Simple, pale green, stout, columnar to short-clavate, 6 to 15 cm. high, 6 to 8 cm. in diameter; ribs 26 to 30, thin, low, wavy; areoles 4 or 5 on each rib, 2 to 3 cm. apart; spines all yellow, subulate; radial spines 4 or 5, only slightly flattened, 7 to 10 mm. long; central spine solitary, up to 4 cm. long, usually porrect; flowers purplish, 4 cm. broad; perianth-segments oblong, acute.
Our description is based on plate 159 of Blühende Kakteen, there called Echinocactus gladiatus Salm-Dyck.
This is also Echinocactus gladiatus Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 374) in most part. Schumann states, however, that the flowers are yellow. Salm-Dyck never described E. gladi-atus as a new species although he seems to have described a different plant than Link and Otto under their name. This plant is therefore without any true synonyms. Living plants, doubtless from Mexico, were in the Botanical Garden at Berlin.
Figure 127 is a reproduction of the illustration mentioned above.
PUBLISHED SPECIES, PERHAPS OF THIS GENUS.
The following species, judging from the brief unsatisfactory descriptions, belong here. They are all Mexican. None has been illustrated and the flowers of only a few of them are known.
Echinocactus acanthion Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 161. 1850.
Stems globose, 10 cm. in diameter or more, light green; ribs 35 to 40; upper spines 3, flattened, the central one stouter, the longest 35 mm. long; lower radial spines 8, slender, spreading, white; central spines 2, subulate; flowers unknown.
Echinocactus acroacanthus Stieber, Bot. Zeit. 5: 491. 1847.
Almost globose; ribs 27; areoles when young white-woolly, in age naked; spines 7, the 3 upper ones flattened, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, yellowish brown, with black tips; the lower spines smaller than the upper, 8 to 10 mm. long, whitish; flowers and fruit unknown.
The original spelling of this name was E. acrocanthus, doubtless a typographical error.
Echinocactus ADVERSISPINUS Mühlenpfordt, Allg. Gartenz. 16: 10. 1848.
Obovoid; ribs 34, acute; areoles 3 cm. apart, white, lanate when young, naked when old; radial spines 7; central spine solitary, the 3 upper radials and central spine elongated and very different from the lower radials, 3 cm. long.
Echinocactus brachycentrus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 160. 1850.
Echinocactus brachycentrus olygacanthus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 160. 1850. Echinocactus oligacanthus Salm-Dyck in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 374. 1898. Not Pfeiffer, 1837.
Plant simple, short-cylindric, 20 cm. high, 15 cm. in diameter, very stout, yellowish green; ribs 30 to 35, strongly compressed, more or less undulate; spines all radial or sometimes one short central, the 3 upper spines erect, brownish (yellow, according to Schumann), the 2 lower ones white, smaller, and slenderer than the others.
Dr. Rose collected in San Juan del Rio in August 1905 a plant which answers very well this description, at least as far as it goes. It has 3 erect, stout, brown spines, the middle one much flattened. The two lower spines are small and reflexed, but brown. Other specimens collected by Dr. Rose in this region are somewhat similar, but the lower spines are in four's instead of two's.
Echinocactus brachiatus (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 636. 1853) was written by mistake for this species.
Echinocactus cereiformis De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 115. 1828.
Somewhat cylindric, 10 cm. high, green; ribs 13, flattened, separated by acute intervals, somewhat obtuse; areoles somewhat velvety, 3 to each rib; spines grayish, slender, but rigid; radial spines 7; central spine solitary, straight.
This species was based on a defective plant brought by Coulter from Mexico and the type has not been preserved. De Candolle put a question mark after the genus and also asked whether it might not be a young plant of some Cereus, but we do not know any species of Cereus with so few areoles on the ribs; in this respect it is like Echinofossulocactus, perhaps E. coptonogonus. The plant was unknown to Labouret and to Schumann and is listed by both among the unknown species.
Echinocactus debilispinus Berg, Allg. Gartenz. 8: 131. 1840.
Subglobose to clavate, 16 cm. high, somewhat umbilicate at apex; ribs 34, flattened, wavy, acute; areoles few to each rib, white-tomentose when young, naked in age; spines 7 to 9, the upper spines flat, yellowish white, brown at tip, the uppermost one longer, thinner, annulate, 4 to 6 lower spines subterete, subulate, yellowish white.
Echinocactus ellemeetii Miquel, Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. 4: 337. 1858.
This species is supposed to be of this relationship, although it has only 13 ribs.
Echinocactus flexuosus Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 19: 347. 1851.
Subglobose, umbilicate at apex; ribs strongly compressed, undulate, wavy; areoles few on each rib, when young tomentose; spines white, spotted; upper spine ensiform; central spines 3-angled, a little curved.
Echinocactus fluctuosus Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 19: 154. 1851.
Subglobose, 5 cm. high; ribs numerous, strongly compressed, undulate; areoles few to each rib, tomentose; spines 7, grayish, subulate, unequal, some of them flattened; central spine solitary, erect, terete.
Echinocactus foersteri Stieber, Bot. Zeit. 5: 491. 1847.
Nearly globular, dark green; ribs 21, sharp on the edge; spines up to 9, the 3 upper longer and stronger than the others, 12 to 18 mm. long, dark red, the middle one very thin; the lower spines 4 to 6, very small, bristly, 2 to 8 mm. long.
Known only from the type locality.
Echinocactus griseispinus Jacobi, Allg. Gartenz. 24: 99. 1856.
Stems clavate, 15 cm. high, 10 cm. in diameter, glaucescent, somewhat umbilicate at apex; ribs 34 to 38; radial spines 7; 3 upper spines erect, when young purple with black tips, about 2.5 cm. long; lower spines white; central spine solitary, 2.5 cm. long or more.
Echinocactus hexacanthus Mühlenpfordt, Allg. Gartenz. 14: 369. 1846.
Obovate, umbilicate at apex; ribs 34, flattened; radial spines 5; central spine solitary.
Echinocactus heyderi Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 14: 170. 1846.
Obovate, pale green, rounded at apex; ribs numerous, strongly compressed; spines 8, grayish white; central spine solitary, terete, porrect.
Echinocactus hookeri Mühlenpfordt, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 345. 1845.
Obovate; ribs numerous; upper spines flattened, incurved, 5 cm. long; radial spines whitish, 16 mm. long.
Echinocactus hystrichocentrus Berg, Allg. Gartenz. 8: 131. 1840.
Echinocactus hystrichodes Monville in Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 215. 1853.
Clavate, 10 cm. high, somewhat umbilicate at apex; ribs 39, compressed, wavy; areoles only a few to each rib; spines 8, all flat and thin; the 3 upper larger, whitish gray with black tips; central spine solitary, erect, incurved, annulate.
Echinocactus linkeanus Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 16: 298. 1848.
Spines 6, white; radial spines 5; central spine solitary, flat, variously curved.
Echinocactus macrocephalus Mühlenpfordt, Allg. Gartenz. 14: 370. 1846.
Subglobose, light green, depressed at apex; ribs 34, somewhat acute, undulate; areoles 5 cm. apart; radial spines 7 or 8; the 3 upper ones elongated; the lower ones short; central spine solitary, erect.
Echinocactus mammillifer Miquel, Linnaea 12: 8. 1838.
This seems to be a seedling and may belong to some species of this genus. Its strongly compressed ribs certainly suggest this genus. Miquel does not state where his plant came from, but suggests a relationship with Pfeiffer's second group to which Echinocactus scopa and other South American species belong; it does not seem to us to belong with it. Schumann did not know the species. Echinocactus theiacanthus Lemaire (Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 86. 1839) which was originally spelled E. theionacanthus Lemaire (Cact. Aliq. Nov. 22. 1838) was taken up by Lemaire as E. mammillifer. This is further discussed on page 137.
Echinocactus ochroleucus Jacobi, Allg. Gartenz. 24: 101. 1856.
Stems cylindric to clavate, 10 cm. high, 7.5 cm. in diameter, light green, somewhat umbilicate at apex; ribs 33 to 36, acute; areoles only a few to each rib; spines 7, yellowish; 3 upper spines 3 cm. lo rig erect; 4 lower spines very short.
Echinocactus octacanthus Mühlenpfordt, Allg. Gartenz. 16: 10. 1848.
Obovate; ribs 40 to 44, compressed; areoles with white hairs when young; radial spines 7; central spine solitary.
Echinocactus quadrinatus Wegener, Allg. Gartenz. 12: 66. 1844.
Echinocactus wegeneri Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 31. 1850. Plant subcylindric, 7.5 cm. high, 5 cm. in diameter; ribs 34 to 36, strongly compressed; areoles remote, somewhat velvety when young; spines usually 7; 3 upper spines subulate, angled, the middle one shorter; central spine solitary, grayish brown, sometimes wanting; lower spines 4, recurved, reddish white, the 2 lowermost ones a little longer.
Echinocactus raphidacanthus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 160. 1850.
Stems globose, light green; ribs 35 to 40, strongly compressed; young areoles white, velvety. upper and central spines , stout, yellowish red, the uppermost one broad and flat; lower spines 6; slender, white.
Echinocactus raphidocentrus Jacobi, Allg. Gartenz. 24: 101. 1856.
Plant depressed-globose, 5 cm. high, 6 cm. in diameter, light green, somewhat umbilicate; ribs 24 to 28, acute; radial spines 7, the upper ones reddish brown.
EcHiNOCACTus sulphureus Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 170. 1845.
Globose, 7 to 10 cm. in diameter, green, depressed at the apex, very spiny; ribs numerous, much compressed, undulate, each bearing a few areoles; spines 8 or 9, white, when young with brown tips, compressed at base, subulate; central spine solitary, porrect, long; flowers probably yellow.
The plant described by Schumann as E. gladiatus has yellow spines, a character not referred to either under that species, as originally described, or under E. sulphureus. According to Salm-Dyck, this plant is near Echinocactus anfractuosus.
Echinocactus tellii Hortus, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 161. 1901. Said to be of this relationship.
Echinocactus teretispinus Lemaire, Hort. Univ. 6: 60. 1845.
"We have observed, in the rich collection of M. Odier, a distinguished amateur of Bellevue, a species belonging to our section Stenogoni of Echinocactus, with cylindrical spines, a character peculiar to this section, which is possessed by only one other species, the E. [name not given], but in the latter the upper spine is flat, and anyway these two plants are quite distinct. Our specific name signifies this character. We intend to refer again to this curious species and at the same time to point out many other novelties of M. Odier, which he received directly from Mexico."
Echinocactus tribolacanthus Monville in Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 221. 1853. Cylindric; ribs numerous, flat; spines 8; flowers red.
Echinocactus trifurcatus Jacobi, Allg. Gartenz. 24: 100. 1856.
Plant pyriform, 6 cm. in diameter near the apex, umbilicate at apex, glaucous-green; ribs 32, membranaceous, compressed; spines 5.
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