Wilcoxia papillosa sp nov

Tap-root spindle-shaped, fleshy, 4 to 7 cm. long, 2 cm. in diameter, this giving off long fibrous roots; stems slender with few branches, 3 to 4 dm. long, perhaps longer, 3 to 5 mm. in diameter, glabrous, but the whole surface covered with minute papilla; ribs low, indistinct, perhaps 3 to 5; areoles small, distant, 1 to 3 cm. long, white-woolly; spines in clusters of 6 to 8, minute, yellowish brown, bulbose at base, 1 to 3 mm. long; flowers scarlet, 4 to 5 cm. long; scales on the ovary and flower-tube small, linear-cuspidate, the lower ones naked or nearly so, those at the top of the tube with long white wool and several brown bristles (8 to 12 mm. long) in their axils; perianth-segments 2 cm. long; fruit probably spineless.

Collected by C. A. Purpus at Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico, October 1, 1904, and now deposited in the Herbarium of the University of California (No. 160654), and in the same State at Tinamaxtita, San Ignacio, altitude 1,340 meters, May 20, 1919, by a Mexican Commission which was studying the natural resources of Sinaloa (No. 848).

The plant is called cardoncillo.

17. PENIOCEREUS (Berger) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 428. 1909.

Plants low, slender, from an enormous, fleshy, turnip-shaped root; stems and branches usually 4 or 5-angled, rarely 3 or 6-angled; spines of all the areoles similar; flowers very large for the size of the plant, funnelform, nocturnal, white, the outer perianth-segments tinged with red; tube of flower long, slender, with long hairs in the axils of the upper scales, but with clusters of spines on the lower part as also on the ovary; fruit spiny, ovoid, long-pointed, bright scarlet, fleshy, and edible; seeds black, rugose, with a large oblique hilum.

A monotypic genus of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico.

The generic name is from the Greek, signifying thread-cereus.

1. Peniocereus greggii (Engelmann) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 428. 1909.

Cereus greggii Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 102. 1848.

Cereuspottsii Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 208. 1850.

Cereus greggii transmontanus Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 287. 1856.

Cereus greggii cismontanus Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 287. 1856.

Cereus greggii roseiflorus Kunze, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 20: 172. 1910.

Root often very large, sometimes 6 dm. in diameter, weighing 60 to 125 pounds, usually 15 to 20 cm. long by 5 to 8 cm. in diameter; stems 3 dm. to 3 meters high, 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, the young parts pubescent; spines small, blackish; radials 6 to 9; central usually 1, sometimes 2; flower 15 to 20 cm. long, the tube slender and terminating in a short funnelform throat, covered with stamens; inner perianth-segments lanceolate, acute, 4 cm. long, spreading, or the outer ones reflexed; filaments erect, exserted; style slender, the stigma-lobes about 1 cm. long; fruit tuberculate, 12 to 15 cm. long, including the elongated beak.

Type locality: Near Chihuahua, Mexico.

Distribution: Western Texas, southern New Mexico and Arizona to Sonora, Chihuahua, and Zacatecas.

Fig. 166.—Peniocereus greggii.

Fig. 167.—Flower of Peniocereus greggii. X0.5. Fig. 168.—Fruit of same. X0.5.

Fig. 166.—Peniocereus greggii.

Fig. 167.—Flower of Peniocereus greggii. X0.5. Fig. 168.—Fruit of same. X0.5.

In the southwest it is called deerhorn cactus or night-blooming cereus.

The petals were first described as pale purple, but this was probably incorrect.

The species is found occasionally in valleys and on mesas in its range, but is never abundant. It is hard for the novice to find, as the short, dull-colored stems resemble dead sticks or the common sage bush, while the large flowers appear only at night.

Mrs. W. R. Klitt informs us that in cultivation this plant sometimes reaches a height of 6 feet. About Tucson, Arizona, it flowers usually between June 12 and 16 and many of the flowers appear on the same night everywhere throughout the desert. The flowers are extremely fragrant and collectors are thus guided when searching for the plants.

Illustrations: Gard. Chron. III. 34: f. 43; Cact. Emory's Exped. 157. b 6; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 14, 94; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 150, 151; 14: 135 Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 18; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 63, 64; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. f. 23, as Cereus greggii; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 65, as Cereus greggii transmontanus; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: p1. 74, 75.

Figure 166 is from a photograph taken at night by F. E. Lloyd at Tucson, Arizona; figure 167 shows a flower and figure 168 a fruit collected by F. E. Lloyd near Tucson.

18. DENDROCEREUS gen. nov.

Tree-like, with a thick, upright, terete trunk crowned with numerous erect or pendent branches; branches 3 to 5-flanged; ribs thin and high, very spiny; areoles without long hairs; flowers nocturnal, broadly funnelform, the perianth finally falling from the ovary by abscission; tube of flower subcylindric, narrowed below, bearing short, often reflexed scales, the lower ones subtending short spines; perianth-segments numerous, spreading; stamens numerous, somewhat exserted; ovary with few areoles, these often bearing a few spines; fruit indehiscent, globular, naked, green, hard, with a very thick outer wall; seeds brownish, roughened, truncate at base.

A monotypic genus of Cuba. The name is from the Greek, meaning tree-cereus, this cactus being, in outline, more like a tree than any other.

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