Ferocactus nobilis Linnaeus

Cactus nobilis Linnaeus, Mantissa 243. 1767.

Cactus recurvus Miller, Dict. Gard. ed. 8. No. 3. 1768.

Echinocactus recurvus Link and Otto, Verh. Var. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: 426. 1827.

Melocactus recurvus Link and Otto, Verh. Var. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: pl. 20. 1827.

Echinocactus spiralis Karwinsky in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 60. 1837.

Echinocactus curvicornis Miquel, Linnaea 12: 5. 1838.

Echinocactus stellatus Scheidweiler, Allg. Gartenz. 8: 338. 1840.

Cereus recurvus Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 1: 335. 1840.

Echinocactus solenacanthus Scheidweiler, Allg. Gartenz. 9: 50. 1841.

Echinofossulocactus recurvus campylacanthus Lawrence in Loudon, Gard. Mag. 17: 318. 1841.

Echinocactus recurvus spiralis Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 348. 1898.

Globular; ribs 15; radial spines straight, widely spreading; central spine solitary, erect, 7 cm. long, broad and flat, recurved at the tip, brownish red; flowers 2.5 to 4 cm. long; perianth-segments narrow, acute, red with white margins; ovary covered with ovate imbricated scales; fruit short, oblong, 2 cm. long, 12 mm. in diameter.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Eastern Mexico.

This species is referred both to Mexico and Peru. It is undoubtedly from eastern Mexico for it is based on Cactus recurvus of Miller. In the original description Miller thus speaks of it, '"The third sort was brought into England by the late Dr. William Houston who procured the plant from Mexico." We do not know this species definitely, but plants collected by Dr. MacDougal and Dr. Rose in Tomellin Canyon, Oaxaca, answer the description, but have flowers up to 4 cm. long.

Fig. 149.—Ferocactus johnsoni. Fig. 150.—Ferocactus nobilis

We have referred here the synonymy given by Schumann, but suspect some of it should be referred elsewhere. Our description is based on Miller's original of Cactus recurvus for the stem and spines and on Pfeiffer's original description of Echinocactus spiralis for the flower and fruit. Schumann's description is somewhat different.

Echinocactus spiralis stellaris Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 21. 1845), Echinocactus stellaris Karwinsky, also mentioned here by Salm-Dyck as a synonym and by Hemsley (Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1: 538. 1880) as a synonym of Echinocactus spiralis, and Melocactus besleri affinis (Förster, Handb. Cact. 320. 1846) doubtless are to be referred here.

Echinocactus multangularis Voigt we do not know. It is cited by Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 348) as a synonym of Echinocactus recurvus, but no place of publication is given. In the only list of Voigt which we have consulted (Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. 1845) he lists three species of this genus, viz. ottonis, eyriesii, and cornigerus. These are followed by Cereus multangularis which suggests that a mistake has been made. Dr. John Hendley Barnhart suggests a different origin for the name of Echinocactus multangularis. It is to be noted that Förster's Handbuch appeared the next year after the appearance of Voigt's Calcutta List. Dr. Barnhart's note is as follows:

"I do not think that you have the correct explanation of the name Echinocactus multangularis Voigt. Schumann's citation of this name as a synonym of E. recurvus appears to me to have been copied from the first edition of Förster's Handbuch (1846), page 316, where under E. recurvus you will find the synonym 'C.' (i. e., 'Cactus') 'multangularis Voigt.' In other words Schumann has simply made the slip of writing 'Echinocactus' instead of Cactus' for the Voigt name. The name 'Cactus multangularis Voigt' seems to go back in literature as one of the synonyms of this species

(and as a synonym only) to Steud. Nom. Bot. Phan. 132. 1821, where it appears as a synonym of Cactus nobilis. I doubt if the name was ever published anywhere, but do not think that at any time in its history it had anything to do with Cereus multangularis."

Echinocactus glaucus Karwinsky (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 57. 1837), although never described, was referred to this species as a synonym. Dr. Rose examined the type of Echinocactus spiralis in Munich in 1912 and believes that it belongs here; Echinocactus agglomeratus (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 60. 1837) was referred as a synonym of Echinocactus spiralis.

The following varieties seem to be only color or spine forms: Echinocactus recurvus latis-pinus, E. recurvus solenacanthus, and E. recurvus tricuspidatus (Förster, Handb. Cact. 317. 1846) and E. recurvus bicolor (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 20: 144. 1910).

Illustrations: Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 162. f. 91; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 16: 73; 21: 149; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 29: 440. f. 16; Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 2: (see 738) pl. 1, sec. 7, f. 4; Knippel, Kakteen pl. 10; R. Grässner, Haupt-Verz. Kakteen 1912: 13, as Echinocactus recurvus; Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 3: pl. 20, as Melocactus recurvus; Rev. Hort. 61: f. 10; Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 19: pl. 16, f. 4, 7, as Echinocactus spiralis.

Figure 150 is copied from the last illustration above cited. 26. Ferocactus latispinus (Haworth).

Cactus latispinus Haworth, Phil. Mag. 63: 41. 1824.

Echinocactus cornigerus P. De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 36. 1828.

Mammillaria latispina Tate in Loudon, Gard. Mag. 16: 26. 1840.

Echinofossulocactus cornigerus Lawrence in Loudon, Gard. Mag. 17: 318. 1841.

Echinofossulocactus cornigerus elatior Lawrence in Loudon, Gard. Mag. 17: 318. 1841.

Echinofossulocactus cornigerus rubrospinus Lawrence in Loudon, Gard. Mag. 17: 318. 1841.

Echinofossulocactus cornigerus angustispinus Lawrence in Loudon, Gard. Mag. 17: 318. 1841.

Echinocactus latispinus Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1: 533. 1880.

Echinocactus latispinus flavispinus Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 467. 1896.

Plant simple, globular or somewhat depressed, 2.5 to 4 dm. high, 4 dm. in diameter; ribs 15 to 23, but usually 21, prominent; areoles large; radial spines 6 to 10, slender, annulate, white to rose, 2 to 2.5 cm. long; central spines 4 or more, stouter and more highly colored than the radials, all straight except one, this much flattened and hooked; flowers campanulate, 2.5 to 3.5 cm. long, rose to purple; perianth-segments narrowly oblong, acute; scales on the ovary closely imbricated, thin and papery, ovate, with thin ciliate margins; scales on flower-tube similar to those on ovary but more elongated; fruit elongated, 4 cm. long (dehiscence not known); seeds described as reniform, slightly pitted, 1.5 mm. long.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Widely distributed in Mexico; reported from Guatemala by De Candolle.

A plant sent to the New York Botanical Garden by A. de Lautreppe from Mexico in 1905 flowered in November 1913, the same flower opening successively for four days.

Echinocactus cornigerus var. flavispinus and var. latispinus (Förster, Handb. Cact. 318. 1846), published as synonyms, belong here.

Melocactus latispinus (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 56. 1837) is also to be referred here. Echinocactus cornigerus Mocino and Sesse (De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 461. 1828) occurs as a synonym of this plant.

Echinocactus corniger rubrispinosus (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 59. 1902) is probably a form of this species.

Illustrations: Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 2: pl. 3, f. 2; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 4, 62; Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: pl. 7; De Candolle, Mem. Cact. pl. 10; Cact. Journ. 1: 54; 2: 173; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 164. f. 94; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 13, f. 6; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 507. f. 60; Dict. Gard. Nicholson 4: 538. f. 19; Suppl. 334. f. 354; Rümpler, Sukkulenten 184. f. 102; Watson, Cact. Cult. 96. f. 31, as Echinocactus cornigerus; Cact. Journ. 1: pl. for March; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 21: 11, as E. corniger flavispinus.

Plate xiii, figure 2, is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal at El Riego, Tehu-acan, Mexico, in 1906; plate xvi, figure 3, shows the flowering top of the plant sent by M. de Lautreppe, above alluded to.

27. Ferocactus crassihamatus (Weber).

Echinocactus crassihamatus Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 468. 1896. Echinocactus mathssonii Berge, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7: 76. 1897.

Simple, globose to short-cylindric, pale green, somewhat glaucous; ribs 13, rather prominent, obtuse, strongly undulate; areoles large, only a few on each rib; radial spines 8, spreading, the upper ones straight, 2 or 3 of the lower ones hooked; central spines 5, longer and stouter than the radials, usually red, the stoutest one porrect and hooked; flowers small, about 2 cm. long, purple; inner perianth-segments linear-oblong, acute.

Fig. 151.—Ferocactus crassihamatus. Fig. 152.—Ferocactus hamatacanthus.

Type locality: Querétaro. Distribution: Querétaro, Mexico.

We know this plant only from descriptions and illustrations; its size is not recorded. The original place of publication of Echinocactus mathssonii, as given by Schumann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3 45. 1893), is without description and must be rejected. In the place we cite above there is only a phrase of description, but he later described it in detail.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 8; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 61, as Echinocactus mathssonii.

Figure 151 is copied from the first illustration above cited.

28. Ferocactus hamatacanthus (Mühlenpfordt).

Echinocactus hamatocanthus* Mühlenpfordt, Allg. Gartenz. 24: 371. 1846. Echinocactusflexispinus Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 111. 1848. Echinocactus longihamatus Galeotti in Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 16. 1848. Echinocactus sinuatus Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 19: 345. 1851. Echinocactus setispinus sinuatus Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 119. 1853. Echinocactus setispinus robustus Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 22: 119. 1853. Echinocactus setispinus longihamatus Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 119. 1853. Echinocactus longihamatus hamatacanthus Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 201. 1853. Echinocactus treculianus Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 202. 1853.

Echinocactus longihamatus gracilispinus Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 273. 1856.

*Originally spelled thus by Mühlenpfordt.

Echinocactus longihamatus crassispinus Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 273. 1856.

Echinocactus longihamatus brevispinus Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 274. 1856.

Echinocactus flavispinus Meinshausen, Wochenschr. Gartn. Pflanz. 1: 28. 1858.

Echinocactus haematochroanthus Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1: 532. 1880.

Echinocactus hamatacanthus longihamatus Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 365. 1896.

Echinocactus hamatacanthus brevispinus Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 366. 1896.

Echinocactus longihamatus sinuatus Weber in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 342. 1898.

Solitary, globular to oblong, up to 60 cm. high; ribs usually 13, sometimes 17, strongly tubercled, 2 to 3 cm. high; areoles large, 1 to 3 cm. apart; radial spines about 12, acicular, terete, 5 to 7 cm. long; central spines 4, elongated, angled, sometimes 15 cm. long, one of them hooked at apex; flowers large, 7 to 8 cm. long, yellow, in some forms said to be scarlet within; fruit oblong, 2 to 5 cm. long, fleshy, edible, dark brown to drab-colored (not red); seeds pitted.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Southern Texas, New Mexico, and northern Mexico.

This species develops elongated glands, 2 to 4 mm. long, in the areoles between the flower and the spines, as do some of the others; these at first are soft, but in age become hard and spine-like. The fruit of this species is unlike that of most other species of the genus; the skin is thin and the flesh juicy and edible.

Echinocactus insignis Haage jr. (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 76. 1905), a name only, was referred by Schumann as a synonym of E. The following names (not described)

usually referred to this sp ecies or one usually referred to this sp

Figs. 153 and 153a.—Ferocactus uncinatus.

of its synonyms: Echinocactus longihamatus sinuatus Weber (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 69. 1902), Echinocactus longihamatus bicolor (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 140. 1893), E. longihamatus deflexispinus (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 69. 1902), E. longihamatus insignis (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 69. 1902), and E. texensis treculianus (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 504. 1885).

Echinocactus deflexispinus Gruson (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 343. 1898) was never described; it was considered by Schumann to be only a form of this species.

Illustrations: Blanc, Cacti 47. No. 556; Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 16; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 159. f. 88; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 9, f. 4; Förster,

Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 513. f. 63; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 78: pl. 4632; Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 9; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 3, 60; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 21 to 24; Watson, Cact. Cult. 109. f. 39, as Echinocactus longihamatus; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 16: 57, as Echino-cactus longihamatus sinuatus; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 74, f. 11 to 14, as Echinocactus sinuatus.

Plate xvi, figure 1, shows the flowering top of a plant sent by Dr. Rose from near Devil's River, Texas, in 1913, which flowered at the New York Botanical Garden in 1916. Figure 152 is from a photograph of a plant sent by Dr. Edward Palmer from Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico, in 1907.

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