from Malacocarpus schumannianus.

1. Top of flowering plant of Malacocarpus tephracanthus.

2. Flowering plant of Malacocarpus ottonis.

(All natural size.)

Echinocactus schumannianus nigrispinus Haage jr. (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 45. 1899) was given as a synonym of E. nigrispinus, but has never been published otherwise.

Illustrations: Weinberg, Cacti 11; Knippel, Kakteen pl. 9; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 179. f. 112; Chodat, Veg. Paraguay 1: f. 90, as Echinocactus nigrispinus.

5. Malacocarpus reichei (Schumann).

Echinocactus reichei Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 110. 1903.

Simple, globular, 6 to 7 cm. in diameter; ribs spiraled, broken into very regular tubercles; spines minute, appressed, 7 to 9, about equal; flowers small, light yellow, 2.5 cm. long or more; inner perianth-segments linear-oblong, acute; style slender, longer than the filaments, red; stigmalobes red; ovary and tube with small scales, pilose and setose in the axils.

Fig. 2o2.—Malacocarpus reichei. Fig. 2o3.—Malacocarpus tephracanthus.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Chile.

This species was sent from Santiago to Dr. Schumann by Dr. Karl Reiche in 1900 and does not seem to have been very much distributed. It is a very remarkable plant, judging from the illustration below cited, and may not be of this alliance. We know it only from description and illustration.

Illustration: Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 42, as Echinocactus reichei.

Figure 202 is copied from the illustration cited above.

6. Malacocarpus napinus (Philippi).

Echinocactus napinus Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile 41: 720. 1872.

Echinocactus mitis Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile 85: 493. 1894.

Plant 2 to 9 cm. high with a very large root, larger than the globose stem itself; ribs broken into rounded tubercles; spines about 9, minute, 3 mm. long, appressed; flower small, about 3 cm. long, pale yellow to nearly white; flower-tube covered with minute scales, the axils long-woolly and bristly; stigma-lobes reddish.

Type locality: Huasco, Chile.

Distribution: Northern Chile.

Echinocactus napinus and E. mitis both came from Huasco, and Schumann is probably right in uniting them under the older name.

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 93, in part; Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 77; Gartenflora 21: pl. 721, f. 1; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 69, A, as Echinocactus napinus; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 69, B, as Echinocactus mitis.

Figure 201 is copied from the third illustration cited above.

7. Malacocarpus apricus (Arechavaleta).

Echinocactus apricus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 205. 1905.

Cespitose, in clusters of 2 to lo, subglobose, 3 to 5 cm. in diameter, umbilicate at apex, densely covered with interlocking spines; ribs 15 to 20, somewhat curved, more or less tuberculate; areoles orbicular, . to 4 mm. apart, tomentose when young, becoming naked in age; radial spines 18 to 20, grayish yellow, flexible; central spines several, 4 of the larger ones reddish at base; flowers yellow, 8 cm. long; flower-tube densely woolly and setose on the outside, very stout.

Type locality: Punta de la Ballena, Uruguay.

Distribution: Uruguay.

We know this plant only from description and illustration, from which the above description has been drawn.

Illustration: Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 10, as Echinocactus apricus.

Figure 204 is copied from the illustration above cited.

Fig. 204.—Malacocarpus apricus. Fig. 205.—Malacocarpus tabularis.

8. Malacocarpus concinnus (Monville).

Echinocactus concinnus Monville, Hort. Univ. 1: 222. 1839.

Echinocactusjoadii Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 112: pl. 6867. 1886.

Echinocactus concinnus joadii Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 204. 1905.

Simple, globular or somewhat depressed, 5 to 7.5 cm. in diameter; ribs about 16 to 20, somewhat tuberculate, light green; young areoles white-felted; spines 10 to 12, spreading, setaceous; radial spines to 7 mm. long; central spines 1 to 4, one much longer, spreading or turned downward; flowers large, 7 cm. long; outer perianth-segments narrow, acute, reddish; inner perianth-segments oblong, yellow, except the reddish tips, acute; stigma-lobes bright red; scales on the ovary hairy in their axils; perianth-tube slender.

Type locality: Not definitely cited.

Distribution: Southern Brazil and Uruguay.

We know this species only from description and illustrations.

Illustrations: Lemaire, Icon. Cact. pl. 6; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3. 1376. f. 19366; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 551. f. 70; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 70: pl. 4115; Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 11; Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 94; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 9; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 29: 141; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 179. f. 113; 180. f. 114; Wiener Ill. Gart. Zeit. 29: f. 104; Rümpler, Sukkulenten 178. f. 97; Palmer, Cult. Cact. 129; De Laet, Cat. Gén. f. 8; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: f. 63; Watson, Cact. Cult. 94. f. 29; ed. 3. 50. f. 21, as Echinocactus concinnus; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 112: pl. 6867, as Echinocactus joadii.

9. Malacocarpus tabularis (Cels).

Echinocactus concinnus tabularis Cels in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 552. 1885.

Echinocactus tabularis Cels in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 389. 1898.

Simple, globose or short-columnar; ribs 16 to 18, somewhat crenate, obtuse, glaucous; radial spines 16 to 18, acicular; central spines 4; flowers yellow, 6 cm. long; perianth-segments narrow, acute; scales of ovary bearing dense wool and long brown bristles in their axils; seeds hemispheric or dome-shaped with a broad truncate base, brownish, papillose-roughened, about 1 mm. broad.

Type locality: Not cited definitely.

Distribution: Brazil or Uruguay.

In the first two illustrations cited, the flowers are not shown as coming from the apex of the plant as one would expect.

The illustration given by Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 66) suggests Malacocarpus concinnus.

Echinocactus tabularis cristatus Rebut seems to be only a garden form.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 23; (?) Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 66; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 26: 57; 29: 141; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 6, as Echinocactus tabularis.

Figure 205 is copied from the first illustration cited above.

10. Malacocarpus scopa (Sprengel).

Cactus scopa Sprengel, Syst. 2: 494. 1825.*

Cereus scopa Salm-Dyck in De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 464. 1828.

Echinocactus scopa Link and Otto, Icon. Pt. Rar. 81. 1830.

Echinocactus scopa candidus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 64. 1837.

Echinopsis scopa Carrière, Rev. Hort. 47: 374. 1875.

Echinocactus scopa albicans Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 199. 1905.

At first globular but becoming cylindric to clavate, 1 to 4.5 dm. high; ribs 30 to 40, low, obtuse, almost hidden by the spines; radial spines 40 or more, white, setaceous, spreading; central spines about 4, brown or purple, much stouter than the radials; flowers lemon-yellow, widely spreading and then 6 cm. broad; inner perianth-segments in 2 series, spatulate, somewhat toothed above; stigma-lobes about 10, bright red; scales on the ovary bearing wool and conspicuous brown bristles.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Southern Brazil and Uruguay.

Echinocactus scopa candidus cristatus, E. scopa cristatus Hortus, E. scopa ruberrimus, and E. scopa rubrinus Link and Otto may or may not be published varietal names.

Illustrations: Cact. Journ. 1: 57; Gartenwelt 15: 539; Watson, Cact. Cult. 119. f. 45, as Echinocactus scopa cristatus; Cact. Journ. 1: 67; Gartenwelt 9: 267; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 176. f. 107; 177. f. 109, as E. scopa candidus cristatus; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 8, as E. scopa albicans; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 474. f. 6, No. 13; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 175 f. 106 as E. scopa candidus; Rev. Hort. 47: 374. f. 60, as Echinopsis

*We have credited the name, Cactus scopa, to Sprengel, as above. He marks it with an asterisk (*) as he does all his new names. The usual citation is to Link (Enum. nort. Berol. 2: 21. 1822) who in the place cited does list a number of species of Cactus but not C. scopa. It is remarkable how general this error has become for we find it in De Candolle (Prodr. 3: 464. 1828), Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 64. 1837), Förster (Handb. Cact. 304. 1846), Labouret (Monogr. Cact. 238. 1853), Hooker (Curtis's Bot. Mag. 90: pl. 5445), Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 381. 1898), the Index Kewensis, and elsewhere.

scopa; Rev. Hort. 47: 375. f. 61; Rümpler, Sukkulenten 181. f. 100; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 137. f. 7; Dict. Gard. Nicholson 4: 540. f. 24; Suppl. 336. f. 360 (these last five illustrations are the same, and are sometimes called Echinopsis scopa candida cristata, Echino-cactus scopa candidus, E. scopa candidus cristatus, and E. scopa cristatus); Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3. 1378. f. 19383; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 90: pl. 5445; Edwards's Bot. Reg. 25: pl. 24; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 136. f. 6; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 7; Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 155; Abh. Bayer, Akad. Wiss. München 2: pl. 1, sec. 3, f. 5; Link and Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. pl. 41; Rümpler, Sukkulenten f. 99; Gartenflora 56: 20. f. 5; Watson, Cact. Cult. 118. f. 44; ed. 3. 59. f. 28, as Echinocactus scopa.

11. Malacocarpus pulcherrimus (Arechavaleta).

Echinocactus pulcherrimus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 222. 1905.

Small, 3 to 5 cm. high, 1.5 to 2 cm. in diameter; ribs 19 to 21, low and broad, tuberculate; radial spines 10 to 12, acicular, white, 1 to 2 mm. long; flowers 1.5 to 2 cm. long, 2.5 to 3 cm. broad, yellow; perianth-segments oblong, acute, sometimes mucronate; ovary and flower-tube densely white-woolly and setose; fruit turbinate, 1 cm. long, fleshy.

Fig. 206.—Malacocarpus pulcherrimus. Fig. 2o7.—Malacocarpus muricatus.

Type locality: Paso de los Toros.

Distribution: Uruguay, but known only from the type collection. We know this little plant from the original description and illustration only. Illustration: Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 16, as Echinocactus pulcherrimus. Figure 206 is copied from the illustration above cited.

12. Malacocarpus muricatus (Otto).

Echinocactus muricatus Otto in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 49. 1837.

Simple or sometimes proliferous, either globular or columnar, said to be depressed at apex, 2 dm. in diameter; ribs 16 to 20, obtuse, crenate, dull, glaucous; radial spines 15 to 20, white, setaceous, 8 mm. long; central spines 3 or 4, brown at tips, 13 mm. long; areoles approximate; flowers 3 cm. long, yellow; inner perianth-segments acute; style longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes 7 to 9, purple; scales of the ovary with their axils filled with wool and bristles.

Type locality: Brazil. Distribution: Southern Brazil.

We know this species from description and illustration only. Illustration: Martius, Fl. Bras. 40: pl. 50, f. 2, as Echinocactus muricatus. Figure 207 is copied from the illustration above cited.

13. Malacocarpus linkii (Lehmann).

Cactus linkii Lehmann, Ind. Sem. Hamburg 16. 1827. Echinocactus linkii Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 48. 1837.

Oval to short-cylindric, 7 to 15 cm. high; ribs 13, obtuse; areoles somewhat sunken into the ribs, 8 mm. apart; spines weak, spreading; radial spines 10 to 12, white with brownish tips; central spines 3 or 4, brownish; flowers yellow, 2.5 cm. long, 5 cm. broad when fully expanded; inner perianth-segments broad, obtuse; scales of the ovary woolly and setose in their axils; stigma-lobes red.

Fig. 208.—Malacocarpus linkii. Fig. 209.—Malacocarpus ottonis.

Type locality: Cited as Mexico, but in error. Distribution: Southern Brazil.

This species must be close to Malacocarpus ottonis and the two are often confused. The original illustrations are so different, however, that we believe they must be distinct. Echinocactus linkii spinosior (Förster, Handb. Cact. 301. 1846) is only a name. The name Cereus linkii Lehmann appears in Pfeiffer's Enumeratio (48. 1837) as a synonym of Echinocactus linkii, but it does not occur thus where he cites it (Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 16: 316. 1828) but as Cactus (Cereus) linkii.

Illustration: Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 16: pl. 14, as Cactus linkii. Figure 208 is copied from the illustration cited above.

14. Malacocarpus ottonis (Lehmann).

Cactus ottonis Lehmann, Ind. Sem. Hamburg 16. 1827.

Echinocactus tenuispinus Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: 421. 1827.

Echinocactus tenuispinus minor Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: 422. 1827.

Echinocactus tortuosus Link and Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. 29. 1829.

Echinocactus ottonis Link and Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. 31. 1830.

Opuntia ottonis G. Don, Hist. Dichl. Pl. 3: 172. 1834.

Echinocactus ottonis tenuispinus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 48. 1837.

Echinocactus ottonispallidior Monville in Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 88. 1839.

Echinocactus ottonis spinosior Monville in Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 88. 1839.

Echinocactus ottonis tortuosus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 392. 1898.

Echinocactus ottonisparaguayensis Heese, Gartenwelt 9: 266. 1905.

Echinocactus ottonis uruguayus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 213. 1905.

Echinocactus arechavaletai Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 496. 1905.

Echinocactus spegazzinii Gurke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 110. 1905.

Echinocactus ottonis brasiliensis Haage jr., Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 24: 41. 1914.

Simple or cespitose, globular or somewhat depressed, more or less glossy green, 5 to 6 cm. in diameter; ribs 10, broad and rounded below; areoles few, usually distant, 1 cm. apart or more, small, circular; spines acicular, brown, 1 cm. long or less; flowers from the uppermost areoles, one or more appearing at a time, 5 to 6 cm. long, bright yellow; perianth-segments linear-oblong, acute; stamens about half the length of the perianth-segments; style yellow; stigma-lobes red; axils of scales filled with long brown wool and brown bristles.

Type locality: Supposed to be Mexico, but the species was described from a garden plant.

Distribution: Southern Brazil, Uruguay, and adjacent parts of Argentina.

The varietal name, Echinocactus ottonis paraguayensis, is usually credited to Schumann who used it in 1900 (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 179). The name Cereus ottonis appears in Pfeiffer's Enumeratio 1837) as a synonym of Echinocactus ottonis, but it does not occur thus where Pfeiffer cites it (Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 16: 316. 1828), but as Cactus (Cereus) ottonis.

The following varieties are sometimes met with: E. ottonis brasiliensis (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 48. 1908),pfeifferi Monville (Salm-Dyck, Cact.

Fig. 210 and 211.—Malacocarpus ottonis.

Hort. Dyck. 1844. 19. 1845), and minor (Förster, Handb. Cact. 302. 1846), and Echinocactus muricatus hortatani (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 232. 1853). A hybrid has been produced with this species and a plant called Echinopsis zuccarinii.

Illustrations: Cact. Journ. 1: 43, 54; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 158; 29: 125; Mar-tius, Fl. Bras. 42: pl. 51, f. 3; Edwards's Bot. Reg. 24: pl. 42; Rev. Hort. 1861: 270. f. 62; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 58: pl. 3107; Link and Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. pl. 16; De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 11; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 474. f. 6, No. 17; Rümpler, Sukkulenten 179. f. 98, as Echinocactus ottonis; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 12; De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 4; Tribune Hort. 4: pl. 140, as Echinocactus ottonis tenuispinus; Link and Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. pl. 15, as E. tortuosus; Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 16: pl. 15, as Cactus ottonis; Verh. Ver. Beförd. 3: pl. 19, f. 1, 2, as Melocactus tenuispinus; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 13, as E. ottonis uruguayus; Gartenwelt 9: 267; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 182. f. 116, as Echinocactus ottonis paraguayensis; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 11, as Echinocactus arechavaletai; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 68: pl. 3963, as Echinocactus tenuispinus; Dict. Hort. Bois 465. f. 323, as Echinocactus tenuispinus ottonis; Karsten, Deutsche Fl. 887. f. 501, No. 12; ed. 2. 2: 456. f. 605, No, 12, as Echinocactus tenuissimus.

Plate xx, figure 2, shows the plant obtained by Dr. Rose from W. Mundt, in 1912, which has since flowered repeatedly in the New York Botanical Garden; plate xxiii, figure 2, shows a plant obtained by Dr. Shafer at Concordia, Argentina, in 1917 (No. 118) which afterwards flowered in the New York Botanical Garden. Figure 209 is copied from the illustration of Link and Otto, cited above as Cactus ottonis; figure 210 is from a photograph furnished by Dr. Spegazzini of a plant cultivated by him as Echinocactus arechavaletai; figure 211 shows a plant collected by Dr. Shafer at Concordia, Argentina, in 1917 (No. 118).

15. Malacocarpus catamarcensis (Spegazzini).

Echinocactus catamarcensis Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 500. 1905. Echinocactus catamarcensispallidus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 500. 1905. Echinocactus catamarcensis obscurus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 501. 1905.

Simple, elliptic to short-cylindric, 10 to

Simple, elliptic to short-cylindric, 10 to

50 cm. high, 8 to 12 cm. in diameter, grayish green; ribs 11 to 13, obtuse, tuberculate; spines terete, more or less erect, grayish with brown tips, subulate, slightly curved; radial spines 14 to 21, 10 to 20 mm. long; central spines 4 to 7, 25 to 30 mm. long; flowers 4.5 cm. long, citron to golden; stigma-lobes yellowish; scales of the ovary filled with wool and bristles.

Type locality: Argentina.

Distribution: Western Argentina.

Fig. 212.—Malacocarpus catamarcensis. Fig. 213.—Malacocarpus patagonicus.

We know this species chiefly from the original description and photograph obtained by Dr. Rose in 1915 from Dr. Spegazzini. To it we have referred a living plant collected by Dr. Ales Hrdlicka in Argentina in 1910, which has flowered with us on one or two occasions. Figure 212 is from a photograph of the plant collected by Ales Hrdlicka.

16. Malacocarpus patagonicus (Weber).

Echinocactus intertextus Philippi, Linnaea 33: 81. 1864. Not Engelmann, 1856. Cereuspatagonicus Weber in Spegazzini, Rev. Agron. La Plata 3: 604. 1897. Echinocactus coxii Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 422. 1898. Cereus duseni Weber, Anal. Soc. Cient. Argentina 48: 49. 1899.

Usually simple and erect, slender, cylindric, 6 dm. long or less, 3 to 5 dm. in diameter, very spiny, green or somewhat glaucous-green; ribs 6 to 10, straight or spiraled, somewhat undulate; areoles approximate; radial spines 6 to so, spreading; central spines 1 to 3, much stouter, subulate, some of them sometimes more or less hooked; flowers from near the top of plant, 3.5 cm. long, fully as broad when expanded, inodorous; inner perianth-segments pale rose-colored, spatulate, 18 mm. long, 8 mm. broad, mucronate; fruit about 2 cm. long, greenish; style thick, 15 mm. long; stigma-lobes black-purple; ovary turbinate, 8 mm. in diameter, the axils of its scales woolly and bristly; seeds 2.5 mm. broad.

Type locality: Chubut, Argentina.

Distribution: Southern Argentina.

This species has been very confusing not only as to its identification, but as to its generic relationship. It is possible that more than one species has been treated here. The plant grows in barren regions, often among boulders where there is no other vegetation.

Figure 213 is from a photograph taken by Mr. Walter Fischer at General Roca, Rio Negro, showing how the plant grows in its natural surroundings; figure 214, showing a potted plant, and figure 215, the top of a flowering plant, are from photographs contributed by Mr. C. Bruch.

Fig. 214 and 215.—Malacocarpus patagonicus.

17. Malacocarpus erinaceus (Haworth) Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 455. 1885.

Cactus erinaceus Haworth, Pl. Succ. Suppl. 74. 1819.

Echinocactuspoliacanthus Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: 422. 1827. Melocactuspoliacanthus Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: Pl. 16, f. 1. 1827. Echinocactus corynodes Otto in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 55. 1837. Echinocactus erinaceus Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 16. 1838. Malacocarpus corynodes Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 25. 1850. Malacocarpus corynodes erinaceus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 25. 1850. Malacocarpuspolyacanthus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 25. 1850. Malacocarpus acuatus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 25. 1850. Echinocactus corynodes erinaceus Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 170. 1853.

Echinocactus acuatus corynodes Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 494. 1905. Echinocactus acuatus depressus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 494. 1905. Echinocactus acuatus erinaceus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 495. 1905. Echinocactus leucocarpus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 239. 1905.

Fig. 214 and 215.—Malacocarpus patagonicus.

17. Malacocarpus erinaceus (Haworth) Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 455. 1885.

Cactus erinaceus Haworth, Pl. Succ. Suppl. 74. 1819.

Echinocactuspoliacanthus Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: 422. 1827. Melocactuspoliacanthus Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: Pl. 16, f. 1. 1827. Echinocactus corynodes Otto in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 55. 1837. Echinocactus erinaceus Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 16. 1838. Malacocarpus corynodes Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 25. 1850. Malacocarpus corynodes erinaceus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 25. 1850. Malacocarpuspolyacanthus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 25. 1850. Malacocarpus acuatus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 25. 1850. Echinocactus corynodes erinaceus Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 170. 1853.

Echinocactus acuatus corynodes Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 494. 1905. Echinocactus acuatus depressus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 494. 1905. Echinocactus acuatus erinaceus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 495. 1905. Echinocactus leucocarpus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 239. 1905.

Simple, globular to short-cylindric, 15 cm. high, very woolly at top, up to 15 cm. high; ribs 15 to 20, obtuse, strongly undulate; areoles borne in the depressions on ribs, felted when young; radial spines 6 to 8, subulate, yellowish, 1 to 2 cm. long; central spine solitary; flowers yellow, 4 to 5 cm. long, 7 cm. broad when fully open; inner perianth-segments spreading, oblong to spatulate, acute, often serrate above; stigma-lobes bright red.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Southern Brazil and adjacent parts of Argentina and Uruguay. Schumann was inclined to refer here Echinocactus aciculatus Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 341. 1834; Malacocarpus aciculatus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 25. 1850) and

Echinocactus terscheckii Reichenbach (Terscheck, Suppl. 3; also Walpers, Repert. Bot. 2:

Echinocactus rosaceus (Otto, Allg. Gartenz. 1: 364. 1833), E. acutangulus Zuccarini (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 55. 1837), and E. conquades (Förster, Handb. Cact. 338. 1846) have usually been referred to Echinocactus corynodes but were never described.

Echinocactus erinaceus elatior Monville (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 22. 1845), without description, must be referred here.

Illustrations: Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 50; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. f. 69; De Laet, Cat. Gén. f. 21, as Echinocactus erinaceus; Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: pl. 16, f. 1, as Melocactus poliacanthus; Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 2: pl. 1, sec. 3, f. 1 to 4; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 68: pl. 3906; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 22, as Echinocactus corynodes; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 141; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 52; Rümpler, Sukkulenten 174. f. 96; Garten-Zeitung 4: 182. f. 42, No. 18; Krook, Handb. Cact. 67, as Malacocarpus corynodes; Gartenflora 31: 216, as Malacocarpus corynodes erinaceus; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 23, as Echinocactus leucocarpus; Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 7: 312; Dict. Gard. Nicholson 2: 317. f. 504; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 141; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 455. f. 53.

Figure 216 is copied from plate 3906 of Curtis's Botanical Magazine, cited above.

Fig. 216.—Malacocarpus erinaceus. Fig. 217.— Malacocarpus langsdorfii.

18. Malacocarpus langsdorfii (Lehmann).

Cactus langsdorfii Lehmann, Ind. Sem. Hamburg 17. 1826.

Melocactus langsdorfii De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 461. 1828.

Echinocactus langsdorfii Link and Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. 79. 1830.

Oblong, 10 cm. high or more, very woolly at apex; ribs 17, obtuse, strongly tubercled; radial spines about 6, more or less unequal, somewhat spreading; central spine usually solitary, 2.5 cm. long; flower yellow, 1.5 cm. broad, campanulate; inner perianth-segments oblong, obtuse, about 20; filaments yellow; stigma-lobes numerous, purple.

Fig. 216.—Malacocarpus erinaceus. Fig. 217.— Malacocarpus langsdorfii.

18. Malacocarpus langsdorfii (Lehmann).

Cactus langsdorfii Lehmann, Ind. Sem. Hamburg 17. 1826.

Melocactus langsdorfii De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 461. 1828.

Echinocactus langsdorfii Link and Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. 79. 1830.

Oblong, 10 cm. high or more, very woolly at apex; ribs 17, obtuse, strongly tubercled; radial spines about 6, more or less unequal, somewhat spreading; central spine usually solitary, 2.5 cm. long; flower yellow, 1.5 cm. broad, campanulate; inner perianth-segments oblong, obtuse, about 20; filaments yellow; stigma-lobes numerous, purple.

Type locality: Central Brazil.

Distribution: Central and southern Brazil.

This plant was first described in the Seed Catalogue of the Botanical Garden of Hamburg. The next year Lehmann published two descriptions of it under the name of Cactus (Echinocactus) langsdorfii, one of which was accompanied by a colored illustration (see second illustration cited above). We have seen no living plants or other illustrations which we are disposed to refer here and we have therefore kept the species distinct, although we are aware that Schumann refers it first to Malacocarpus polyacanthus and afterwards to Echinocactus erinaceus.

Illustrations: Link and Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. pl. 40, as Echinocactus langsdorfii; Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 16: pl. 13, as Cactus langsdorfii.

Figure 217 is copied from the second illustration cited above.

19. Malacocarpus mammulosus (Lemaire).

Echinocactus mammulosus Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 40. 1838. Echinocactus hypocrateriformis Otto and Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 6: 169. 1838. Echinocactus submammulosus Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 20. 1839. Echinocactuspampeanus Spegazzini, Contr. Fl. Vent. 27. 1896.

Echinocactus acuatus arechavaletai Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 494. 1905. Echinocactus mammulosus submammulosus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 496. 1905. Echinocactus mammulosus pampeanus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 496. 1905. Echinocactus mammulosus hircinus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 496. 1905. Echinocactus mammulosus typicus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 496. 1905. Echinocactusfloricomus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 183. 1905. Echinocactus pampeanus charruanus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 193. 1905. Echinocactus pampeanus rubellianus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 194. 1905. Echinocactus pampeanus subplanus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 194. 1905. Echinocactus arechavaletai Schumann in Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 208. 1905. Not Spegazzini, Jan. 1905.

Simple, nearly globose, about 8 cm. high, light shining green; ribs 18 to 25, strongly tuberculate, almost covered by the numerous interlocking spines; radial spines 20 to 30, 5 cm. long; central spines 2 to , about 2 cm. long; flowers yellow, 3.5 to 4 cm. long; scales of the ovary woolly and setose in their axils.

Fig. 218 and 219.—Malacocarpus mammulosus.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina.

Labouret (Monogr. Cact. 228, 229. 1853) mentioned three varieties of this species as follows: spinosior Haage, cristatus Monville, and minor Monville.

Echinocactus hypocrateriformis spinosior Haage probably should be referred here. Spegazzini (Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 496. 1905) referred the species pampeanus and submammulosus as varieties of this species.

Illustrations: Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 181. f. 115; Knippel, Kakteen pl. 9; Cact. Journ. 2: 102; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 3, as Echinocactus mammulosus; Martius, Fl. Bras. 42: pl. 51, f. 2, as Echinocactus hypocrateriformis; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo

5: pl. 2, as Echinocactus floricomus; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 5, as Echinocactus pampeanus; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 24; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 107, as Echinocactus arechavaletai; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 27: 18; 29: 141; Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 4, as Echinocactus submammulosus.

Plate xxii, figure 1, shows a plant collected by Dr. Shafer near Salto, Uruguay, in 1917 (No. 124) which has flowered repeatedly in the New York Botanical Garden. Figure 218 is copied from Arechavaleta's illustration of Echinocactus floricomus cited above; figure 219 is copied from Arechavaleta's illustration of Echinocactus arechavaletai cited above.

20. Malacocarpus islayensis (Förster).

Echinocactus islayensis Förster, Hamb. Gartenz. 17: 100. 1861. Echinocactus molendensis* Vaupel, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 50: Beibl. 111: 24. 1913.

Simple, 5 to 7 cm. in diameter, almost entirely hidden under a mass of spines, woolly at the apex; ribs numerous, 59 to 25, low and obtuse; areoles approximate, 2 to 4 mm. apart, brown-felted when young; radial spines 8 to 22, spreading, 1 to 10 mm. long; central spines 4 to 7, stouter than the radials, straight, 12 to 16 mm. long, grayish to horn-colored; flowers small, 1.5 to 2 cm. long, yellow; outer perianth-segments reddish; scales on ovary and flower-tube bearing in their axils long hairs and long reddish bristles.

Type locality: Province of Islay, southern Peru. Distribution: Southern Peru.

In 1914, while traveling in Peru, Dr. Rose made a special trip to Mollendo to recollect Echinocactus molendensis which he found quite common on the hills above the town (Rose, No. 18999). A careful study of this material, some of which was sent home alive, leads us to believe that it is the same as Echinocactus islayensis.

Plate xxii, figure 4, is from a plant collected by Dr. Rose near Mollendo, Peru, in 1914.

21. Malacocarpus strausianus (Schumann).

Echinocactus strausianus Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 112. 1901.

Globular to short-cylindric, dull grayish green, up to 16 cm. high, very spiny; ribs about 13, more or less tuberculate, obtuse; spines 9 to 20, subulate, the longest 3 cm. long, reddish brown; central spines 1 to several; flower 1.5 cm. long, opening for at least 2 days, closing at night; outer perianth-segments brownish, 2.5 cm. long; inner perianth-segments about 20, linear-oblong, acute, deep salmon; filaments erect; style white; stigma-lobes linear, cream-colored; scales on ovary and flower-tube white-woolly and bristly in their axils.

Type locality: Argentina. Distribution: Western Argentina.

This species is common about Mendoza, Argentina; specimens sent from there by Dr. Rose in 1915 (No. 21019) first flowered in the New York Botanical Garden in May 1917. It is named for Kaufmann Straus.

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 107; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f.

16, as Echinocactus strausianus.

22. Malacocarpus haselbergii (F. Haage).

Echinocactus haselbergii F. Haage in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 563. 1885.

Simple, bright green, globose or somewhat depressed, 7 to 8 cm. in diameter; ribs 30 or more, somewhat tuberculate, more or less spiraled; radial spines about 20, acicular, white, almost bristle-like, 1 cm. long; central spines 3 to 5 pale yellow; flowers small, 2.5 to 3 cm. broad, red without, variegated within; flower-tube very short or none; stamens yellow, included; stigma-lobes 6, erect; scales of ovary small, woolly, and setose in their axils.

Type locality: Not cited in original description, but afterwards said to be the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

*This species was named for the town, Mollendo, and, therefore, should have been spelled with two l's.

Distribution: Southern Brazil.

There is much uncertainty regarding the limitations of this species and also regarding its generic

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