Trichocereus coquimbanus Molina

Cactus coquimbanus Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chil. 170. 1782.

Cereus nigripilis Philippi, Fl. Atac. 23. i860.

Cereus coquimbanus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 8. 1897.

Plant low, 1 meter high or more, or sometimes prostrate and forming dense thickets; branches 7 to 8 cm. in diameter, with 12 or 13 ribs; areoles large, circular, filled with short wool; spines about 20, very formidable, often 7 to 8 cm. long; central spines several, 2 to 6 cm. long; flowers large, white, about 10 cm. long; inner perianth-segments acute; scales of ovary and tube subtending black hairs.

Fig. 202.—Trichocereus coquimbanus.

Type locality: Coquimbo to Paposo, Chile.

Distribution: Along the coast of the province of Coquimbo, Chile.

Cereus chilensis nigripilis (Hirscht, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 159. 1898) doubtless belongs here.

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 27; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 3, both as Cereus nigripilis.

Figure 201 is from a photograph of a plant brought by Dr. Rose from the Botanical Garden at Santiago, Chile, in 1914; figure 202 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Rose at Coquimbo, Chile, in 1914.

13. Trichocereus terscheckii (Parmentier).

Cereus terscheckii Parmentier in Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 5: 370. 1837. Cereus fercheckii Parmentier, Hort. Belge 5: 66. 1838 (fide Index Kewensis). Cereus fulvispinus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 46. 1850. Pilocereus terscheckii Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 688. 1885.

At first columnar, in age becoming much branched, 10 to 12 meters high; trunk woody, up to 4.5 cm. in diameter; branches 1 to 2 dm. in diameter; ribs 8 to 14, prominent, 2 to 4 cm. high, obtuse; areoles large, 1 to 1.5 cm. in diameter, felted, 2 to 3 cm. apart; spines 8 to 15, subulate, yellow, up to 8 cm. long; flowers very large, 15 to 20 cm. long, 12.5 cm. broad; inner perianth-segments oblong, 7 cm. long, acute, white; scales on the ovary and flower-tube ovate, mucronate-tipped, their axils filled with long brown wool.

a, flower; b, fruit. X0.4 Fig. 204.—Trichocereus terscheckii.

Type locality: Argentina, but no definite locality cited. Distribution: Northern Argentina.

This is a very large cactus, called in Argentina cardon grande. It has frequently been confused with another species, T. pasacana, of the same region, but it is more branched, with fewer ribs, different spines, and larger flowers.

Figure 203a shows a flower and figure 203b a fruit, collected by Dr. Shafer near Salta, Argentina, in 1916; figure 204 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Shafer at Salta, Argentina, in 1917.

14. Trichocereus fascicularis (Meyen).

Cereus fascicularis Meyen, Allg. Gartenz. 1: 211. 1833.

Cactus fascicularis Meyen, Reise 1: 47. 1834.

Echinocactus fascicularis Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 1: 536. 1840.

Cereus weberbaueri Schumann in Vaupel, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 50: Beibl. 111: 22. 1913.

Growing in large clusters made up of many slender, erect or ascending branches, 2 to 4 meters high; ribs about 16, low, rounded, separated by narrow intervals; areoles filled with tawny felt, closely set, large; spines numerous, at first yellowish to brown; radial spines acicular, often only 1 cm. long or less; central spines much stouter and often 4 cm. long; flowers 1 from an areole, 8 to 11 cm. long, slender, somewhat curved near the base; ovary and flower-tube bearing small ovate scales, their axils filled with long white and brown hairs; outer perianth-segments narrow, acute, passing into broader ones, simply mucronate, pinkish; inner perianth-segments thinner and a little broader than the outer ones, obtuse, 1.5 cm. long, greenish to brownish (not white); filaments numerous, slender, scattered over the narrow throat, somewhat exserted; style bulbose at base, slender, 7 cm. long, exserted; stigma-lobes short, greenish; lower part of tube or tube proper 1.5 cm. long, somewhat scabrous within; fruit globular, 3 to 4 cm. in diameter, yellowish to reddish, splitting open on one side and exposing the pulp; seeds black, shining, 2 mm. long, a little longer than broad, minutely punctate.

Type locality: Southern Peru.

Distribution: Mountains of southern Peru and northern Chile, at about 2,300 meters altitude. At Arequipa it is especially common, being found both above and below the city, where it was collected by Dr. Rose in 1914 (No. 18781).

This species, although recently described as new under the name of Cereus weberbaueri, is the one described by Meyen in 1833 as Cereus fascicularis. Meyen's description is very unsatisfactory, but he does describe the habit,

g. 205.—Trichocereus fascicularis

Fig. 206.—Flower of Trichocereus fascicularis. X0.7. Fig. 207.—Fruit of same. X0.7.

Fig. 208.—Flower of Trichocereus huascha. X0.7 Fig. 209.—Fruit of same. X0.7.

Fig. 206.—Flower of Trichocereus fascicularis. X0.7. Fig. 207.—Fruit of same. X0.7.

Fig. 208.—Flower of Trichocereus huascha. X0.7 Fig. 209.—Fruit of same. X0.7.

number of ribs, and size of flowers, all of which answer fairly well to our plant. A translation of his brief description is as follows: Erect, 16-angled, 4 feet high, somewhat jointed (3 to 4 joints); spines 8 or 9, in a radiating circle; flowers 9 or 10, white, 3.5 inches long, at the ends of the branches.

The flowers of this species differ from those of typical Trichocereus in that they are very slender, bent near the base, and have short perianth-segments.

Figure 205 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Rose at Arequipa, Peru, in 1914; figure 206 shows the flower and figure 207 the fruit of the plant photographed.

15. Trichocereus huascha (Weber).

Cereus huascha Weber, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 151. 1893.

Cereus huascha flaviflorus Weber, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 151. 1893.

More or less, cespitose, forming clumps 8 to 20 dm. broad; stems 8 to 16 dm. high, cylindric, 4 to 5 cm. in diameter; ribs 12 to 18, low, rounded; areoles approximate, often only 5 to 7 mm. apart; spines numerous, acicular, unequal, the longest often 5 to 6 cm, long, yellowish to brown; flowers very variable in color and size, red to yellow, 7 to 10 cm. long, broadly funnelform; scales on the ovary bearing long brown hairs.

Type locality: Yacutala, Catamarca, Argentina. Distribution: Northern Argentina.

Cereus huascha flaviformis Weber (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 136. 1893) is only a name. Figure 208 shows a flower and figure 209 a fruit collected by Dr. Shafer near Andalgala, Argentina, in 1916; figure 210 is from a photograph of the plant from which the flowers and fruit were taken.

Fig. 210.—Trichocereus huascha.

16. Trichocereus candicans (Gillies).

Cereus candicans Gillies in Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 335. 1834. Cereus candicans tenuispinus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 91. 1837. Cereus gladiatus Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 28. 1838. Cereus candicans robustior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 43. 1850. Echinocereus candicans Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 832. 1885. Echinocereus gladiatus Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 833. 1885. Echinopsis candicans Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 471. 1896, as synonym. Cereus candicans courantii Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 70. 1897. Cereus candicans gladiatus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 70. 1897.

Cespitose, forming large clumps often 1 to 3 meters in diameter; joints erect or spreading, 6 dm. long or less, 1 cm. in diameter or less, rounded at apex; ribs to 11, low, rounded or obtuse; areoles large, white-felted when young, 2 to 3 cm. apart; spines subulate, brownish yellow, more or less mottled; radial spines 10 or more, more or less spreading, unequal, the longest 4 cm. long;

central spines several, the longest nearly 10 cm. long; flowers very large, funnelform, very fragrant, showy, 15 cm. long; scales on flower-tube ovate, acuminate, bearing long hairs in their axils; inner perianth-segments white, oblong; fruit globose to ellipsoid, splitting on one side.

Type locality: Not cited, but doubtless Mendoza, Argentina.

Distribution: Mendoza and northward, Argentina,

Schumann describes 3 varieties, all apparently from Mendoza, which we have merged into the species. Plants as seen in the field show even greater variation than is called for in Schumann's descriptions, but they all evidently grade into one another.

Cereus montezumae Hortus (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 91. 1837, as synonym), C. dumesnilianus Haage (Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 172. 1894, as a probable variety of C. candi-cans), C. dumesnilianus Monville (Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 279. 1894, as synonym), Echinopsis dumesniliana Cels (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 69. 1897, as synonym; C. candicans dumesnilianus Zeissold, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 140. 1893), and Echinocereus candicans tenuispinus Pfeiffer (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 833. 1885) are usually referred here. Echinocactus candicans (Pfeiffer, Enum. 91. 1837) is a synonym only.

Cereus candicans spinosior Salm-Dyck (Walpers, Repert. Bot. 2: 276. 1843), undescribed, belongs here.

Schumann refers Echinocactus auratus Pfeiffer (Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: under pl. 14. 1846, to 1850) and its synonym Echinopsis aurata Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 39. 1850) to Cereus candicans, but this can not be, for the descriptions are very different. The former was described as depressed, 12 to 15 inches in diameter, only 4 to 5 inches high, and with 28 ribs. The type locality was Bellavista, Chile. It should be compared with Eriosyce sandillon and its relatives.* Echinopsis dumeliana Cels (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 39. 1850) is given as a synonym only; it is doubtless the name referred to by Schumann, but with different spelling.

Figure 195 shows a flower collected by Dr. Rose near Córdoba, Argentina, in 1915.

17. Trichocereus strigosus (Salm-Dyck).

Cereus strigosus Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 334. 1834.

Cereus intricatus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 194. 1850.

Echinocereus strigosus Lemaire in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 826. 1885.

Echinocereus strigosus spinosior Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 827. 1885.

Echinocereus strigosus rufispinus Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 827. 1885.

Echinocereus intricatus Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 830. 1885.

Cereus strigosus intricatus er in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 68. 1897.

Cereus strigosus longispinus Maass, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 119. 1905.

Cespitose, forming clumps 2 to 10 dm. in diameter, the branches usually simple, erect, or ascending, sometimes 6 dm. high, 5 to 6 cm. in diameter, very spiny; ribs 15 to 18, very low, 4 to 5 mm. high, obtuse; areoles circular, rather large, approximate, 4 to 8 mm. apart, densely white-felted when young; spines numerous, very variable as to color and length, either white, yellowish, or pinkish to nearly black, 1 to 5 cm. long, acicular; flowers white, large, 20 cm. long, funnelform, the scales on the ovary and tube with long silky hairs in their axils; seeds black, glossy, about 2 mm. long; hilum basal but oblique.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Western Argentina.

This species is very common in the deserts of the Province of Mendoza, especially about the city of Mendoza, and in the mountain valleys farther to the west. The first specimens were doubtless sent out through Chile, for before the railroads this was the most accessible route out from Mendoza.

Cereus myriophyllus Gillies (Allg. Gartenz. 1: 365. 1833), given by Schumann as a synonym of this species, was never described and the name was referred here originally with

* We have found that Echinocactus ceratistes Otto, one of the synonyms of Eriosyce, originally came from Bellavista, Chile, also.

doubt. C. strigosus spinosior Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 27. 1845) and C. strigosus rufispinus (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7: 184. 1897) also belong here, and, perhaps, C. spinibarbis flavidus (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 325. 1853).

Illustration: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 16: pl. 8, f. 1, as Cereus strigosus.

Figure 211 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Shafer at Andalgala, Argentina, in 1916.

Fig. 211.—Trichocereus strigosus.

18. Trichocereus shaferi sp. nov.

Cespitose, cylindric, 3 to 5 dm. high, 10 to 12.5 cm. in diameter, light green; ribs about 14, 10 to 15 mm. high; areoles approximate, 5 to 7 mm. apart, white-felted when young; spines about 10, acicular, 12 mm. long or less, light yellow; flowers from the top of plant, 15 to 18 cm. long; tube slender; outer perianth-segments linear; inner segments probably white; scales of the ovary and flower-tube bearing long brown hairs.

Collected by J. A. Shafer in wooded ravine, altitude 1,800 meters, near San Lorenzo, Salta, Argentina, January 11, 1917 (No. 44)

19. Trichocereus schickendantzii (Weber).

Echinopsis schickendantzii Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 473. 1896.

Plants simple or cespitose, slender, 15 to 25 cm. high, 6 cm. in diameter, dark green, shiny; ribs 14 to 18, low, 5 mm. high, somewhat crenate; spines yellowish, flexible, 5 to 10 mm. long; radial spines at first 9, in age more numerous; central spines 2 to 8; flower-bud pointed, covered with black wool; flowers funnelform, several from the top of the plant, inodorous, 20 to 22 cm. long; scales on the ovary and flower-tube with hairy axils; inner perianth-segments acute, oblong, white; fruit edible, agreeable.

Type locality: Tucuman, Argentina. Distribution: Northwestern Argentina.

Spegazzini thinks it is, not an Echinopsis but a Cereus, although he leaves it under the former genus. The flowers are not those of a true Cereus.

Weber (Dict. Hort. Bois 473. 1896) gives Cereus schickendantzii Weber as a synonym. Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 125, as Echinopsis schickendantzii.

PUBLISHED SPECIES, PERHAPS REFERABLE TO TRICHOCEREUS. Cereus arequipensis Meyen, Allg. Gartenz. 1: 211. 1833.

This may be a Trichocereus; we give a translation of Meyen's account of it:

"The number of cacti here, as well as in the southern provinces of Peru, is unusually large, and only a few of them are known in our greenhouses, also it is very difficult to transport them to us, as many of them die in the trip around Cape Horn. Cactus candelaris, which we first found in the Cordilleras of Tacna, appears here also, in isolated examples, and its distribution appears to he sharply confined between 7,000 and 9,000 feet altitude. However, close upon its heels comes another Cereus which surpasses it in beauty; it is 8-angled and reaches a height of 20 to 35 feet; upon its ribs appear at regular distances hairy areoles, from which protrude the spine clusters and the long white flowers. There is no more beautiful plant in this remarkable family, and we name it Cereus arequipensis."—Meyen, Reise 2: 41. 1835.

Cereus atacamensis Philippi, Fl. Atac. 23. i860.

Usually simple and columnar, 6 meters high or more, 5 to 7 dm. in diameter, containing a thick woody cylinder; ribs numerous, very spiny; areoles i.2 cm. in diameter, filled with brown wool; spines numerous, sometimes 30 to 40, often very slender, 10 cm. long.

Type locality: Mines of "San Bartolo."

Distribution: Province of Atacama, Chile.

The original specimen came from the desert of northern Chile, not far from the Bolivian line; it is not unlikely that the plant extends into Bolivia and northern Argentina. Indeed, Dr. Rose found a large woody section in the Museo Nacional del Santiago bearing this name and coming from Argentina. This material, supplemented by the illustration by Reiche from Chile and by Fries (Nov. Act. Soc. Sci. Upsal. IV. 1: pl. 4, 5. 1905) from Argentina, suggests the probability of Trichocereus pasacana belonging here.

In the Museo Nacional del Santiago are two very interesting wood sections of this species. One from Atacama is 1.55 meters long and 41 cm. in diameter, while the other, from Argentina, is 3 meters long and 44 cm. in diameter, with a hollow center 22 cm. in diameter. All that is left of the type material in the Philippi herbarium are two clusters of spines, these very long, slender, numerous, and brown.

Illustration: Engler and Drude, Veg. Erde 8: pl. 9, as Cereus atacamensis.

Cereus eriocarpus Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile 18912: 27. 1891.

Stems large, erect, simple below, with small branches above, 5 to 6 cm. in diameter, the upper part densely covered with white curly hairs; ribs 27 to 29; areoles very close together, 14 mm. in diameter, with grayish tomentum intermixed with straight spines 11 cm. long, grading into stiff bristles 4 cm. long; expanded flowers unknown; ovary 22 mm. in diameter, densely covered with white hairs.

Type locality: Calcalhuay, altitude 12,000 feet (3,700 meters).

Distribution: Province of Tarapaca, Chile.

We know the plant only from description and from fragments of the type specimen.

Cereus malletianus Cels in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 120. 1897.

"Stem upright, cylindric, somewhat crooked, slightly constricted above, hardly sunken in at the crown, exceeded by a brownish yellow thick tuft of spines which can not be seen under the wool, up to 4 cm. in diameter, bluish green; ribs i7, separated by sharp shallow furrows, hardly 4 mm. high, rounded and lightly sinuate, disappearing at the base; areoles 6 to 8 mm. apart, circular, 3 to 3.5 mm. in diameter, covered with short yellow wool, later turning gray, which gradually disappears; radial spines about 30, radiating horizontally, the inner spreading, needle-like, so thickly intertwined that they surround the entire body, the inner pair the longest, measuring i0 mm.; central spines 4, in an upright cross, sometimes more, since they are not sharply distinguishable from the radial spines, the lowermost, sometimes, however, the uppermost, the longest, measur ing up to 2 cm., this one is yellowish brown, darker above; the remaining spines are yellowish when young, then become white, almost translucent, finally they turn gray and are knocked off." (Translation of Schumann's description.)

Type locality: Not definitely cited.

Distribution: Andes, South America.

Echinopsis catamarcensis Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 471. 1896.

Echinocactus catamarcensis Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 500. 1905.

Stems simple, ellipsoid to shortly columnar, up to 1 meter high, grayish green; ribs 13 to 17, high, somewhat undulate; radial spines 10, pale brown, subulate, somewhat curved; central spines 4, arranged in a single perpendicular row, somewhat curved; flowers supposed to be yellow.

Type locality: Catamarca, Argentina.

Distribution: Argentina.

Weber gives Cereus catamarcensis (Dict. Hort. Bois 471) as a synonym of this species.

25. JASMINOCEREUS gen. nov.

Stems upright and tall with a definite cylindric trunk and a much branched top; ribs numerous, low; areoles circular, bearing felt and spines; flowers slender, salverform or perhaps funnelform, the slender tube narrowly cylindric, the limb broad, spreading; inner perianth-segments narrow, yellow or brownish; stamens and style exserted; ovary bearing small spreading scales with small tufts of wool in their axils; fruit oblong, smooth, except the small scarious scales, these naked in their axils; seeds minute, black.

A monotypic genus of the Galapagos Islands. The name signifies jasmine-like cereus, with reference to the flowers.

Fig. 212.—Jasminocereus galapagensis.

1. Jasminocereus galapagensis (Weber).

Cereus galapagensis Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 5: 312. 1899. Cereus sclerocarpus Schumann in Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 38: 179. 1902.

Tall, often 8 meters high or more; trunk large, cylindric, 15 to 30 cm. in diameter; branches spreading, very stout, composed of many short joints, about 14 cm. in diameter; ribs 15 to 18, low, about 1 cm. high, separated by broad, rounded intervals; areoles rather close together, 1 cm. apart or less, bearing brown felt; spines various as to length, sometimes only 1 cm. long, sometimes 8 cm. long, usually slender, sometimes bristle-like, often 10 or more at an areole; flowers various in size, 5 to 11 cm. long, "chocolate-brown with yellow stripes"; outer perianth-segments spatulate, 2 to 3 cm. long; inner perianth-segments linear, about 2.4 to 3 cm. long; ovary terete, scaly; scales few, I to 1.5 mm. long, ovate, acute; stigma-lobes 11; flower-tube about twice as long as the segments; fruit greenish, short-oblong, 5 cm. long, 4 cm. in diameter, with a thin tough rind, palatable.

Type locality: St. Charles Island, Galapagos.

Distribution: Various islands of the Galapagos group.

This species and the other cacti of the Galapagos Islands were discovered by Charles Darwin in 1835. He associated this species with Cereus peruvianus, which it resembles only in its large cylindric trunk. The various collectors who have since visited these islands have noted this striking plant, but little material has been collected and even to-day our knowledge is very limited.

W. Botting Hemsley has written most interestingly of the cactus flora of the islands (Gard. Chron. 111. 24: 265, 266. 1898; 27: 177, 178. 1900).

Mr. Alban Stewart, who made extensive collections in the Galapagos Islands in 1905 and 1906, discusses the cacti in considerable detail (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. IV. 1: 107 to 115).

He recognizes two columnar arborescent species under the names Cereus galapagensis Weber and Cereus sclerocarpus Schumann, and indicates that they may be distinguished by habit characters, but remarks particularly on the great variability of the flowers of both.

Illustrations: Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. IV. 1: pl. 6, 16, as Cereus sclerocarpus; Gard. Chron. III. 27: 185. f. 61, as Cereus sp.; Wolf, Geographia y Geologia del Ecuador f. 41, pl. 11; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 23: pl. 16, 20.

Figure 212 is from a photograph of the plant in its natural habitat on Charles Island, Galapagos, contributed by the United States Fish Commission; figures 213 and 214 show flowers drawn from an herbarium specimen in the collection of the California Academy of Sciences, collected by Alban Stewart (No. 2097) in 1905 and 1906.

Figs. 213 and 214.—Flowers of J. galapagensis. X0.6.

26. HARRISIA Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 35: 561. 1908.

Eriocereus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 238. 1909.

Night-flowering cacti with slender, branched stems, the branches fluted or angled, each areole with several acicular spines; flowers borne singly at areoles near the ends of the branches, funnelform, large, with a cylindric, scaly tube as long as the limb or longer; buds globose, ovoid or obovoid, the scales subtending areoles which bear tufts of long or short hairs, persistent or sometimes deciduous as the flower expands; outer perianth-segments mostly pink or greenish, linear to lanceolate; inner perianth-segments white or pinkish; stamens shorter than the perianth; ovary and young fruit tubercled; style somewhat longer than the stamens; fruit globose to obovoid-globose, spineless or spiny, but with mostly deciduous scales, the corolla withering-persistent; seeds numerous, small.

The genus is named in honor of William Harris, superintendent of Public Gardens and Plantations of Jamaica, distinguished for his contributions to the knowledge of the flora of that island.

We recognize 17 species, distributed from Florida and the Bahamas and the Greater Antilles to Argentina. The type species is Cereus gracilis Miller.

The vegetative characters of the first 9 species here recognized, natives of Florida and the West Indies, are very much alike; their showy yellow or orange-red fruits are edible. The young stem-areoles are subtended by subulate small deciduous leaves in several species.

Fig. 215.—Harrisia eriophora.

Key to Species.

A. Fruit yellow or orange-red, not splitting (Euharrisia). B. Plants erect.

Hairs of the flower-areoles white. Perianth-segments entire.

Hairs of the flower-areoles copious, 1 to 1.5 cm. long.

Fruit yellow 1. H. eriophora

Fruit orange-red 2. H. fragrans

Hairs of the flower-areoles few and short.

Flower-buds depressed-truncate; fruit yellow 3. H. portoricensis

Flower-buds pointed.

Flower-buds obovoid, short-pointed; color of fruit unknown 4. H. nashii

Flower-buds ovoid, very long-pointed; fruit yellow 5. H. brookii

Perianth-segments denticulate.

Fruit yellow 6. H. gracilis

Fruit orange-red 7. H. simpsonii

Hairs of the flower-areoles tawny or brown.

Hairs of the flower-areoles 1 to 1.5 cm. long; color of fruit unknown;

spines up to 6 cm. long 8. H. fernowi

Hairs of flower-areoles 7 mm. long or less; fruit yellow; spines much shorter 9. H. aboriginum

BB. Plants prostrate and pendent on rocks 10. H. earlei

AA. Fruit red, often splitting (Eriocereus).

Joints several-ribbed or subterete. Ribs of the joints prominent. Ribs not tubercled.

Plants bright green 11. H. tortuosa

Plants bluish green 12. H. pomanensis

Ribs of old joints strongly tubercled.

Central spine 1, much longer than radial spines 13. H. martinii

Spines of nearly the same length 14. H. adscendens

Ribs of the joints low and broad 15. H. platygona

Joints 3 to 5-angled.

Scales of the perianth-tube copiously woolly in the axils 16. H. bonplandii

Scales of the perianth-tube scarcely woolly in the axils 17. H. guelichii



2. Fruiting branch of the same.

(Natural size.)

2. Fruiting branch of the same.

(Natural size.)

1. Harrisia eriophora (Pfeiffer) Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 35: 562. 1908.

(?) Cereus cubensis Zuccarini in Seitz, Allg. Gartenz. 2: 244. 1834.

Cereus eriophorus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 94. 1837.

Plant 3.5 dm. high or less, the young joints bright green, the main stem 4 cm. in diameter or more, the branches nearly as thick, erect or ascending, 8 or 9-ribbed, the ribs prominent, the depressions between them rather deep; areoles 2 to 4 cm. apart; spines 6 to 9, the longer ones 2.5 to 4 cm. long, light brown with nearly black tips; buds ovoid, sharp-pointed, their scales subtending tufts of bright white-woolly hairs 1 to 1.5 cm. long; flowers 12 to 18 cm. long; scales of the tube lanceolate, acuminate, appressed, 1 to 1.5 cm. long, subtending long white hairs; outer perianth-segments pale pink outside, the outermost greenish; inner segments pure white, tipped with a hair-like cusp 5 mm. long; filaments white; anthers oblong, yellow; pistil cream-colored; fruit subglobose, yellow, about 6 cm. in diameter, edible.

Type locality: Cuba.

Distribution: Central and western Cuba and Isle of Pines.

The names Cereus eriophorus laeteviridis and C. repandus laetevirens (Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 335. 1834), both unpublished, may belong here.

The flower-buds, copiously covered with bright white wool, are conspicuous.

Plants grown in the Habana Botanical Garden, formerly referred to Cereus undatus (Bull. Torr. Club 35: 564), apparently belong to this species.

Illustration: Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 1: pl. 22, as Cereus eriophorus.

Plate xviii, figure 1, shows the flower of a plant from Mariel, Cuba, painted at the New York Botanical Garden, July 12, 1912; figure 2 shows a fruiting branch of a plant sent by C. F. Baker in 1907. Figure 215 is from a photograph taken by C. S. Gager at Mariel, Cuba, in 1910.

Fig. 216.—Harrisia fragrans.

2. Harrisia fragrans Small, sp. nov.

Plants 5 meters tall or less, the stems erect, reclining or clambering prominently, 10 to 12-ridged, the ridges more or less depressed between the areoles, the grooves rather deep and sharp; areoles about 2 cm. apart; spines acicular, 9 to 13 in each areole, mostly grayish and yellowish at the tip, one of each areole longer than the others, mostly 2 to 4 cm. long; young buds copiously white-hairy; flowers 12 to 20 cm. long, odorous; ovary bearing subulate or lanceolate-subulate scales subtending long white hairs; scales of the flower-tube few and remote, subulate, slenderly acuminate, not turgid, with a tuft of long white hairs in each axil; outer perianth-segments very narrowly linear, slenderly acuminate; inner perianth-segments white or pinkish, spatulate, caudate-tipped; fruit obovoid or globose, about 6 cm. in diameter, dull red, with tufts of long hairs persistent with the scale-bases.

Coastal sand-dunes, Brevard and St. Lucie Counties, Florida. Type collected by John K. Small on sand-dunes 6 miles south of Fort Pierce, December 1917.

Plants, taken to the cactus plantation of Mr. Charles Deering at Miami, Florida, in 1917, flowered and fruited in April 1918.

Plate xix, figure 1, shows a flowering top of a plant from an island east of Malabar, Florida, brought to the New York Botanical Garden by Dr. Small in 1903; figure 2 shows its fruit. Figure 16 is from a photograph of the plant in the cactus garden of Mr. Charles Deering, Miami, Florida, taken by Dr. Small.

3. Harrisia portoricensis Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 35: 563. 1908.

Cereusportoricensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 430. 1910.

Plant slender, 2 to 3 meters high, little branched, the branches nearly erect, 3 to 4 cm. thick, 11-ribbed, the ribs rounded, the depressions between them shallow; areoles 1.5 to 2 cm. apart; spines 13 to 17, grayish white to brown with dark tips, the longer ones 2.5 to 3 cm. long; bud obovoid, depressed-truncate, its areoles with many curled white hairs 6 mm. long or less; flower about 1.5 dm. long; outer perianth-segments pinkish green inside, the inner white; scales of the flower-tube lanceolate, appressed, 1.5 cm. long, the areoles loosely hairy, the hair completely deciduous in flakes; fruit ovoid to globose, yellow, tubercled, becoming smooth or nearly so, 4 to 6 cm. in diameter.

Fig. 217.—Harrisia portoricensis. Fig. 218.—Harrisia nashii.

Type locality: Near Ponce, Porto Rico.

Distribution: Type locality and vicinity, and on the islands Mona and Desecheo. Plate xvii, figure 3, shows a fruiting branch of the plant from the type locality, painted at the New York Botanical Garden in 1914. Figure 217 is from a photograph taken at the type locality by Delia W. Marble in 1913.





1. Top of flowering branch of Harrisia fragrans.

2. Top of fruiting joint of Harrisia fragrans.

3. Fruiting branch of Harrisia martinii.

(All natural size.)

1. Top of flowering branch of Harrisia fragrans.

2. Top of fruiting joint of Harrisia fragrans.

3. Fruiting branch of Harrisia martinii.

(All natural size.)

4. Harrisia nashii Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 35: 564. 1908.

?Cereus divergens Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 95. 1837.

Cereus nashii Vaupel, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 27. 1913.

Slender, erect, 2 to 3 meters high; branches widely divergent, light green, 3 to 4 cm. thick, 9 to 11-ribbed, the ribs rounded; areoles 2 to 2.5 cm. apart; spines only 3 to 6, gray, the longer ones 1,5 mm. long; bud narrowly obovoid, obtuse, very short-pointed, its scales subtending many curled white hairs 6 mm. long or less; flower 1.6 to 2 dm. long; scales of the flower-tube linear, acuminate, 1.5 cm. long, subtending a few hairs; fruit ellipsoid, 6 to 8 cm. long, 4 to 5 cm. thick, very strongly tubercled, at least when immature, the conic tubercles 6 to 8 mm. high.

Type locality: Between Gonaives and Plaisance, Haiti.

Distribution: Arid parts of Hispaniola.

Cereus divergens Pfeiffer is known only from the description of a sterile plant.

Cereus divaricatus De Candolle (Prodr. 3: 466. 1828; Cactus divaricatus Lamarck, Encycl. 1: 540. 1783; Pilocereus divaricatus Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 427. 1862) is based upon Plumier's plate 193, which can not be certainly associated with any known cactus.

Figure 218 is from a photograph by Paul G. Russell near Azua, Santo Domingo, in 1913.

Here perhaps is to be referred Cactus fimbriatus Lamarck (Encycl. 1: 539. 1783; Cereus fimbriatus De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 464. 1828; Pilocereus fimbriatus Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 427. 1862) and Cereus serruliflorus Haworth (Phil. Mag. 7: 113. 1830), both of which were based on Burmann's plate of Plumier (pl. 195, f. 1, A, B, C, and D), found along the coast of Haiti under the name of la bande du sud. Cactus fimbriatus Descourtilz (Fl. Med. Antill. ed. 2. 6: 160. pl. 419), which refers to the same plate of Plumier, is really based upon pl. 195, f. 2, of Burmann, and is probably a Lemaireocereus.

5. Harrisia brookii Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 35: 564. 1908.

Cereus brookii Vaupel, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 24. 1913.

Plant 5 meters high, much branched, light green; branches 3 to 4 cm. thick, 10-ribbed, the ribs sometimes prominent, with deep depressions between them; areoles about 2 cm. apart; spines 9 to 12, the longer ones 2 to 2.5 cm. long; young upper spines of areoles brown, others white; bud ovoid, prominently long-pointed, its scales with few curled white hairs 7 to 10 mm. long; fruit yellowish, ellipsoid or subglobose, about 8 cm. in diameter, rounded at both ends, the tubercles very low, with tips only I .5 mm. high, the linear scales persistent.

Type locality: Clarence Town, Long Island, Bahamas.

Distribution: Long Island, Bahamas.

Figure 219 shows a fruit of the type plant; figure 220 shows a flower-bud of the same.

6. Harrisia gracilis (Miller) Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 35: 563.

Cereus gracilis Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8, No. 8. 1768.

Cactus gracilis Weston, Bot. Univers. 1: 33. 1770.

Cereus repandus Haworth, Syn. Fl. Succ. 183. 1812. Not Cactus repandus Linnaeus, 1753.

Cereus subrepandus Haworth, Suppl. Pl. Succ. 78. 1819.

Cereus undatus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 9. 1837. Not Haworth, 1830.

Harrisia undata Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 35: 564. 1908.

Eriocereus subrepandus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 243. 1909.

Plant much branched, often 7 meters high, dark green, its branches rather slender, somewhat divergent, 9 to 11-ribbed, the ribs rounded, the depressions between them rather shallow; areoles 1.5 to 2 cm. apart; spines 10 to 16, whitish with black tips, the longer 2 to 2.5 cm. long; bud oblong-ovoid, short-pointed, its scales subtending a few straight white hairs 8 to 12 mm. long; corolla 2 dm. long, the scales of its tube greenish brown, narrowly lanceolate, abruptly bent upward near the base, acuminate, about 2 cm. long, subtending a few hairs, the outer perianth-segments pale brown, the inner white, denticulate (or sometimes entire?); fruit depressed-globose, yellow, about 5 cm. long,

Fig. 219.—Fruit of Harrisia brookii. X0.6. Fig. 220.—Flower-bud of same. X0.6.


6 to 7 cm. thick, the base flat, the top bluntly pointed, strongly tubercled when young, the tubercles low-conic, about 4 mm. high, about 1.5 cm. from tip to tip, bearing a deciduous triangular-lanceolate scale 6 to 8 mm. long, becoming confluent, the fruit finally smooth or nearly so, yellow.

Type locality: British Islands of America. Distribution: Jamaica.

The following names were referred to Cereus repandus as synonyms by Schumann: Cereus tinei Todaro (Ind. Sem. Hort. Panorm. 39. 1857; C. cossyrensis Tineo in Todaro, Ind. Sem. Hort. Panorm. 39. 1857), said to have come from Brazil, and Cereus erectus Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 95. 1837), stated definitely to have come from Mexico.

Illustrations: Trew, Fl. Select. pl. 14, as Cereus etc.; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. 411. f. 6862; Edwards's Bot. Reg. 4: pl. 336, as Cactus repandus; De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: pl. 13, as Cereus repandus; Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 1: pl. 23, as Cereus undatus.

Fig. 221.—Harrisia gracilis.

Plate xx, figure 1, shows a fruiting branch of a plant in the New York Botanical Garden. Figure 221

is from a photograph taken in Jamaica, contributed by Fig 222.—Flower of Hamsia gradhs. William Harris; figure 222 is copied from the last illustration above cited.

7. Harrisia simpsonii Small, sp. nov.

Plants up to 6 meters high, erect, reclining, or spreading, simple or more or less branched; ribs 8 to 10; areoles 1 to 2 cm. apart; spines 7 to 14, gray when mature, 1 to 2.5 cm. long; buds white-hairy; flowers 12 to 17 cm. long; scales of the ovary lanceolate-subulate, subtending few white hairs 10 mm. long or less; scales of the flower-tube lanceolate, distant; outer perianth-segments linear; inner perianth-segments spatulate, acute or acuminate, erose-denticulate; fruit depressed-globose, orange-red, 4 to 6 cm. in diameter.

2. Top of flowering branch of Harrisia martinii. (Natural size.)

Found on Hammocks, Keys of Florida, and southern mainland coast. Type from between Cape Sable and Flamingo, collected by John K. Small, November 29, 1916.

The species is dedicated to Charles Torrey Simpson, naturalist, long resident in Florida. Flowers of a plant from Pumpkin Key, grown at the cactus garden of Mr. Charles Deer-ing, Miami, Florida, and at the New York Botanical Garden, have the flower-tube little, if any, longer than the limb; the stems

Fig. 223.—Harrisia simpsonii. Fig. 224.—Harrisia taylori.

8. Harrisia fernowi Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 35: 562. 1908.

Cereuspellucidus Grisebach, Cat. Pl. Cub. 116. 1866. Not C. pellucidus Otto, 1837.

Plant 2.5 to 3 meters high; branches slender, about 2.5 cm. thick, light green, 9-ribbed, the ribs not prominent, the depressions between them shallow; areoles about 2 cm. apart; spines 8 to ii, light brown with blackish tips, the longer ones 6 cm. long; bud subglobose-ovoid, its scales subtending and rather densely covered with tawny, curled woolly hairs i cm. long; flower nearly 2 dm. long, its ovary and tube bearing oblong-lanceolate, acute scales 1 to 2 cm. long, subtending tufts of long brown hairs; outer perianth-segments linear, acuminate, the inner white, spatulate, entire, short-acuminate.

Type locality: Between Rio Grande and Rio Ubero, Oriente, Cuba.

Distribution: Dry parts of Oriente Province, Cuba.

Plate xxiv, figure 1, shows a flowering branch of the type plant from a painting made at the New York Botanical Garden, July 9, 1912.

8a. Harrisia taylori Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 35: 565. 1908.

Cereus taylori Vaupel, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 37. 1913.

Plant light green, branched above, 1.5 to 2 meters high, the branches divaricate-ascending, rather stout, 4 to 5 cm. thick, 9-ribbed, the ribs rounded, the depressions between them rather

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