Copiapoa marginata Salm Dyck

Echinocactus marginatus Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 386. 1845. Echinocactus columnaris Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: under pl. 14. 1847. Echinocactus streptocaulon Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 77: pl. 4562. 1851. Echinocactus melanochnus Cels in Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 174. 1853.

BRITTON AND ROSE, VOL. III

PLATE X

M. E. Eaton del. 1. Flowering plant of Echinopsis aurea. a.Hon&c,,.

2. Flowering plant of Copiapoa coquimbana.

3. Flowering plant of Lophophora williamsii.

4. Flowering plant of same.

(All natural size.)

Plants subcylindric, growing in clusters of 2 to 9, usually erect, but when old often 6 dm. long and spreading with ascending tips, about 12 cm. in diameter; ribs 8 to 12, low, separated by broad intervals; young areoles and tops of flowering plants filled with masses of soft brown hair; areoles large, approximate, the adjoining ones usually touching; spines 5 to 10, unequal, subulate, stout, the longer one 3 cm. long; flowers small, 2.5 cm. long; outer perianth-segments broad, obtuse, with red tips; inner perianth-segments yellow; stamens included; fruit naked, small, 8 mm. long; seeds black, shining.

Type locality: Chile.

Distribution: Coastal hills of Antofagasta, Chile.

The four species, referred above as synonyms of this one, were described between 1845 and 1853 and may have come from the same source. Two of them are said to have been from Bolivia, but at the time they were described, Antofagasta, now a part of Chile, belonged to Bolivia. Dr. Rose, when collecting in Chile in 1914 (No. 19410), found these plants very common on the dry hills above Antofagasta, and a number of fine specimens were sent to the New York Botanical Garden.

We are following Pfeiffer in referring E. columnaris to this species. According to Pfeiffer, both species came from Valparaiso, Chile, but Dr. Rose could find no plant of this relationship about Valparaiso. Mr. Söhrens, whom he consulted, believes that Pfeiffer's station was wrongly recorded.

Illustrations: Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 30, as Echinocactus marginatus; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 77: pl. 4562; Loudon. Encycl. Pl. ed. 3. 1378. f. 19376, as Echinocactus strepto-caulon.

Figure 99 is copied from the second illustration above cited. 3. Copiapoa coquimbana (Karwinsky).

Echinocactus coquimbanus Karwinsky in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 601. 1885.

Plants clustered, forming mounds up to 1 meter broad and 6 dm. high, composed of several hundred heads; individual heads 12 cm. in diameter or less, pale green, at flowering time crowned by a dense mass of long white wool; ribs 10 to 17, obtuse, somewhat tubercled; radial spines 8 to 10, slender, straight or somewhat recurved; central spines 1 or 2, stouter, straight, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long, black to gray; flowers campanulate, 3 cm. long; outer perianth-segments distinct, linear, acute, green; inner perianth-segments oblanceolate, yellow, obtuse; tube nearly or quite wanting; filaments, style, and stigma-lobes yellow; ovary small, turbinate, naked.

Type locality: Near the town of Coquimbo, Chile.

Distribution: Province of Coquimbo, Chile.

The Philippi Herbarium at Santiago de Chile has a specimen from Coquimbo, near La Serena, labeled "Echinocactus cinerascens Lemaire," which is doubtless to be referred here. E. cinerascens originally came from Copiapo, an interior town, much farther north than Coquimbo. Dr. Rose found this species very abundant on the hills near La Serena not far from Coquimbo (No. 19261).

Related to this species, and perhaps not distinct from it, is Echinocactus f iedlerianus Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 121. 1903), but it grows farther north, not along the coast but in an interior valley. The type was collected by Mr. Söhrens near Vallenar, Huasco, Chile. Dr. Rose did not obtain specimens but he is now confident that this is the plant which he saw in great abundance just south of Vallenar. Schumann misunderstood the relationship for he places it between Echinocactus megalothelos and E. schickendantzii, two species of Gymnocalycium. It may be briefly characterized as follows:

Cespitose, with a turnip-like root, depressed-globose, grayish, covered with copious wool at the apex; ribs 13, tuberculate; areoles depressed; radial spines 4 to 7, 3 cm. long, subulate; flowers yellow, greenish without.

Illustration: Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 121, as Echinocactus coquimbanus.

Plate x, figure 2, shows one of the plants collected by Dr. Rose in flower.

Continue reading here: Copiapoa cinerascens Salm Dyck

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