Trichocereus pachanoi sp nov

Plants tall, 3 to 6 meters high, with numerous strict branches, slightly glaucous when young, dark green in age; ribs 6 to 8, broad at base, obtuse, with a deep horizontal depression above the areole; spines often wanting, when present few, 3 to 7, unequal, the longest 1 to 2 cm. long, dark yellow to brown; flower-buds pointed; flowers very large, 19 to 23 cm. long, borne near the top of branches, night-blooming, very fragrant; outer perianth-segments brownish red; inner perianth-segments oblong, white; filaments long, weak, greenish; style greenish below, white above; stigma-lobes linear, yellowish; ovary covered with black curled hairs; axils of scales on flower-tube and fruit bearing long black hairs.

Collected by J. N. Rose, A. Pachano, and George Rose at Cuenca, Ecuador, September 17 to 24, 1918 (No. 22806, type).

This species is widely cultivated throughout the Andean region of Ecuador, where it is grown both as an ornamental and as a hedge plant. In some of the lateral valleys on the western slope of the Andes it appears to be native, as for instance above Alausi, but as it has doubtless long been cultivated it is impossible to be sure of its natural habitat.

It is known to the Ecuadoreans as agua-colla or giganton and has been passing in Ecuador under the names of Cereus peruvianus and Cereus giganteus. It is named for Professor Abelardo Pachano of the Quinta Normal at Ambato, Ecuador, who accompanied Dr. Rose in 1918 on his travels in the high Andes of Ecuador.

Fig. 196.—Trichocereus pachanoi.

This species belongs to the high Andes, ranging from 2,000 to 3,000 meters in altitude. In the Chanchan Valley it certainly comes down to about 2,000 meters and overlaps the upper range of Lemaireocereus godingianus, which differs from it greatly in habit and flowers. Different as the two plants are, Richard Spruce, keen botanist as he was, confused them, as the following quotation will show; the part in italics refers to the Lemaireocereus:

"The brown hill-sides began to be diversified by an arborescent Cactus, with polygonal stems and white dahlia-like flowers, which, Briareus-like, threw wide into the air its hundred rude arms. Lower down, at about 6,000 feet, I saw specimens full 30 feet high and 18 inches in diameter."

Figure 196 shows the top of a large plant growing on the sides of a cliff on the outskirts of Cuenca, Ecuador, photographed by George Rose in September 1918.

8. Trichocereus macrogonus (Salm-Dyck) Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palmero 8: 236. 1909.

Cereus macrogonus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 203. 1850.

Eriocereus tephracanthus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 244. 1909.

Stem probably tall, stout, but in cultivation often slender, bluish green, especially on young growth; ribs usually 7, low and rounded, 1.5 cm. high, separated by acute intervals; areoles large, 1.5 to 2 cm. apart; spines several from an areole, acicular, brown; radial spines 5 to 8 mm. long; central spine about 2 cm. long; flowers probably large and white; fruit unknown.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: South America, but not known definitely in the wild state.

This species is represented in the New York Botanical Garden by a live specimen from Kew, which we consider typical. Salm-Dyck described it from specimens growing in the Botanical Garden at Berlin, but did not know their origin. Schumann figured what he supposed to be it in the Flora Brasiliensis, referring it to Brazil; his plant is from the Province of Rio de Janeiro, collected by Glaziou, and is undoubtedly Cephalocereus arrabidae.

Cereus tetracanthus Labouret (Rev. Hort. iv. 4: 25. 1855) and C. tephracanthus bolivianus Weber (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 81. 1897) are probably of this relationship; both forms come from Bolivia. Rümpler (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 712. 1885) says the former came from Chuquisaca, Bolivia. An earlier reference (Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 1: 336. 1840), but of slightly different spelling, cites Link and Otto as authors of this name, but the species was not described. To one of these forms may belong the plant in the New York Botanical Garden (No. 6231), obtained from M. Simon, St. Ouen, Paris, in 1901 , which is called Cereus bolivianus. The last name, first credited to Weber (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 21. 1902), is occasionally met in literature.

Cereus hempelianus Bauer (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 17: 55 . 1907) is, according to F. Fobe, only a stout, bluish-green variety of C. macrogonus.

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