Hamatocactus setispinus Engelmann

Echinocactus setispinus Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 5: 246. 1845. Echinocactus muehlenpfordtii Fennel, Allg. Gartenz. 15: 65. 1847. Echinocactus hamatus Mühlenpfordt, Allg. Gartenz. 6: 8. 1848. Not Forbes, 1837. Echinocactus setispinus hamatus Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 6: 201. 1850. Echinocactus setispinus setaceus Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 6: 201. 1850. Echinocactus setispinus cachetianus Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 203. 1853. Echinocactus hamulosus Regel, Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 34. 1856.

Echinopsis nodosa Linke, Wochenschr. Gartn. Pflanz. 1: 85. 1858.

Echinocactus nodosus Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1: 535. 1880.

Echinocactus setispinus muhlenpfordii Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 370. 1896.

Echinocactus setispinus mierensis Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 340. 1898.

Echinocactus setispinus orcuttii Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 340. 1898.

Plants up to 15 cm. high, with long fibrous roots; ribs usually 13, more or less oblique, thin, high, undulate on the margin; radial spines 12 to 16, slender, often 4 cm. long, some white, others brownish; central spines 1 to 3, longer than radials; flower 4 to 7 cm. long, yellow, with a red center; inner perianth-segments oblong, acute, widely spreading; fruit 8 mm. in diameter, nearly naked; seeds 1.2 to 1.6 mm. in diameter.

Type locality: Thickets along the Colorado River, Texas.

Distribution: Southern Texas and northern Mexico.

Two species or very distinct forms pass under E. setispinus; both are common about Brownsville, Texas, and some very fine plants and photographs have recently been sent us by Mr. Robert Runyon. He believes that they are distinct species and the extreme forms are certainly very different. The two forms, however, grow at the same locality under the

Hamatocactus Setispinus
Figs. 113 and 114.—Hamatocactus setispinus.

same conditions and so far as we know have the same flowers and fruits. Engelmann, too, had noted the differences and gave them the varietal names, hamatus and setaceus. It will require still further field work before we can reach a definite conclusion regarding the limits of this species.

According to Engelmann (Cact. Mex. Bound. 21), this species was sent to him by Berlandier as Cactus bicolor and Schumann refers to it as Echinocactus bicolor Berlandier (Gesamtb. Kakteen 339. 1898). It is, however, very different from Cactus bicolor Berlandier (Mem. Comm. Limites 1. 1832).

Echinocactus cachetianus (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 202. 1853), although not described in the place cited, is probably to be referred here. It is described, however, in GartenZeitung (4: 173. 1885). E. cachetianus orcuttii is given as a synonym of E. setispinus orcuttii by Schelle (Handb. Kakteenk. 159. 1907). At the same place Schelle lists the variety E. setispinus martelii Garde frèr. Echinocactus marisianus Galeotti, a manuscript name, is referred here by Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 339. 1898).

Illustrations: Cact. Journ. 1: pl. for March; 181; Wiener Ill. Gart. Zeit. 29: f. 22, No. 4; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 131; 15: 73; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 522. f. 65; 523. f. 66; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 20; Meehan's Monthly 9: pl. 6; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 474. f. 6, No. 23; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 59; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 158. f. 87, as Echinocactus setispinus; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: pl. 9; Gartenwelt 9: 266, as Echinocactus cachetianus; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 474. f. 6, No. 29, as Echinocactus setispinus longispinus.

Figures 110 and 111 show a flower and fruit copied from plate 20 of Cactaceae of the Mexican Boundary; figures 112 and 113 are from photographs made by Robert Runyon at Brownsville, Texas; figure 114 is from a photograph of a plant sent from Brownsville by Robert Runyon.

13. STROMBOCACTUS gen. nov.

A low, depressed, nearly spineless cactus, with imbricated chartaceous scale-like tubercles; flowers small, central, subcampanulate, nearly white; scales on the flower-tube with thin papery margins; scales on the ovary only near the top, small; fruit nearly naked; seeds small.

Type species: Mammillaria disciformis De Candolle.

One species is known, native of Mexico.

The generic name is from orpömßog top, and KCCKtog cactus, referring to the shape of the plant.

Figs. 115 and 116.—Strombocactus disciformis.

1. Strombocactus disciformis (De Candolle).

Mammillaria disciformis De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 114. 1828.

Echinocactus turbiniformis Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 6: 275. 1838.

Echinofossulocactus turbiniformis Lawrence in Loudon, Gard. Mag. 17: 318. 1841.

Mammillaria turbinata Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 69: pl. 3984. 1843.

Cactus disciformis Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 260. 1891.

Cactus turbinatus Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 261. 1891.

Anhalonium turbiniforme Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 90. 1893.

Echinocactus disciformis Schumann in Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: 189. 1894.

Plants small, depressed, turbinate or semi-globose, 5 to 6 cm. broad; tubercles somewhat charta-ceous, imbricate, more or less winged, bearing 1 to 4, white, acicular spines when young, naked when old; young areoles with white wool, naked in age; flowers from center of plant, 2 cm. long or less; scales and outer perianth-segments dark red, with whitish margins; inner perianth-segments white, lanceolate, acute, spreading; filaments much shorter than the inner perianth-segments, purple; stigma-lobes about 7, long, twisted; ovary naked except at the top, small; fruit 7 mm. long; seeds 3 mm. in diameter.

Type locality: Mineral del Monte, Mexico.

Distribution: Central Mexico.

This plant was collected by Dr. Rose in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, in 1905, and has repeatedly flowered each spring since 1906. It is called pellote or peyote in Mexico.

Echinocactus helianthodiscus Lemaire (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 17. 1845), given as a synonym of Echinocactus turbiniformis, was never described.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 39, a; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 77; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 119; 12: 91; Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 3; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 203. f. 136, as Echinocactus turbiniformis; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 69: pl. 3984, as Mammillaria turbinata.

Figure 115 is from a photograph of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at Higuerillas, Queretaro, Mexico, in 1905; figure 116 is copied from the plate in the Blühende Kakteen cited above.

Fig. 117.—Leuchtenbergia principis.

14. LEUCHTENBERGIA Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 74: pl. 4393. 1848.

A low, simple or cespitose cactus, with a thickened woody base; tubercles finger-like, slender, much elongated, arranged in indefinite spirals; areoles on the ends of the tubercles; spines several, weak, often papery; flowers from near the center of the plant, large, yellow, funnelform-campanulate; scales on the ovary few, broad, naked in their axils; fruit probably dehiscing by a basal pore.

Type species: Leuchtenbergia principis Hooker.

The genus contains but one species; both genus and species were named for Eugène de Bauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg and Prince of Eichstadt, a French soldier and statesman (1781-1824). The generic name is usually credited to Hooker and Fischer, but a careful examination of the early literature indicates that the plant was first described by Sir William Hooker in 1848 who says, "I willingly adopt a name by which the plant is known on the continent." In 1850 it is described by Fischer as his own genus.

This genus is closely related to Echinocactus and its segregates, having very similar flowers and fruits, but in its elongated angled tubercles it looks very unlike any of them. Engelmann suggested, although he never saw the fruit, that it might be a subgenus of Mammillaria.

1. Leuchtenbergia principis Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 74: pl. 4393. 1848.

Plants up to 5 dm. high, 5 to 7 cm. in diameter, with a large simple or branched tap-root, often 12 cm. long; tubercles erect, ascending or widely spreading, very woolly in their axils, bluish green, 10 to 12.5 cm. long, more or less 3-angled, nearly truncate at apex, gradually dying off below and leaving broad scars on the trunk; spines papery, thin; radial spines 8 to 14, about 5 cm. long; central spines 1 or 2, sometimes 10 cm. long; flowers lasting for several days, fragrant, solitary, from just below the tips of the young tubercles, more or less funnelform, the limb when widely expanded 10 cm. broad; outer perianth-segments reddish with a brown stripe down the middle; inner perianth-segments oblong, acute, serrate at apex; stamens and style somewhat exserted: stigma-lobes 9 to 12, linear; fruit probably dry; seeds dark brown, minutely tuberculate.

Fig. 117 a.—Leuchtenbergia principis.

Type locality: Real del Monte (not Rio del Monte), Hidalgo, Mexico.

Distribution: Central to northern Mexico.

Hooker's plant came from Real del Monte, Hidalgo, where it was obtained by John Taylor. This is the only locality cited by Hemsley in the Biologia. It has been reported from the states of San Luis Potosí, Guanajuato, Zacatecas, and Coahuila. This is a wide distribution for the species. We have never seen plants from near the type locality.

In appearance this plant is very unlike any of the other cacti. Hooker speaks of its resemblance to some aloid plant with stems like those of some cycads. It is said to be used by the Mexicans as a medicine.

The plant was called by Hooker noble leuchtenbergia and also agave cactus.

Dr. C. A. Purpus writes that he found this plant in slate and lime formation in the Sierra de la Parras near Parras, Coahuila, and still more abundant in the Sierra de la Paila, also in Coahuila. This last station is a very inaccessible desert mountain range, almost without water; vegetation is here very scanty. This species is associated with other cacti and with Agave lophantha, which it resembles in its habit more than it does that of its own relatives.

Illustrations: Palmer, Cult. Cact. 125; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 74: pl. 4393; Cact. Journ. 1: 149; Dict. Gard. Nicholson Suppl. f. 515; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: f. 23; Krook, Handb. Cact. 30; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 9; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 5, 78; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 77; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: f. 66; Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 2: f. 1269; Amer. Gard. 11: 464; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. f. 137; Möllers, Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 477. f. 11, No. 5; 29: 90. f. 12; 91. f. 13; Garten-Zeitung 4: 182. f. 42, No. 9; 286. f. 66; Gard. Chron. 1873: 1116. f. 240; III. 29: f. 63; Belg. Hort. 5: pl. 40; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 2: 610. f. 720; 4: f. 2139; Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 158; Rümpler, Sukkulenten 192. f. 108; Goebel, Pflanz. Schild. 1: pl. 2, f. 1; Gartenwelt 5: 110; Watson, Cact. Cult. 186. f. 74; ed. 3. f. 5,; Thomas, Zimmerkultur Kakteen; Remark, Kakteenfreund 21.

Figure 11 is copied from plate 4393 of the Botanical Magazine; figure 117a is from a photograph of a plant sent by Dr. Elswood Chaffey from Zacatecas, Mexico, in 1910.

15. ECHINOFOSSULOCACTUS Lawrence in Loudon, Gard. Mag. 17: 317. 1841.

Mostly rather small plants, rarely over 10 cm. in diameter, but generally much smaller, usually solitary, rarely clustered, deep-seated in the ground, globular or depressed, or very old plants becoming short-cylindric; ribs usually numerous, in one species as few as 10, in others 50 to 100, usually very thin, more or less wavy; areoles on each rib sometimes only 1 or 2, always felted when young; spines in numerous clusters often covering the plant, some of them strongly flattened and ribbon-like; flowers small, campanulate to subrotate with a very short tube; stamens numerous, shorter than the perianth-segments; scales on the perianth and ovary few to numerous, scarious, naked in their axils; fruit globular to short-oblong, bearing a few papery scales, these perhaps deciduous in age; seeds black with a broad basal truncated hilum.

About 22 species, all native of Mexico, are here recognized, although more than three times as many species of this relationship have been described in Echinocactus. From our field observations the number of species must be larger than here recognized, but the herbarium material is so scanty and the species already described are so many that for the present we have contented ourselves chiefly in describing those which have been illustrated or are represented by preserved material.

Although this genus appears to be very distinct, the species are so little known that we can give only a few of the characters. In the case of one plant which recently fruited in the New York Botanical Garden the fruit splits down one side as in Pediocactus. This may be a common character in the genus and should be looked for whenever possible.

This genus was established by George Lawrence, gardener to the Rev. Theodore Williams at Hendon Vicarage, Middlesex, England, but so far has been overlooked by catalogues. We came upon it while looking through Loudon's Magazine of Gardening for new cactus names. Its publication, however, had been observed and noted by that keen bibliophile, James Britten (Journ. Bot. 54: 338. 1916).

Lawrence numbers 35 species and varieties, most of which are named and briefly described. The genus as he defines it is not a very natural one. He arranges the species in three sections and each section is divided into two subsections.

His first section, Gladiatores, corresponds to Schumann's subgenus Stenocactus of the genus Echinocactus and represents Echinofossulocactus in our treatment, with Echinocactus coptonogonus Lemaire as its type.

The species belonging to his second section (Latispineae) and to his third section are referred elsewhere as synonyms, except the following which we are not able to associate with any of the names of Echinocactus: E. harrisii and E. ignotus-venosus.

Schumann described the group briefly, as follows:

"Ribs mostly moderately high, laterally compressed, almost like cardboard, very many (E. coptonogonus with only 13 to 15); flowers small, like a Mammillaria flower; ovary with scales and glabrous."

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