Echinofossulocactus pentacanthus Lemaire

Echinocactus pentacanthus Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 27. 1838. Echinocactus biceras Jacobi, Allg. Gartenz. 16: 370. 1848.

Echinocactus anfractuosuspentacanthus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849.31. 1850. Simple, depressed- globose to short-cylindric, more or less glaucous; ribs about 25, perhaps even 40 to 50; areoles only a few to the rib; spines 5, unequal, grayish red, hardly angled, flattened; 3 upper spines erect or spreading; 2 lower spines much slenderer and shorter than the upper; flowers large for this group, deep violet; perianth-segments with white margins.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Mexico, in the states of Hidalgo and San Luis Potosí, according to Schumann.

We know this species definitely only from Lemaire's plate which is doubtless typical. According to Schumann, it has the same range as E. obvallatus, a species which, judging from the illustrations, must be very near it, if not actually the same.

A specimen collected by Rose in San Juan del Rio in 1905 has 5 spines in a cluster, but the whole plant is more heavily armed than Lemaire's illustration would indicate.

Echinocactus anfractuosus laevior Monville (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 220. 1853) was given as a synonym of E. anfractuosus pentacanthus.

Illustration: Lemaire, Icon. Cact. pl. 11, as Echinocactus pentacanthus.

Fig. 122.—Echinofossulocactus obvallatus. Fig. 123.—Echinofossulocactus crispatus.

15. Echinofossulocactus crispatus (De Candolle) Lawrence in Loudon, Gard. Mag. 17: 317. 1841.

Echinocactus crispatus De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 461. 1828.

Plant obovoid, somewhat depressed at apex; ribs about 25, more or less folded, somewhat undulate; spines 10 or 11, rigid, unequal; flowers central, rather small; perianth-segments in 2 series, purplish, oblong-linear, acute; flower-tube covered with imbricating scales.

Fig. 122.—Echinofossulocactus obvallatus. Fig. 123.—Echinofossulocactus crispatus.

15. Echinofossulocactus crispatus (De Candolle) Lawrence in Loudon, Gard. Mag. 17: 317. 1841.

Echinocactus crispatus De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 461. 1828.

Plant obovoid, somewhat depressed at apex; ribs about 25, more or less folded, somewhat undulate; spines 10 or 11, rigid, unequal; flowers central, rather small; perianth-segments in 2 series, purplish, oblong-linear, acute; flower-tube covered with imbricating scales.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Hidalgo, Mexico, according to Schumann.

This species was based on Mocino and Sesse's illustration which De Candolle reproduced and Cactus crispatus Mocino and Sesse (De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 462. 1828) was the first name given to it, but it was never formally published. De Candolle, himself, does not compare it with E. obvallatus which is of this series, but with E. cornigerus, belonging to a very different series. Alter De Candolle had described the species he states (Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 115. 1828) that the ribs vary from 30 to 60; this was doubtless drawn from new material, perhaps sent by Thomas Coulter who was then collecting in eastern Mexico. At the same place he describes var. horridus, based on Coulter's plant, and says that the spines are stouter, erect, long, and grayish brown.

Echinocactus stenogonus, first mentioned by Schumann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 107. 1895), who credits the name to Weber, seems to have been only a garden name for Echi-nocactus crispatus.

Watson (Cact. Cult. 99) states that "it is apparently closely allied to E. longihamatus," but this is hardly warranted.

The specimen figured in the Dictionary of Gardening, referred to below, may belong elsewhere. It is described as having about 20 ribs; radial spines 8 or 9, spreading, setaceous, white with brown tips; central spines 4, reddish and much larger than the radials. The plant came from the collections of F. A. Haage jr., of Erfurt. It may belong to E. heteracanthus. E. crispatus cristatus Gürke (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 16: 188. 1906) is also different.

E. flexispinus Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 159. 1850. Not Engelmann, 1848) is referred here by Schumann. It is described, however, as follows:

Globose or obovate, light green; ribs numerous, 30 or 31, strongly compressed, undulate, interrupted; areoles remote, when young bearing yellow wool; 3 upper spines recurved, ascending, somewhat flattened, a central one porrect and subulate, the lower spines elongated, subulate, but flexible, white when young, pale brown when old; flowers unknown.

E. undulatus Dietrich (Allg. Gartenz. 12: 187. 1844) is referred here also by Schumann, but Salm-Dyck thought it was unlike his E. flexispinus for the 3 upper spines are large and flat and the 4 lower ones are rigid.

Illustrations: Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: pl. 8; (?)Dict. Gard. Nicholson 1: f. 688; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 172. f. 102; Watson, Cact. Cult. 99. f. 33, as Echinocactus crispatus; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 16: 189, as Echinocactus crispatus cristatus.

Figure 123 is copied from the first illustration above cited.

Continue reading here: Echinofossulocactus dichroacanthus Martius

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