Ferocactus acanthodes Lemaire

Echinocactus acanthodes Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 106. 1839.

Echinocactus viridescens cylindraceus Engelmann, Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 338. 1852.

Echinocactus cylindraceus Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 275. 1856.

At first globular but in age cylindric, sometimes nearly 3 meters high, very spiny; ribs numerous, often as many as 27, acute, 1 to 2 cm. high; areoles large, 1 cm. in diameter or more, densely brown-felted when young, closely set, often nearly contiguous; spines often white or pinkish or sometimes bright red; radial spines weak, setiform or acicular, usually pungent, often spreading; central spines subulate, slender, spreading, more or less flattened, annulate, tortuous and more or less curved, but never hooked at the tip, the longest so to 12 cm. long; flowers campanulate, yellow to orange, 4 to 6 cm. long, usually broader than long; scales on the ovary and flower-tube imbricate, ovate, with a large purple blotch on their back, gradually passing upward into the perianth-segments; inner perianth-segments glossy, narrowly oblong to spatulate, obtusish, often toothed; filaments numerous, yellow, papillose; style greenish yellow, swollen below; stigma-lobes 14, yellow, about one-third the length of the style; fruit oblong, 3 cm. long, crowned by the scaly perianth, dry, dehiscing by a basal pore seeds black 3.5 mm long pitted

*The specific name is sometimes incorrectly written E. lecontii or E. lecomtei.

Type locality: California.

Distribution: Deserts of southeastern California, northern Lower California, and southern Nevada.

Living plants from southern California, apparently referable to this species, do not have any bristle-like radial spines, and the stout spines vary greatly in color, from red to nearly white.

The range of this species seems not to be very extensive; Dr. Coulter records it from New Mexico and Texas but this must refer to F. wislizeni. It is nearest F. wislizeni but the spines are never hooked and the seeds are more shining, with stronger reticulations.

Figs. 134 and 135.—Ferocactus acanthodes.

In America this species has long passed under the name of Echinocactus cylindraceus.

The above name, however, is much older and we are following Weber in using it. Weber states that it has long been known as such in French collections and we believe that we are justified in taking up the older name.

It is also found in collections under the name of E. californicus and E. copoldi (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 357. 1898).

Echinocactus cylindraceus albispinus is in the trade (Grässner).

Illustrations: Garten-Zeitung 4: 241. f. 54; 242. f. Gard. Chron. II. 7: 241. f. 39; III. 8: 167. f. 27; Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 5: 209; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 165. f. 95; West Amer. Sci. 7: 68; Gartenwelt 9: 249; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 474. f. 55; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 18; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 123; Cact. Journ. 2: 115; Gartenflora 26: pl. 905 b; 30: 414; Cact. Mex. Bound. Pl. 30; Ill. Gärt. Zeit. 21: 65, as Echinocactus cylindraceus; Cact. Journ. 2: pl. for February, as Echinocactus cylindraceus longispinus.

Plate xv shows two views of the Coachella Desert, three miles northeast of White Water, California, from a photograph taken by Dr. Wm. S. Cooper. Figure 134 is from a

1, 2. Ferocactus acanthodes as seen in the Coachella Desert, Califormia.

photograph taken by Dr. Wm. S. Cooper, between Indio and Palm Springs, California; figure 135 is from a photograph taken also by Dr. Cooper from the east base of the Laguna, May 12, 1919; figure 136 is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal near Palm Springs, California, in 1913; figure 137 is from a photograph taken by S. C. Mason near Andreas Canyon, California, in 1918.

10. Ferocactus santa-maria sp. nov.

Cylindric, 6 dm. high or more; ribs about 14; outer spines several, thread-like; central spines in 2 series, all straight, grayish, all annulate, subulate, the central one stouter, flatter, ascending; somewhat curved at tip; old flowers persisting, 6 to 7 cm. long; fruit 3 to 4 cm. long, bearing orbicular scales; seeds 2 mm. long, finely reticulated.

Collected by J. N. Rose on the shores of Santa Maria Bay, Lower California, May 18, 1913 (No. 16279).

Figs. 136 and 137.—Ferocactus acanthodes.

This plant was seen at only one locality and only small specimens were observed, but much larger ones may be expected. This is a densely armed plant, peculiar in having all the straight dagger-like strong central spines ascending.

According to letters from F. Vaupel, this plant has been in cultivation in Germany for several years, grown from seed, perhaps from the type collection. It is briefly mentioned in the Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde (29: 13. 1919) as Echinocactus santa-maria Rose.

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