Ferocactus uncinatus Galeotti

Echinocactus uncinatus Galeotti in Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 18. 1848.

Echinocactus ancylacanthus Monville in Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 201. 1853.

Echinocactus uncinatus wrightii Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 272. 1856.

Echinocactus wrightii Coulter, Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 2: 513. 1900.

Plant short-cylindric, 10 to 20 cm. high, bluish, slightly glaucous, with spindle-shaped roots; ribs usually 13, straight, strongly tubercled, undulate; flowering areoles narrow, extending from the spine-clusters to the base of the tubercles with the flower at the opposite end, felted; areoles also bearing one or more large flat yellow glands, these surrounded by a ring of short yellow hairs; central spine usually solitary, 12 cm. long or less, erect, yellow below, reddish above, hooked at tip; 3 lower radial spines spreading or reflexed, hooked; upper radials straight; flowers brownish, 2 to 2.5 cm. long, widely spreading; perianth-segments numerous, linear-oblong; filaments numerous, short; scales on ovary and flower-tube triangular, scarious-margined, in age broadly auriculate at base; fruit small, oblong, 2 cm. long, at first green, turning brown to crimson and finally scarlet, naked except the appressed scales, somewhat fleshy, edible; seeds black, small, oblong, 1 to 1.5 mm. long, with basal hilum; cotyledons foliaceous.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Rocky ridges and foothill-slopes in western Texas to central Mexico.

This species is doubtfully included in Ferocactus, for it is not closely related to any of those described above. Technically it is different from all the other species in having the tubercles grooved on the upper side and the flower borne at the opposite end of the groove from the spine-cluster. It might be better to segregate it as a generic type.

The glands in the areole described above secrete small drops of a honey-like substance much sought after by bees. While usually found in the groove above the spines and below the flower they are also found on the outer side of the spine-areoles proper. While these glands are usually sessile, they are sometimes elongated and suggest stunted spines. One which we have preserved is 8 mm. long. This species in its short groove above the spine-areole with its sessile gland suggests a relationship with some of the Coryphanthanae.

Illustrations: Dict. Gard. Nicholson Suppl. 336. f. 361 (with flowers of an Echinocereus!); Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 18; Cact. Mex. Bound. Pl. 74, f. 9; Watson, Cact. Cult. 123. f. 47; ed. 3. f. 29, as Echinocactus uncinatus; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 74, f. 10; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 20: 105, as Echinocactus uncinatus wrightii.

Figure 153 is from a photograph of a plant collected by F. E. Lloyd on Escondido Creek near Tuna Springs, Texas, in 1910, which flowered in 1911; figure 153a shows the same plant photographed in December 1920.

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