Trichocereus peruvianus sp nov

Plant 2 to 4 meters high with numerous erect or ascending, stout branches, 15 to 20 cm. in diameter, glaucous when young; ribs 6 to 8, broad and rounded; areoles large, 2 to 2.5 cm. apart, brown-felted; spines brown from the first, about 10, unequal, some of them 4 cm. long, rigid and stout, not at all swollen at base; areoles on ovary and flower-tube hairy; mature flowers not seen but evidently large and probably white.

Collected by Dr. and Mrs. Rose near Matucana, Peru, altitude 2,100 meters, July 9, 1914 (No. 18658).

This species resembles T. bridgesii but has stouter and darker spines. It is found on the western slopes of the Andes at a much lower altitude than that species.

Figure 197 is from a photograph taken by Mrs. J. N. Rose at Matucana, Peru, in 1914.

Fig. 197.—Trichocereus peruvianus.

11. Trichocereus chiloensis (Colla).

Cactus chiloensis Colla, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino 31: 342. 1826.

Cereus chiloensis De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 465. 1828.

Cereus chilensis Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 86. 1837.

Cereuspanoplaeatus Monville, Hort. Univ. 1: 220. 1840.

Cereus heteromorphus Monville, Hort. Univ. 1: 221. 1840.

Cereus longispinus Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 354. 1845.

Cereuspepinianus Lemaire in Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 354. 1845.*

Cereus subuliferus Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 354. 1845.

Cereus gilvus Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 355. 1845.

Cereus quisco Remy in Gay, Fl. Chilena 3: 19. 1847.

Cereus linnaei Förster, Hamb. Gartenz. 17: 165. 1861.

Cereusfunkii Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 61. 1897.

Cereus chilensispycnacanthus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 63. 1897.

Cereus chilensis zizkaanus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 63. 1897.

Cereus chilensispanhoplites Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 63. 1897.

Cereus chilensisposelgeri Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 63. 1897.

Cereus chilensis heteromorphus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 63. 1897.

Cereus chilensispolygonus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 63, 1897.

Fig. 198.—Trichocereus chiloensis. Fig. 199.—Trichocereus chiloensis

* Cereus pepinianus was described by Salm-Dyck in 1845 (Allg. Gartenz. 13: 354. 1845) who there credits the name to Lemaire. Lemaire evidently had reported the name under some other genus, for in 1850 (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 44, 197) Salm-Dyck redescribed the species, crediting himself with the name and citing "Echinocactus pepinianus Cat. Cels" as synonym. The name Echinocactus pepinianus Lemaire occurs first in 1846 (Förster, Handb. Cact. 347), but without description. Labouret in 1853 takes it up as Echinocactus echinodespepinianus (Monogr. Cact. 178), with the statement that Salm-Dyck considered it synonymous with Cereus pycnacanthus. These two combinations in Echinocactus, while evidently referring to Cereus pepinianus, being without description, can not be properly referred here as synonyms. They are, however, both referred by Schumann to Echinocactus pepinianus. The plant which he describes, however, is different from Cereus pepinianus. If a good Echinocactus, it should be credited to Schumann, with the citation to his monograph (Gesamtb. Kakteen 420. 1898).

Stems rarely single, usually of several branches, sometimes of many, arising from near the base, starting nearly at right angles to the main trunk but soon erect, the tallest sometimes 8 meters high; ribs usually 16 or 17, low and broad, separated by narrow intervals, divided into large tubercles even when fully mature; radial spines when young light yellow with brown tips but soon becoming gray, 8 to 12, slightly spreading, often stout, 1 to 2 or even 4 cm. long; central spine single, porrect, often stout, 4 to 7 or even 12 cm. long; flowers 14 cm. long, outer perianth-segments white but tinged with red or brown; inner perianth-segments white, acuminate; style green below, cream-colored above; stigma-lobes cream-colored, about 18, 1.5 cm. long; fruit globular.

Type locality: Described from cultivated plants supposed to have come from Chile.

Distribution: On the hills in and about the great central valley of Chile, extending from Curico north to Puenta Colorado in the northern part of the province of Coquimbo.

While this plant shows considerable variation in its spines, we do not believe it possible to separate the species into varieties as Schumann has done.

Echinocactus jeneschianus Pfeiffer (Allg. Gartenz. 8: 406. 1840) and Echinocactus pepini-anus echinoides (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 177. 1853) are referred to Echinocactus echinoi by Labouret.

Echinocereus chiloensis Console and Lemaire (Rev. Hort. 35: 173 . 1864) 15 only mentioned, but Lemaire later (Cact. 61. 1868) states that it is based on Cereus chiloensis, which definitely places it here.

Cereus chilensis funkianus (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 61. 1897) has never been formally published.

Cereus polymorphus (published as a synonym of Opuntia polymorpha in Förster, Handb. Cact. 472. 1846), referred here by Schumann, should doubtless go elsewhere, for it is said to come from Mendoza, Argentina. It may be a form of Opuntia glomerata.

Fig. 200.—Flower of T. chiloensis. X0.5.
Trichocereus coquimbanus.

Cereus pycnacanthus Salm-Dyck (Allg. Gartenz. 13: 355. 1845), and Cereus panoplaeatus Cels (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 44. 1850) published as a synonym of the former, were both referred to Cereus chilensis by Schumann, but they came from Bolivia and the description does not fit this species.

Cereus fulvibarbis Otto and Dietrich (Allg. Gartenz. 6: 28. 1838; Cereus chilensis fulvi-barbis Salm-Dyck in Walpers, Repert. Bot. 2: 276. 1843), said to have come from Chile, is referred to Cereus chilensis by Schumann, but it is described as having 10 to 13 ribs.

Cereus polymorphus G. Don (Loudon, Hort. Brit. 195. 1830) and Cactus polymorphus Gillies (published here as a synonym), referred to Cereus chilensis by Schumann, can not be identified from the meager description. It is said to have been introduced from Chile in 1827.

The following names belong here; they have not been accompanied by descriptions.

Cereus quintero Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 86. 1837.

chilensis brevispinulus Salm-Dyck in Walpers, Repert. Bot. 2: 276. 1843. spinosior Salm-Dyck in Förster, Handb. Cact. 377. 1846. flavescens Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 44. 1850.

eburneus (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 63. 1897) based on Eulychnia eburnea Philippi, must belong here. linnaei Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 63. 1897. quisco Weber in Hirscht, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 110. 1898.

Cereus spnibarbis var. minor Monville and var. purpureus Monville (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 334. 1853) have been referred here.

Cereus elegans Lemaire and C. duledevantii Lemaire (Illustr. Hort. 5: Misc. 10. 1858), unpublished, doubtless were given to forms of this species. Echinocactus pyramidalis and E. elegans (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 86. 1837) were given only as synonyms of Cereus chilensis.

Illustration: Engler and Drude, Veg. Erde 8: pl. 19, as Cereus chilensis.

Figure 198 is from a photograph of a group of plants taken in Valparaiso, Chile, by Dr. Rose in 1914; figure 199 is from a photograph of a branch from the same group as grown in the New York Botanical Garden; figure 200 is from a drawing of a flower brought back by Dr. Rose from La Serena, Chile, in 1914.

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