Echinopsis shaferi sp nov

Simple, erect, cylindric, up to 1.5 meters high, 16 to 18 cm. in diameter, dark green; ribs 10 to 12, 2 cm. high, separated by acute intervals; areoles approximate, I cm. apart or less; radial spines straight, at first brownish, but Flc. 87.—Fruit of

gray in age, slender, subulate, 6 to 9, 1.5 to 3.5 cm. long, somewhat spreading; Echinopsis shaferi.

central spine solitary, 10 cm. long or less, ascending, somewhat curved, the upper ones more or less connivent over the top of the plant; flower slender, funnelform, 2 dm. long, white; filaments and style pale green; fruit ovoid, 3 cm. long, brick-red.

Collected by J. A. Shafer in sandy thickets, Trancas, Tucuman, Argentina, February 11, 1917 (No. 101).

This is the largest species of the genus known to us. It flowered at the New York Botanical Garden in June 1920. In the new growth the top is very woolly. The top of

Fig. 88.—Echinopsis spegazziniana.

the growing plant is covered with a mass of brown wool arising from the closely set young areoles.

John Adolph Shafer (1863-19 18), an enthusiastic botanical collector, was commissioned by Dr. Britton to visit Argentina in the winter of 1916-1917 and he obtained plants and specimens of great importance in our studies of the cacti.

Figure 89 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Shafer at Trancas, Argentina, in 1917; figure 87 shows the fruit of the plant photographed.

18. Echinopsis fiebrigii Gürke, Notizbl. Bot. Gärt. Berlin

Stems simple, depressed-globose, 9 cm. high, 15 cm. broad; ribs 18 to 24, strongly crenate, broken into long tubercles, 1.5 cm. high; radial spines 8 to 10, 10 to 25 mm. long, recurved; central spine one, curved, ascending; flowers 17 to 19 cm. long, the tube nearly cylindric; outer perianth-segments green, spreading; inner perianth-segments white, short, broad, obtuse or truncate: filaments white; style green stigma-lobes 11, green, 15 to 17 mm. long.

Type locality: Bolivia.

Distribution: Bolivia.

The plant is known to us only from description and illustrations. „ „ , . . , c .

Fig. 89.—Echinopsis shaieri.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 100; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 16: 27; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 475. f. 7, No. 10.

Figure 90 is copied from the first illustration above cited.

19. Echinopsis rhodotricha Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 147. 1900.

Echinopsis rhodotricha robusta R. Meyer, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 24: 113. 1914.

Cespitose, dull grayish green, with 8 to 10 erect or ascending cylindric stems, 3 to 8 dm. high, 9 cm. in diameter, or sometimes simple in cultivation; ribs 8 to 13, rather low, a little sinuate; areoles 15 to 25 mm. apart; radial spines 4 to 7, widely spreading, a little curved, yellowish with brown tips, 2 cm. long; central spine one, 2.5 cm. long, shorter than the radials, or wanting, somewhat bent upward; flowers 15 cm. long; inner perianth-segments white, oblong, acute; stigma-lobes linear, 11, green.

Fig. 90.—Echinopsis fiebrigii. Fig. 91.—Echinopsis rhodotricha.

Type locality: Arroyo La Cruz, near San Salvador, Rio Tagatiya-mi, Paraguay.

Distribution: Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.

Spegazzini states (Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 488. 1905) that Schumann first named this species Echinopsis spegazzinii, but as such it has not been formally published.

The variety Echinopsis rhodotricha argentiniensis R. Meyer (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 21: 188. 1911) seems to differ from the type in its shorter, darker stems with radial spines. It was introduced from Argentina and is now offered in the trade.

The variety Echinopsis rhodotricha roseiflora Schumann (Bull. Herb. Bois. II. 3: 251. 1903) comes from near Concepción, Paraguay, and is described as having pale rose-colored inner perianth-segments.

The variety robusta is offered for sale by R. Grassner.

The plant is known to us only from description and illustrations.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 76; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 11; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 139 Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 475. f. 7, No. 8.

Figure 91 is copied from the first illustration above cited.

20. Echinopsis leucantha (Gillies) Walpers, Repert. Bot. 2: 324. 1843.

Echinocactus leucanthus Gillies in Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 341. 1834.

Cereus incurvispinus Otto and Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 3: 244. 1835.

Cereus leucanthus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 71. 1837.

Echinonyctanthus leucanthus Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 85. 1839.

Echinopsis campylacantha Pfeiffer in Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. 1: under pl. 4. 1839.

Echinopsis salpigophora* Lemaire in Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 181. 1850.

Echinopsispolyacantha Monville in Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 302. 1853.

Echinopsis campylacantha leucantha Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 305. 1853.

Echinopsis campylacantha stylodes Monville in Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 305. 1853.

Echinopsis simplex Niedt, Allg. Gartenz. 25: 237. 1857.

Echinopsis melanopotamica Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 492. 1905.

Stems globose to oblong, about 3.5 dm. high; ribs 12 to 14, somewhat compressed; areoles close together, oblong; radial spines 8, more or less curved, brownish; central spine 1, curved, elongated, often 10 cm. long; flowers about 16 cm. long, described as up to 20 cm. long; the tube about 3 cm. broad at the mouth, dark brown, with scattered areoles bearing small tufts of brown hairs; outer perianth-segments brownish, spreading, 2 cm. long, with an acute scarious tip; inner perianth-segments in about 3 series, spreading, the outer ones purplish, the innermost ones nearly white, oblong, acute, about 3 cm. long; filaments in many series of many lengths, the series at the mouth of the flower-tube erect, 1.5 cm. long; style included; stigma-lobes numerous, green.

Type locality: Mendoza (fide Pfeiffer).

Distribution: Western Argentina.

Weber (Dict. Hort. Bois 471. 1896) gives Echinopsis yacutulana Weber as a synonym of E. leucantha. Echinocactus salpigophorus (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 302. 1853) was given as a synonym of Echinopsis salpingophora.

Although Echinocactus leucanthus, with Melocactus ambiguus Pfeiffer as a synonym, appeared in 1833 (Allg. Gartenz. 1: 364), it was not actually published until the following year.

Echinopsis polyacantha Monville (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 302. 1853) and E. stylosa Monville (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 241. 1897) are given by Schumann as synonyms of this species, but neither was published and the latter was not cited at the place mentioned by Schumann. It has been briefly described as a variety and will be found in the synonymy above as stylodes. E. campylacantha with its two forms longispina and brevispina are assigned to R. Meyer (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5 36. 1895), who as a matter of fact published only the names Echinopsis poselgeri var. brevispina and var. longispina.

Echinopsis leucantha aurea (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 17: 76. 1907), E. salpingophora aurea (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 63. 1902) and E. leucantha salpingophora Schumann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 13: 62. 1903) are not described at the places cited above. Melocactus elegans Pfeiffer (Allg. Gartenz. 3: 244. 1835) is usually referred here.

Echinopsis melanopotamica which comes from southern Argentina we have referred here; if it belong here it represents the southern form of the species. We have not seen the type but we have seen fruits collected by Fischer and spines by Alex Wetmore (1920), both from the Rio Negro region, presumably referable here. They suggest the desirability of further field study.

Illustrations: Edwards's Bot. Reg. 26: pl. 13, as Cereus leucanthus; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 77: pl. 4567; Fl. Serr. 6: pl. 635; Jard. Fleur. 1: pl. 98; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3. 1378. f. 19385; Rümpler, Sukkulenten f. 95; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 475. f. 7, No. 15, as Echinopsis campylacantha; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 35; Kirtcht, Kakteen Zimmergarten 23, as Echinopsis salpingophora; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 475. f. 7, No. 7, as Echinopsis

*The original spelling of this name was salpigophora, but Schumann says that it should be salpingophora.

salpingophora aurea; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 475. f. 7, No. 21, as Echinopsis leucantha aurea; Addisonia 4: pl. 147.

Plate vii, figure 2, shows a flowering plant brought from Mendoza to the New York Botanical Garden by Dr. Rose in 1915.

21. Echinopsis obrepanda (Salm-Dyck) Schumann in Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: 184. 1894

Echinocactus obrepandus Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 386. 1845.

Echinocactus misleyi Cels, Portef. Hort. 216. 1847.

Echinopsis cristata Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 178. 1850.

Echinopsis cristata purpurea Labouret in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 76: pl. 4521. 1850.

Echinopsis misleyi Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 291. 1853.

Plant globose or somewhat depressed, 15 to 20 cm. in diameter; ribs 17 or 18, rather prominent, thin, strongly undulate, pale bluish green; areoles somewhat immersed in the rib; spines rigid, brownish; radial spines 10, spreading, or somewhat recurved, 12 to 16 mm. long; central spine solitary, 25 mm. long, ascending, curved; flowers lateral, white or purplish, the tube 20 cm. long, green; scales on ovary and flower-tube acuminate, bearing an abundance of black hairs in their axils; inner perianth-segments large, serrate, mucronate.

Type locality: Bolivia.

Distribution: Bolivia.

This plant was collected by Mr. Thomas Bridges in Bolivia in 1844 and first described by Salm-Dyck in 1845 as Echinocactus obrepandus, but when in 1850 he transferred it to Echinopsis he changed the specific name to cristata. A part of Bridges's material went to Kew; one of the specimens produced purple flowers, and another nearly white flowers; there is a possibility that more than one species was collected by Bridges at this time. The figures given in Gartenflora (38: f. 7) and Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde (12: 169) are not quite typical. Here Weber refers Echinopsis obliqua Cels (Dict. Hort. Bois 472. 1896).

The plant is known to us only from descriptions and illustrations.

Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 78: pl. 4687; Gartenflora 38: f. 47; Jard. Fleur. 1: pl. 73, Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3.1378. f. 19386; Cassell's Dict. Gard. 1: 315, as Echinopsis cristata; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 76: pl. 4521, as Echinopsis cristata purpurea; Möllers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 25: 475. f. 7, No. 5; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 169; Gartenwelt 16: pl. opp. 106; 107.

Figure 92 is copied from the first illustration above cited.

22. Echinopsis intricatissima Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 491. 1905.

Simple, somewhat ovoid, 20 cm. high, not depressed at apex; ribs 16; spines at first rose-colored, in age gray, elongated, 3 to 6 cm. long, the lowest ones 8 to 10 cm. long; radial spines 8 to 13; central spines 4 to 6, curved upward; flowers 20 to 22 cm. long; inner perianth-segments lanceolate, white; fruit 3 cm. long.

Type locality: Near Mendoza, Argentina.

Distribution: Known only from the type locality.

Fig. 92.—Echinopsis obrepanda.

23. Echinopsis molesta Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 490. 1905.

Plants simple, subglobose, 20 cm. in diameter, pale green, not shining; ribs 13, prominent, acute on edge and somewhat undulate; areoles large; spines all grayish, rather stout; radial spines 6 to 8, straight, 10 to 15 mm. long; central spines 4, bulbose at base, slightly incurved, the lower one the longest, 3 cm. long; flowers slightly odorous, large, 22 to 24 cm. long; inner perianth-segments lanceolate, white; stamens, style and stigma-lobes white.

Type locality: Province of Córdoba, Argentina.

Distribution: Córdoba, Argentina.

This species is known to us only from description.

24. Echinopsis baldiana Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 490. 1905.

Stems simple, cylindric, 2 to 3 dm. high, 12 to 15 cm. in diameter; ribs 13 or 14, not all crenate; areoles large; spines slender, blackish brown; radial spines 9 to 11, 15 mm. long; central spines 3 or 4, 3 to . cm. long; flowers odorous, very large; inner perianth-segments lanceolate, acute, white; fruit large, 4 to 5 cm. long.

Type locality: Near Ancasti, province of Catamarca, Argentina.

Distribution: The dry mountain regions of the province of Catamarca, Argentina.

This species is known to us only from description.

Continue reading here: Echinopsis aurea sp nov

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