Illustrations

PLATES FAcING

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Plate i. Plant of Ferocactus wislizeni near Pima Canyon, Arizona Frontispiece

Plate 2. (1) Top of flowering plant of Echinocereus coccineus. (2) Flower of same. (3) Flowering plant of Echinocereus chloranthus. (4) Flowering plant of Echinocereus viridiflorus. (5) Flowering plant of Echinocereus maritimus 14

Plate 3. (1) Top of flowering plant of Echinocereus pentalophus. (2) Flowering plant of Echinocereus fitchii.

(3) Top of flowering plant of Echinocereus grandis. (4) Flowering plant of Echinocereus blanckii 22

Plate 4. (1) Top of flowering plant of Echinocereus sciurus. (2) Flowering plant of Lobivia cinnabarina. (3) Flowering plant of Echinocereus fendleri. (4) Top of flowering plant of Echinocereus lloydii.

(5) Flowering plant of Rebutia minuscnla 36

Plate 5. (1) Top of flowering plant of Echinocereus engelmannii. (2) Flowering plant of Lobivia corbula. (3)

Flowering plant of Lobivia pentlandii. (4) Flowering plant of Lobivia lateritia 56

Plate 6. (1) Top of flowering plant of Echinopsis turbinata. (2) Flowering plant of Echinopsis multiplex .. 64 Plate 7. (1) Top of flowering plant of Echinopsis silvestrii. (2) Top of flowering plant of Echinopsis leucantha 68

Plate 8. (1) Top of flowering plant of Pediocactus simpsonii. (2) Flower of Denmoza rhodacantha. (3) Flowering plant of Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus. (4) Top of flowering plant of Neoporteria subgibbosa 78

Plate 9. (1) Plant of Lophophora williamsii. (2) Plant of Ariocarpus retusus 84

Plate 10. (1) Flowering plant of Echinopsis aurea. (2) Flowering plant of Copiapoa coquimbana. (3) Flowering plant of Lophophora williamsii. (4) Flowering plant of same 86

Plate ii. (i) Plant of Ferocactus pringlei. (2) Plant of Ferocactus diguetii 122

Plate 12. (1) Top of flowering plant of Ferocactus townsendianus. (2) Top of flowering plant of Ferocactus wislizeni. (3) Flower of Ferocactus diguetii 124

Plate 13. (1) Plant of Ferocactus flavovirens. (2) Plant of Ferocactus latispinus 126

Plate 14. (1) Flowering plant of Ferocactus viridescens. (2) Top of flowering plant of Ferocactus rectispinus 128

Plate 15. (1 and 2) Plants of Ferocactus acanthodes 130

Plate 16. (1) Top of flowering plant of Ferocactus hamatacanthus. (2) Flowering plant of Sclerocactus whipplei. (3) Top of flowering plant of Ferocactus latispinus 146

Plate 17. (1) Flowering plant of Gymnocalycium saglione. (2) Top of flowering plant of Gymnocalycium mostii. (3) Flower of same 158

Plate 18. (1) Flowering plant of Gymnocalycium megalothelos. (2) Top of flowering plant of Gymnocalycium platense. (3) Flowering plant of Gymnocalycium multiflorum 160

Plate 19. (1) Top of flowering plant of Gymnocalycium platense. (2) Top of flowering plant of Gymnocalycium schickendantzii. (3) Top of flowering plant of Homalocephala texensis. (4) Fruit of same. (5)

Seed of same 164

Plate 20. (1) Top of flowering plant of Malacocarpus tephracanthus. (2) Flowering plant of Malacocarpus ottonis. (3) Flowering plant of Echinocactus horizonthalonius. (4) Fruit of same. (5) Seed of same 174

Plate 21. (1) Flowering plant of Astrophytum capiicorne. (2) Top of flowering plant of Malacocarpus tephracanthus 190

Plate 22. (1) Top of flowering plant of Malacocarpus mammulosus. (2) Fruiting plant of Mila caespitosa.

(3) Flowering plant of Astrophytum myriostigma. (4) Fruiting plant of Malacocarpus islayensis 202

Plate 23. (1) Flowering plant of Hickenia microsperma. (2) Flowering plant of Malacocarpus ottonis. (3) Fruit of Sclerocactus polyancistrus. (4) Seed of same. (5) Flowering plant of Echinofossulocactus violaciflorus 208

Plate 24. (1) Plant of Cactus lemairei. (2) Fruiting plant of Cactus harlowii. (34) Crown of same plant in flower and fruit. (4) Flowering plant of Discocactus bahiensis. (5) Plant of Cactus melocactoides 226

TEXT-FIGURES.

page.

Fig. 1. Flower of Echinocereus delaetii 6

2. Plant of Echinocereus scheeri 7

3. Plant of Echinocereus salm-dyckianus . 7

4. Plant of Echinocereus mojavensis 8

5. Top of plant of Echinocereus leeanus . . 9

6. Potted plant of Echinocereus triglochi-

diatus 10

7. Plant of Echinocereus triglochidiatus .. 10

8. Flower of Echinocereus polyacanthus .. 11

9. Flower of Echinocereus pacificus 11

10. Flower of Echinocereus neo-mexicanus 11

11. Top of joint of Echinocereus conoideus 11

12. Top of plant of Echinocereus polyacanthus. 11

13. Potted plant of Echinocereus rosei 15

14. Potted plant of Echinocereus maritimus 15

15. Plant of Echinocereus subinermis 16

16. Plant of Echinocereus luteus 17

17. Potted plant of Echinocereus viridiflorus 17

18. Potted plant of Echinocereus grandis . . 18

19. Potted plant of Echinocereus dasya-

canthus 18

20. Plant of Echinocereus ctenoides 20

20«.Top of plant of Echinocereus pentalo-

phus 20

21. Plant of Echinocereus blanckii 21

22. Potted plant of Echinocereus adustus .. 24

23. Potted plant of Echinocereus standleyi . 24

24. Potted plant of Echinocereus perbellus . 25

25. Plant of Echinocereus reichenbachii ... 25

26. Plant of Echinocereus reichenbachii ... 27

27. Potted plant of Echinocereus baileyi ... 27

28. Plant of Echinocereus rigidissimus 28

29. Plant of Echinocereus rigidissimus 28

30. Flowers of Echinocereus rigidissimus . . 29

31. Plant of Echinocereus rigidissimus 29

32. Plant of Echinocereus weinbergii 29

33. Plant of Echinocereus pectinatus 30

34. Plant of Echinocereus scopulorum 31

35. Flower of Echinocereus roetteri 31

36. Spine-clusters of Echinocereus roetteri 31

37. Plant of Echinocereus chlorophthalmus 32

38. Plant of Echinocereus knippelianus ... 32

39. Plant of Echinocereus pulchellus 33

40. Potted plant of Echinocereus amoenus . 33

41. Potted plant of Echinocereus brandegeei 34

42. Top of plant of Echinocereus hempelii . 34

43. Potted plant of Echinocereus merkeri . . 36

44. Plant of Echinocereus fendleri 36

45. Potted plant of Echinocereus fendleri .. 37

46. Potted plant of Echinocereus lloydii ... 37

47. Potted plant of Echinocereus sarisso-

phorus 38

48. Flower of Echinocereus dubius 39

49. Flower of Echinocereus enneacanthus . 39

50. Potted plant of Echinocereus conglom-

eratus 40

51. Potted plant of Echinocereus stramineus 41

52. Flower of Echinocereus stramineus. ... 41

53. Fruit of Echinocereus stramineus 41

54. Potted plant of Echinocereus mamillatus 42

55. Plant of Echinocereus longisetus 42

55 «.Plant of Echinocereus sp 42

56. Plant of Austrocactus bertinii 44

57. Potted plant of Rebutia minuscula 46

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Fig. 58. Potted plant of Rebutia pseudominuscula. 46

59. Plant of Rebutia fiebrigii 46

60. Two plants and spine-cluster of Rebutia pygmaea 47

60«.Plant and section of stem of Rebutia steinmannii 47

61. Plant of Chamaecereus silvestrii 48

62. Plant of Lobivia bruchii 50

63. Potted plant of Lobivia ferox 51

64. Potted plant of Lobivia longispina 51

65. Fruit of Lobivia longispina 52

66. Flower of Lobivia shaferi 52

67. Potted plant of Lobivia boliviensis 52

68. Potted plant of Lobivia cachensis 52

69. Plants of Lobivia shaferi 53

70. Potted plant of Lobivia saltensis 53

71. Plant of Lobivia pentlandii 55

72. Potted plant of Lobivia andalgalensis .. 55

73. Potted plant of Lobivia haematantha . . 57

74. Potted plant of Lobivia thionanthus ... 57

75. Flower of Lobivia andalgalensis 58

76. Flower of Lobivia grandis 58

77. Potted plant of Lobivia chionanthus ... 58

78. Potted plant of Lobivia grandis 58

79. Plant of Lobivia cumingii 59

80. Plant of Echinopsis meyeri 62

81. Potted plant of Echinopsis mirabilis ... 62

82. Plant of Echinopsis oxygona 62

83. Potted plant of Echinopsis tubiflora ... 65

84. Plant of Echinopsis silvestrii 68

85. Plant of Echinopsis calochlora 68

86. Plant of Echinopsis ancistrophora 69

87. Fruit of Echinopsis shaferi 69

88. Top of plant of Echinopsis spegazziniana 70

89. Plant of Echinopsis shaferi 70

90. Plant of Echinopsis fiebrigii 71

91. Plant of Echinopsis rhodotricha 71

92. Top of plant of Echinopsis obrepanda. . 73

93. Plant of Denmoza rhodacantha 79

94. Plant of Ariocarpus retusus 81

95. Plant of Ariocarpus fissuratus 81

96. Plant of Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus .. 82

97. Plant of Lophophora williamsii 84

98. Plant of Copiapoa cinerea 86

99. Top of plant of Copiapoa marginata ... 86

100. Plant of Copiapoa echinoides 88

101. Plant of Pediocactus simpsonii 88

102. Plant of Epithelantha micromeris 93

103. Plant of Neoporteria nidus 95

104. Plant of Neoporteria occulta 95

105. Plant of Neoporteria nigricans 96

106. Plant of Neoporteria fusca 96

107. Plant of Neoporteria jussieui 97

108. Plant of Neoporteria chilensis 97

109. Plants of Matucana haynei 103

110. Fruit of Hamatocactus setispinus 104

111. ,Flower of Hamatocactus setispinus ... 104

112. Plant of Hamatocactus setispinus 104

113. Plants of Hamatocactus setispinus 105

114. Plant of Hamatocactus setispinus 105

115. Plant of Strombocactus disciformis . ... 106

116. Plant of Strombocactus disciformis . . . . 106

117. Plant of Leuchtenbergia principis 107

ii7«.Plant of Leuchtenbergia principis 108

PAGE.

fig. 118. Plant of Echinofossulocactus lloydii ... 112

119. Plant of Echinofossulocactus zacateca-

sensis 113

120. Potted plant of Echinofossulocactus arrigens 113

121. Plant of Echinofossulocactus violaciflorus

122. Plant of Echinofossulocactus obvallatus 116

123. Plant of Echinofossulocactus crispatus . 116

124. Plant of Echinofossulocactus phyllacan-

thus 119

125. Potted plant of Echinofossulocactus lancifer 119

126. Plant of Echinofossulocactus gladiatus . 120

127. Plant of Echinofossulocactus confusus . 120

128. Section of rib of Ferocactus stainesii ... 124

129. Flower of Ferocactus pringlei 225

130. Cluster of spines of Ferocactus pringlei. 125

131. Plant of Ferocactus pringlei 125

i3i«.Plant of Ferocactus wislizeni 125

132. Plant of Ferocactus fordii 126

133. Potted plant of Ferocactus townsendianus i26

134. Plant of Ferocactus acanthodes 130

135. Plants of Ferocactus acanthodes 130

136. Plants of Ferocactus acanthodes i3i

137. Plants of Ferocactus acanthodes i3i

138. Plant of Ferocactus covillei 233

139. Plant of Ferocactus covillei 133

140. Spine-clusters of Ferocactus peninsulae 134

141. Flower of Ferocactus robustus i34

142. Spine-clusters of Ferocactus rectispinus 135

143. Plant of Ferocactus robustus 136

144. Plant of Ferocactus echidne 136

145. Potted plant of Ferocactus alamosanus . 137

146. Plant of Ferocactus melocactiformis ... 139

147. Plant of Ferocactus macrodiscus 140

148. Plants of Ferocactus viridescens 141

149. Plants of Ferocactus johnsonii 142

150. Flower of Ferocactus nobilis i42

i52. Plant of Ferocactus crassihamatus i44

152. Potted plant of Ferocactus hamatacanthus i44

153. Potted plant of Ferocactus uncinatus... 145 i53«.Potted plant of Ferocactus uncinatus. . . 145 i53$.Plant of Ferocactus rostii 147

154. Potted plant of Echinomastus erecto-

centrus i48

155. Plant of Echinomastus unguispinus ... 148

156. Plants of Echinomastus intertextus . ... 149

157. Plant of Echinomastus dasyacanthus .. 151

158. Potted plant of Echinomastus mac-

dowellii 151

159. Plant of Gymnocalycium mihanovichii. 153

160. Plant of Gymnocalycium netrelianum . 153

161. Plant of Gymnocalycium guerkeanum . 155

162. Plant of Gymnocalycium spegazzinii . . 155

163. Plant of Gymnocalycium denudatum .. 156

164. Plant of Gymnocalycium leeanum 156

165. Potted plant of Gymnocalycium sa-

glione i57

166. Potted plant of Gymnocalycium gib-

bosum i57

pAGE.

fig. 167. Potted plant of Gymnocalycium mul-

tiflorum i59

168. Plant of Gymnocalycium anisitsii 160

169. Plant of Gymnocalycium monvillei. . . . i60

170. Plant of Gymnocalycium monvillei. . . . i6i

171. Plant of Gymnocalycium melanocarpum i6i

172. Plant of Gymnocalycium uruguayense . 161

173. Potted plant of Gymnocalycium mega-

lothelos i62

174. Plant of Gymnocalycium kurtzianum . . i62

175. Plant of Gymnocalycium damsii i63

176. Potted plant of Gymnocalycium platense 164

177. Potted plant of Gymnocalycium platense 164

178. Plant of Gymnocalycium platense i65

179. Plant of Gymnocalycium schickendantzii i65

180. Plant of Gymnocalycium stuckertii. ... 165

181. Potted plant of Gymnocalycium schicken-

dantzii i65

182. Plant of Echinocactus grusonii 168

183. Top of plant of Echinocactus grusonii . 168

184. Flower of Echinocactus grusonii 168

185. Flowers of Echinocactus ingens i69

186. Plant of Echinocactus ingens i69

187. Top of plant of Echinocactus visnaga . . 171

188. Potted plant of Echinocactus palmeri .. 172

189. Rib of plant of Echinocactus palmeri . . i72

190. Top of plant of Echinocactus xeranthe-

moides i73

191. Plants of Echinocactus polycephalus. . . 174

192. Potted plant of Homalocephala texensis 181

193. Plant of Astrophytum myriostigma. . . . 183

194. Plant of Astrophytum asterias 184

195. Plant of Astrophytum asterias 184

196. Plant of Astrophytum ornatum 185

197. Plant of Eriosyce ceratistes i86

198. Plant of Malacocarpus tephracanthus .. 189

199. Plant of Malacocarpus schumannianus . 189

200. Plant of Malacocarpus grossei i90

201. Plant of Malacocarpus napinus 190

202. Plant of Malacocarpus reichei i9i

203. Plant of Malacocarpus tephracanthus . . 191

204. Potted plant of Malacocarpus apricus . . 192

205. Plant of Malacocarpus tabularis 192

206. Plant of Malacocarpus pulcherrimus . . . i94

207. Plant of Malacocarpus muricatus i94

208. Plant of Malacocarpus linkii 195

209. Plant of Malacocarpus ottonis 195

210. Plant of Malacocarpus ottonis i96

211. Plants of Malacocarpus ottonis i96

212. Potted plant of Malacocarpus catamar-

censis i97

213. Plant of Malacocarpus patagonicus . . . . i97

214. Potted plant of Malacocarpus patagoni-

cus i98

215. Top of plant of Malacocarpus patagoni-

cus i98

216. Plant of Malacocarpus erinaceus 199

217. Plant of Malacocarpus langsdorffii 199

218. Top of plant of Malacocarpus mam-

mulosus 200

TEXT-FIGURES—continued.

page.

Fig. 219. Top of plant of Malacocarpus mammu-

losus 200

220. Potted plant of Hickenia microsperma . 207

221. Potted plant of Hickenia microsperma . 207

222. Plant of Hickenia microsperma 208

223. Plant of Frailea pumila 209

224. Plant of Sclerocactus polyancistrus 214

225. Flower of Utahia sileri 215

226. Flower scale of Utahia sileri 215

227. Spine cluster of Utahia sileri 215

228. Plant of Discocactus subnudus 216

229. Flowering plant of Discocactus alteolens 216

230. Flowering plant of Discocactus hartman-

nii 217

231. Plant of Cactus broadwayi 217

232. Plant of Discocactus heptacanthus 218

233. Plant of Discocactus placentiformis ... 218

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Fig. 234. Flowering plant of Discocactus placenti formis 219

235. Plant of Cactus lemairei 225

236. Plant of Cactus broadwayi 225

237. Potted plant of Cactus ruestii 227

238. Flowering plant of Cactus melocactoides 228

239. Plant of Cactus maxonii 228

240. Plants of Cactus salvador 229

241. Plant of Cactus intortus 230

242. Plant of Cactus intortus 230

243. Plant of Cactus intortus 231

244. Plant of Cactus caesius 233

245. Plants of Cactus caesius 234

246. Plant of Cactus caesius 235

247. Potted plant of Cactus caesius 235

248. Plant of Cactus zehntneri 236

249. Plant of Cactus sp 236

250. Plant of Cactus neryi 237

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