Copiapoa megarhiza sp nov

Plants with large fleshy roots, sometimes 25 cm. long and 7 to 8 cm. in diameter, usually single, rarely in 2's and 3's, globular to elongate-cylindric, 8 to 26 cm. long, 4 to 9 cm. in diameter, dull green to almost white; ribs usually 13, very low; crown of plant covered with long white wool at flowering time; spines about 12, 1.5 cm. long, rather stout, at first yellow but soon gray; flowers yellow, 2.5 cm. long; fruit green, 6 to 8 mm. long, naked, crowned by green scales; seeds black, 2 mm. long.

Collected by J. N. Rose on the very dry granitic hills near Copiapo, Chile, October 12, 1914 (No. 19323).

Two other species, Echinocactus cinerascens Lemaire and E. copiapensis Pfeiffer, were described as coming from Copiapo, but whether from the town or the province we do not know. Both have more ribs than the plant here described.

Copiapoa sp.

A living specimen was collected by Dr. Rose, October 14, 1914, at Tres Cruces, north of Coquimbo, which was sent to the New York Botanical Garden under No. 19339. It may be described as follows:

Single, globular, about 1 cm. in diameter; ribs 11 or 12, obtuse; spines usually 10, brown at first, afterwards gray, subulate.


The four following species are probably of this relationship, but too little is known of them to place them definitely:

Echinocactus HUMiLis Philippi, Fl. Atac. 23. i860. Not Pfeiffer, 1837.

Very small, depressed, subglobose, 2.5 cm. broad by 2 cm. high; ribs 10 to 12, tuberculate; radial spines 10, to 12, setaceous, spreading; central spine 1, 2.2 cm. long; flowers yellow, 2 cm. long.

Type locality: Paposo, Antofagasta, Chile.

Distribution: Antofagasta, Chile.

Paposo, the type locality of this species is on the coast north of Taltal. This species seems never to have been re-collected. It was not found in the Philippi Herbarium at Santiago and was unknown to Mr. Söhrens. The name being a homonym must be rejected.

Echinocactus fobeanus Mieckley, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 17: 187. 1907.

Globose, 8 to lo cm. in diameter, dark green, somewhat depressed and white-woolly at apex; ribs i4, spiraled; radial spines 8 or 9, black when young, i2 mm. long; central spines when present 1 or 2; flowers pale yellow.

This species is known only from the description of specimens which flowered in the Berlin Botanic Garden. It is supposed to have come from Chile and seems to be of this relationship although we can not definitely refer to it any species which we here recognize. A photograph of a small grafted plant is the only illustration we know (Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 474. f. 6, No. 15).

Echinocactus LiNDLEYi Förster, Hamb. Gartenz. 17: 162. 1861.

Nearly globular or a little broader than high, 7.5 cm. high; ribs 12, broad, rounded; areoles

I.5 cm. apart; spines yellowish brown at first, but in age only the tips brown; radial spines 9 to

II, spreading, 1.5 to 2 cm. long; central spines 2, the longest 3 to 3.5 cm. long.

Type locality: Probably Peru.

Its flowers were unknown when described and it has disappeared from collections although it is said to be very ornamental. It was referred to Salm-Dyck's group, Cepha-loidei, to which most of the species of Copiapoa were referred.

Echinocactus pyramidatus Förster, Hamb. Gartenz. 17: 162. 1861.

Short-pyramidal, about 18 cm. high, 13 cm. in diameter; ribs 15; areoles 4 to 6 mm. apart; spines stiff, reddish brown; radial spines 8; central spines 3, 3 to 3.5 cm. long, stout; flowers yellow.

Type locality: Probably Peru.

5. PEDIOCACTUS Britton and Rose in Britton and Brown, Illustr. Fl. ed. 2. 2: 569. 1913.

Globular, single or cespitose, small, strongly tubercled cacti; tubercles borne on spiraled ribs; young areoles very woolly, but in age nearly naked; flowers small, with a rather indefinite funnel-shaped tube, pinkish, broadly campanulate; outer perianth-segments smaller than the inner and duller in color; inner perianth-segments oblong, numerous; scales on flower-tube few, naked in their axils; stamens numerous; ovary green, nearly globular, with a few scales towards the top, and a depressed scar at apex; fruit dry, greenish, splitting on one side; seeds dull black, tuberculate, keeled on the back with a large sub-basal hilum.

Type species: Echinocactus simpsonii Engelmann.

The plant has been described both as a Mammillaria and as an Echinocactus. In its globular shape and strongly tubercled surface it resembles very much many of the so-called Mammillaria, but the tubercles are really borne on ribs, while the flowers are borne near the center of the plant and originate just above the spines; therefore, this genus belongs to the Echinocactanae rather than to the Coryphanthanae; the seeds are unlike those of Cory-

We recognize one species.

The generic name is from Jiediov a plain, and caccog cactus, referring to the general habitat of the plant.

1. Pediocactus simpsonii (Engelmann) Britton and Rose in Britton and Brown, Illustr. Fl. ed. 2. 2: 570. 1913.

Echinocactus simpsonii Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2: 197. 1863. Echinocactus simpsonii minor Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2: 197. 1863. Mammillaria simpsonii Jones, Zoe 3: 302. 1893.

Mammillariapurpusii Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 165. 1894. Echinocactus simpsonii robustior Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 377. 1896.

Plants depressed, globular, up to 15 cm. broad by 12 cm. high, strongly tuberculate; the tubercles contiguous; radial spines 15 to 20, spreading, white, acicular; central spines usually 5 to 7, more or less spreading, stouter and longer than the radials, 1 to 3 cm. long, the base white but the upper part reddish brown or brown throughout; flower-buds obtuse; flowers massed in the center and surrounded by brown or whitish wool; outer perianth-segments oblong, obtuse, their margins scarious and serrulate; inner perianth-segments linear-oblong, acutish; filaments golden yellow; style and stigma-lobes yellowish.

Type locality: Butte Valley in the Utah desert and Kobe Valley, farther west.

Distribution: Kansas to New Mexico, north to Nevada, Washington, Idaho, and Montana.

These plants often take on very weird shapes, very unlike the normal form, and then are called the snake cactus or brain cactus. We have photographs of some of these abnormal plants taken by Mr. M. E. Jones in Utah and Nevada.

The beautiful flowers close partially at night.

Mammillaria spaethiana Schumann, listed by Späth (Cat. 1894-1895), seems never to have been described. Schumann afterwards withdrew the name and Mrs. Brandegee (Zoe 5: 31. 1900) states that it has the seeds of Echinocactus simpsonii and she believes it to be one of the forms of this species.

The species as here treated covers a wide range and is represented by several striking forms. The one from the state of Washington has very dark, nearly black spines, the radials ascending and subulate. We have not seen this plant in flower but the flower-scar is at the spine-areole, as it always is in this genus. Mr. Charles V. Piper in his Flora of Washington says "quite certainly new." It is possibly a good species. Here we would also refer a plant collected by J. E. Edwards near Haycreek, Oregon. It is possible, as Coulter believed, that these are the same as the Nevada form which represents Engelmann's variety robustior and this view has been held by others. (See Cact. Journ. 2 157.)

This Washington plant seems to have been collected more than 70 years ago, but the specimen has apparently been lost and the record overlooked. Our attention was called to this old record of Geyer, by Mr. C. V. Piper, here reproduced:

"A third species of Mammillaria I found on the Oregon plains while searching for a Melo-cactus. Of this I brought dry specimens to London and Mr. Scheer, at Kew, has already raised several from seeds. The above-mentioned Melocactus was gathered by Chief Factor MacDonald at Fort Colville, but the exact habitat was forgotten; the one specimen found was afterwards in possession of Dr. Tolmie on the lower Columbia. From the information I could gather at Fort Walla Walla, the true habitat of this cactus is at the Priests' Rapid,' on a rocky island in the Columbia River, about 60 miles above Fort Walla Walla. I received this intelligence too late, but hope that by publishing it other botanists may have the opportunity of getting the plant without loss of time."— Charles A. Geyer. (The London Journal of Botany 5: 25. 1846.)

Illustrations: Simpson's Rep. pl. 2; Britton and Brown, Illustr. Fl. 2: f. 2524; Knippel, Kakteen pl. 11; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 593. f. 76; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 135; Gard. Chron. II. 6: 293. f. 60; III. 8: 166. f. 26, as Echinocactus simpsonii; Thomas, Zimmerkultur Kakteen 53; Gartenwelt 1: 85; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 167, as Mammillariapurpusii; Britton and Brown, Illustr. Fl. ed. 2. 2: f. 2983.

Plate viii, figure 1, was painted from a plant collected by A. Nelson in Wyoming in 1914 and sent by Dr. Rose to the New York Botanical Garden. Figure 101 is from a photograph of the same plant.

6. TOUMEYA gen. nov.

A small, ovoid or short-cylindric cactus, the areoles borne on low spirally arranged tubercles; spines thin, flat, white, shining, papery, flexible, the central ones much longer than the radial; flowers central, about as wide as long, white, borne at the spine-areoles on nascent tubercles; ovary bearing a few minute scales, their axils naked; outer perianth-segments ovate, acute, the inner lanceolate, acuminate; perianth-tube short, bearing several papery lanceolate scales; fruit dry, globose, smooth; seeds compressed, oblique, black.

Type species: Mammillaria papyracantha Engelmann. A monotypic genus of New


The generic name is in honor of Dean James W. Toumey, whose studies and collections of cacti have greatly aided our investigations.

1. Toumeya papyracantha (Engelmann).

Mammillaria papyracantha Engelmann, Pl. Fendl. 49. 1849.

Echinocactuspapyracanthus Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2: 198. 1863.

Simple with fibrous roots, 5 to 10 cm. long; "ribs 8, oblique" but probably very indefinite even in living plants, bearing low distinct tubercles; areoles small, circular, pubescent when young, naked in age, the lower ones described as proliferous; spines chartaceous, the radials 8 to 10, unequal, 3 to 20 mm. long, spreading; central spines 1 to 4, 3 to 4 cm. long, the upper ones connivent over the top of the plant; flower 2.4 to 2.6 cm. long, a little broader when fully expanded, white; fruit nearly naked, globular, 4 to 6 mm. in diameter, thin-walled; seeds large, 2 to 2.5 mm. broad, somewhat pointed at base, angled on the back; hilum large, sub-basal.

Type locality: Between the lower hills near Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Distribution: Rare in isolated localities in northern New Mexico; reported from California by Watson (Cact. Journ. 1: 43), probably erroneously.

This is a remarkable plant whose generic position has been uncertain. Engelmann, who first described it as a Mammillaria and afterwards as an Echinocactus, associates it with Echinocactus simpsonii, that is, Pediocactus simpsonii, as representing a small group of Echinocactus "with the appearance of Mammillaria."

It has been reported only a few times and the fruit has not heretofore been described.

Fendler reported it growing in loose red sandy fertile soil.

In 1893 (Zoe 3: 301) Mr. M. E. Jones published a note on this species and, on the basis of it, the plant has been admitted into the flora of Utah. He writes as follows:

"The flowers are an inch long, opening but little; stigma cleft a line deep into 6 anther-like divisions, papillose on the sides and upper surface; filaments 6 lines long; style almost as long as the petals, 1/2 a line thick, linear; the flowers open in the morning, and close in the afternoon, but apparently are not affected by cloudy weather. This grows in alkaline soil, and blooms in May. It is scarce everywhere."

He wrote in a letter (March 18, 1918) from Salt Lake City:

"The material that I thought was this species came from the desert west of here, towards Mount Ibapah. I remember very distinctly the appearances of the specimen but I did not collect it and I now have some doubts about its identity. The spines were papery. I have never seen it since, though I have hunted for it."

We have found a similar plant in the herbarium of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, collected by Suer in Utah, but it certainly is not the true E. papyracanthus. This, however, is only a slice from the plant and is without flowers or fruit; it may be described as follows:

"Covered by a mass of spines; ribs numerous, low, tubercled; areoles close together, circular, white-felted when young; radial spines 10 to 12, white, about so mm. long, weak; central spines 3 to 5, weak and flexible, more or less twisted, 2 to 3 cm. long; some of them more or less flattened, pale or dark brown, one more or less hooked. A. L. Suer's note is as follows: "Only a few specimens have ever been found. Flowers of this were pink, not white, as described by Engelmann. Southern Utah, 1888."

Illustration: Cact. Journ. 1: pl. v, as Echinocactus papyracanthus.

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