The cactaceae

Cleistocactus hyalacanthus (Schumann) Gosselin, Bull. Mens. Soc. Nice 44: 33. 1904.

Cereus hyalacanthus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 101. 1897.

This is described as upright, less than 1 meter high; ribs 20, low, obtuse; areoles elliptic; spines in clusters of 25 or more, the longest 2 cm. long, acicular, white, puberulent; flowers somewhat curved, 3 to 3.5 cm. long; ovary covered with numerous scales bearing copious brown wool in their axils.

It is known only from specimens collected by Otto Kuntze in the Province of Jujuy, Argentina.

Cleistocactus parviflorus (Schumann) Gosselin, Bull. Mens. Soc. Nice 44: 32. 1904.

Cereus parviflorus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 100. 1897.

Described as columnar, 2 to 3 meters high; branches 3 cm. in diameter; ribs 12, deeply marked by transverse furrows; radial spines 5 to 7, the longest one mm. long, subulate, dark yellow; flowers from only a single rib, one above another, 2.5 to 3 cm. long; ovary covered with short, oblong to triangular scales bearing in their axils felt; fruit yellow, 1 cm. in diameter.

Collected near Parotani, Bolivia, by Otto Kuntze.

35. ZEHNTNERELLA gen. nov.

Tall and slender, much branched at base; ribs numerous, very spiny; flowers scattered along the upper part of the stem, 1 from an areole, perhaps night-blooming, very small; tube short but definite, about the length of the throat; base of throat filled with a ring of long white hairs; inner perianth-segments minute, white; ovary and flower-tube covered with small scales, their axils filled with hairs; fruit small, globular; seeds minute, tuberculately roughened, brownish to blackish, with a large basal slightly depressed hilum.

Named for Dr. Leo Zehntner, formerly of the Horto Florestal, Joazeiro, Brazil, who has furnished us specimens and valuable information concerning many of the cacti from this region. It is a great pleasure to name a genus for this very keen observer, who has done such valuable work in Brazil, often under very trying circumstances. It is based upon a plant which Dr. Rose collected with him on the hills east of Joazeiro, Bahia, June 4, 1915 (No. 19760). Our plant may be the same as Cereus squamosus Gurke (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 70. 1908). A photograph of this species was reproduced (Bot. Jahrb. Engler 40: Beibl. 93: pl. 10) and this resembles Zehntnerella squa-mulosa, but the detailed description of Cereus squamosus does not wholly agree with it, and we have been unable to examine the type specimen of Cereus squamosus.

Fig. 249.—Zehntnerella squamulosa.

1. Zehntnerella squamulosa sp. nov.

Trunk, when present, 15 to 20 cm. in diameter, but usually a cluster of branches arising from the base; branches usually strict, 4 meters long or more, 5 to 7 cm. in diameter, covered with a mass of spines; ribs 17 to 20, low, close together; areoles circular, small; spines 10 to 15, acicular. chestnut-brown, the longest ones 3 cm. long; flowers small, 3 cm. long; inner perianth-segments oblong, 4 mm. long; lower scales on the ovary ovate, apiculate, 1 to 4 mm. long, the upper ones becoming oblong, all glabrous, the hairs in the axils white; fruit about 2 cm. in diameter, crowned by the withered perianth; seeds 1 mm. long.

This plant was common in a restricted rocky out-crop east of Joazeiro, called the Serra do Atoleiro, where flowers and photographs were obtained by Dr. Rose, June 4, 1915 (No. 19760, type) and ripe fruit was collected at the same locality by Dr. Zehntner in October 1917 ^ _

This species is called facheiro preto in Bahia. Flower of

Figure 249 is from a photograph taken by Paul G. Russell in Bahia, Brazil, in ^sa^Nat-1915; figure 250 shows a flower of the plant photographed. ural size.

36. LOPHOCEREUS (Berger) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 426. 1909.

Columnar, stout cacti, the stems simple or with few branches, or much branched at base; ribs few; areoles on lower part of stem very different from the upper ones; flowering areoles large, felted, developing long bristles standing out at right angles to the axils of the stem; flowers usually several at each areole, small, funnelform, with short narrow tubes, nocturnal, beginning to open at about six o'clock at night and by eight or nine fully expanded, but closed the following morning, odorless; outer perianth-segments greenish; inner perianth-segments pink; stamens short, included; fruit small, red, globular, when mature bursting irregularly, glabrous or with a few spines and some felt in axils of lower scales; seeds numerous, small, black, shining, with a depressed basal hilum.

Type species: Cereus schottii Engelmann.

Three species have been recognized in this genus, all from the same floral region, which we now regard as reducible to one.

The generic name is from the Greek, signifying crested-cereus, with reference to the bristly top of the flowering stem.

1. Lophocereus schottii (Engelmann) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 427. 1909.

Cereus schottii Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 288. 1856.

Pilocereus schottii Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 428. 1862.

Cereus sargentianus Orcutt, Gard. and For. 4: 436. 1891.

Pilocereus sargentianus Orcutt in Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 2: 76. 1892.

Cereuspalmeri Engelmann in Coulter Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 401. 1896.

Cereus schottii australis K. Brandegee, Zoe 5: 3. 1900.

Lophocereus australis Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 427. 1909.

Lophocereus sargentianus Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 427. 1909.

Usually branching only at base, forming large clumps sometimes with as many as 50 or even 100 upright or ascending stems, 1 to 7 meters high; ribs usually 5 to 7, but sometimes 9, separated by broad intervals; bristles of the flowering areoles numerous, straight, finely acicular, gray, 6 cm. long or less; flowerless areoles smaller, little felted, with 3 to 7 short subulate spreading radial spines swollen at base and 1 or 2 central ones a little longer and stouter; flowers 3 to 4 cm. long; style, stigma-lobes, and filaments whitish; fruit 2 to 3 cm. in diameter, usually naked, rarely spiny; seeds 2.5 mm. long.

Type locality: In Sonora, toward Magdalena, Mexico.

Distribution: Southern Arizona, Sonora, and Lower California.

As with many other columnar cacti, this is sometimes used for fences. It is usually called sinita, with various spellings.

This species is remarkable among cacti on account of the long bristle-like spines, which develop at the ends of the flowering branches, giving the plant the appearance of bearing terminal brushes. This modification of the spines from the flowering areoles is similar to the changes we see in certain other genera such as Cephalocereus, Arrojadoa, and to a less extent in Carnegiea, on account of which both this species and Carnegiea gigantea have been referred by some authors to the genus Pilocereus.

Lophocereus schottii inhabits parts of western Mexico and southern Arizona, which have great aridity, but it usually grows in colonies and in this way seems to withstand the rigor of the desert. Its range is more extensive than that of most cacti and it shows considerable variability. Three species of Lophocereus have been described, but appear to be merely geographical races of this one.

Illustrations: MacDougal, Bot. N. Amer. Des. pl. 8; Cad. Mex. Bound. pl. 74, f. 16, as Cereus schottii; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 37, 38, as Pilocereus schottii; Orcutt, Gard. and For. 4: f. 69, as C. sargentianus; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 86, as P. sargentianus.

Fig. 251.—Lophocereus schottii.

Figure 251 is from a photograph obtained by Edward Palmer near Guaymas, Sonora; figure 252 shows a section through the upper part of a flowering stem collected by Dr. Rose at Abreojos Point, Lower California, in 1911; figure 253 shows a flower of a plant brought by Dr. MacDougal from Arizona to the New York Botanical Garden in 1902.

37. MYRTILLOCACTUS Console, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 1: 8. 1897.

Large cacti, usually with short trunks and large, much branched tops, the stout, few-ribbed branches nearly erect, all the areoles bearing the same kind of spines; flowers diurnal, very small, several, sometimes as many as 9 at an areole, with very short tubes and widely spreading perianth-segments; ovary bearing a few minute scales with tufts of wool in their axils, spineless; fruit small, globular, edible; seed very small, black, with basal hilum.

Type species: Cereus geometrizans Martius.

This genus has no very close allies. We have grouped it with Lophocereus and the following genus, because they likewise have more than 1 flower from an areole, but otherwise little else in common. The small flowers somewhat resemble orange flowers, having scarcely any tubes; the short stamens are almost entirely exserted. The fruits are small berries.

We know 4 closely related species, natives of Mexico and Guatemala. The name is from the Greek, signifying berry-cactus, referring to the small fruit.

Fig. 253.—Flower of Lophocereus schottii. Natural

Fig. 252.—Cross-Section of stem of Lophocereus schottii. X0.5.

Fig. 253.—Flower of Lophocereus schottii. Natural

Fig. 254.—Section of rib of Myrtillo-cactus geometrizans with fruit at the areoles. Xo. 8.

Key to Species.

Young branches very blue; central spine elongated, reflexed, dagger-like 1. M. geometrizans

Young branches green; central spine not dagger-like.

Spines usually 3 to 5, ascending, with no definite central spine or, when present, very short . .2. M. cochal Spines 6 or more, with definite central spine.

Radial spines 5; fruit oblong, 10 to 15 mm. long 3. M. schenckii

Ort. Bot. Palermo

1850.

1897.

Radial spines more than 5; fruit globular, 6 mm. in diameter

1. Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Martius) Console, Boll. R

Cereus geometrizans Martius in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 90. 1837 Cereuspugioniferus Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 30. 1838. Cereus gladiator Otto and Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 6: 34. 1838 Cereus geometrizans pugioniferus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 48. Cereus geometrizans quadrangularispinus Lemaire in Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 367. 1853.

Tree-like, with a short definite trunk crowned by a large, much branched top; branches often a little curved, bluish green, usually 5 or 6-ribbed, 6 to 10 cm. in diameter, very blue when young; ribs 2 to 3 cm. high, rounded; areoles 2 to 3 cm. apart; radial and central spines very different, almost filling the areoles; radial spines usually 5, rarely 8 or 9, usually short, 2 to 10 mm. long, but sometimes 3 cm. long, more or less turned backward, a little flattened radially but swollen at base; central spine elongated, dagger-shaped, flattened laterally, 1 to 7 cm. long and sometimes 6 mm. broad; flowers appearing from the upper part of the areole, 2.5 to 3.5 cm. broad, the limb 3 to 4 times as long as the tube; perianth-segments oblong, 1.5 cm. long; stamens numerous, erect, exserted; fruit ellipsoid to subglobose, edible, purplish or bluish, 1 to 2 cm. long.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: San Luis Potosí to Oaxaca, Mexico.

This cactus is very common on the Mexican tableland. The fruits, known as garrambullas, are to be found in all the Mexican markets, and are eaten both fresh and dried; the dried fruits very much resemble raisins in appearance and are used in much the same way.

The name Cereus pugioniferus quadrangulispinus Lemaire is given by Förster (Handb. Cact. 395 . 1846) as a synonym for C. pugioniferus; Cereus geometrizans quadrangulispinus Lemaire is given only by name by Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 48. 1850); Labouret (Monogr. Cact. 366. 1853) gives Cereus gladiator geometrizans Monville (Cat. 1846) as a synonym for C. geometrizans pugioniferus Salm-Dyck; Cereus arrigens Monville and C. gladiger Lemaire are both given by Labouret (Monogr. Cact. 367. 1853) as synonyms for the variety Cereus geometrizans quadrangularispinus Lemaire.

Cereus aquicaulensis (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 90. 1837) is not published, but is given only as a synonym of this species. Cereus quadrangulispinus Lemaire (Linnaea 19: 363. 1846) is only a name.

Cereus garambello Haage in Förster (Handb. Cact. 433. 1846), unpublished, belongs here.

Illustrations: Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 1: f. 1 to 4; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pl. 72; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 9, f. 2; pl. 11, f. 1. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 15: pl. 2, f. 1; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 23, these last two as Cereus geometrizans.

Plate xxvi, figure 1, is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal near Tehuacán, Mexico, in 1908. Figure 254 shows a section of a rib and the small fruits of a plant collected by Edward Palmer at San Luis Potosí in 1905 and figure 255 shows its flower.

2. Myrtillocactus cochal (Orcutt) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 427. 1909.

Cereus cochal Orcutt, West Amer. Sci. 6: 29. 1889.

Cereus geometrizans cochal K. Brandegee, Zoe 5: 4. 1900.

Plant 1 to 3 meters high, much branched; trunk short, woody, sometimes 3 dm. in diameter; ribs 6 to 8, obtuse, separated by shallow intervals; spines grayish to black; radial spines 5, short; central spines when present 2 cm. long; flowers open night and day, 2.5 cm. long and fully as broad; perianth-segments usually 16, light green, the outer ones tinged with purple, oblong; filaments white; stigma-lobes 5 or 6, white; fruit edible, slightly acid, globular, 12 to 18 mm. in diameter, red.

Type locality: Todos Santos Bay, Lower California.

Distribution: Lower California.

This species is called cochal by the Indians of Lower California, who use the stems for firewood and are said to eat the fruit.

Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 74, as Cereus cochal.

3. Myrtillocactus schenckii (J. A. Purpus) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 427. 1909.

Cereus schenckii J. A. Purpus, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: 38. 1909.

Tree-like, 3 to 5 meters high, with a very stout trunk and many short ascending branches, dark green; areoles circular, crowded with black felt, about 5 mm. apart; radial spines 6 to 8, straight, 5 to 12 mm. long, black or brownish; central spine 1, usually 2 cm. long, sometimes 5 cm. long; fruits small, oblong, 10 to 15 mm. long, naked; seeds black, pitted.

Type locality: Sierra de Mixteca, Puebla, Mexico.

Distribution: Puebla and Oaxaca, Mexico.

In habit and fruit this species is very similar to the well-known Cereus geometrizans, but differs from it greatly in color of stem and in the areoles and spines.

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 19: 39, as Cereus schenckii; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pl. 73.

Plate xxvi, figure 2, shows a photograph taken by Dr. D. T. MacDougal between Mitla and Oaxaca City in 1906.

4. Myrtillocactus eichlamii sp. nov.

Branches strongly 6-angled, deep green or slightly glaucous; ribs obtuse; areoles 2 cm. apart, large, circular, with grayish wool at time of flowering; radial spines 5, bulbose at base; central spine 1, a little longer than the radials; flower-buds dark purple; outer perianth-segments greenish with 55 red tips; inner perianth-segments creamy white, about 10, spreading almost at right angles to the tube; stamens numerous, pale, somewhat spreading; style white, a little longer than the stamens; flowers fully open at half past nine o'clock in the morning, deliciously fragrant; fruit small, globular, 6 mm. in diameter, wine-colored, naked except a few small scales.

BRITTON AND ROSE, VOL. II

PLATE XXVI

1. Myrtillocactus geometrizans, Tehuacan, Mexico.

2. Myrtillocactus schenckii, near Mitla, Mexico.

This species is described from a plant sent by the late Federico Eichlam, in 1909, from Guatemala, which flowered in Washington, April 1910. It differs from Myrtillocactus geom-etrizans in its larger, greener branches and different armament. Figure 256 shows a flower and two fruits of the type plant.

Myrtillocactus Eichlamii
Fig. 256.—Myrtillocactus eichlamii. Flower and fruits. Natural size.

38. NEORAIMONDIA gen. nov.

A very stout cactus, the stems branched at base; branches erect, columnar, few-ribbed, the ribs separated by broad intervals, very spiny; areoles brown-felted, enormously developed, thick, the flowering ones sometimes elongated and branched, forming cephalium-like masses, these spineless but with ridges of short brown felt; flowers 2 on the areoles or solitary, funnelform, the tube stout, longer than the limb; perianth-segments oblong; scales of the ovary and flower-tube with short brown wool in their axils; fruit ellipsoid to globular, covered with globular areoles with short brown wool and short spines; seed dull black with pitted surface and a depressed hilum.

A monotypic genus of western Peru. It is named in honor of Antonio Raimond (18251890), the great geographer and naturalist of Peru.

Berger says of the plant, which he referred to the subgenus Eulychnia (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10: 68. 1905):

Fig. 257.—Neoraimondia macrostibas.

Fig. 258.—Flower and enlarged areole of N. macrostibas. X0.7.

Fig. 257.—Neoraimondia macrostibas.

Fig. 258.—Flower and enlarged areole of N. macrostibas. X0.7.

"But I am quite aware that in this form the subgenus Eulychnia is more artificial than natural. For instance, C. macrostibas A. Berger differs greatly from the rest, especially by its enlarged and prolonged flowering areoles. But the material at hand is so scanty that I must refrain from any further statement." "Cereus macrostibas A. Berger was originally described by Schumann as a Pilocereus, and as such it is another heterogeneous form of this conglomerate genus."

1. Neoraimondia macrostibas (Schumann).

Pilocereus macrostibas Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 13: 168. 1903.

Cereus macrostibas Berger, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 16: 69. 1905.

Plant with many branches arising from near the base, 2 to 4 meters high; areoles 1 to 2 cm. apart, very large, rarely less than 1 cm. broad, often globular or on old plants elongating into subcy-lindric spur-like bodies 10 cm. long or less; spines 12 or more at an areole, very unequal, the central ones often elongated on the old part of the stem, sometimes 24 cm. long; flowers 2.5 to 4 cm. long; inner perianth-segments about 1 cm. long; filaments numerous, short, included, white; style short, white; stigma-lobes pinkish; fruit sometimes 7 cm. in diameter, purple, the brown-woolly areoles finally falling off as little balls; pulp red, edible; seeds numerous.

Type locality: Near Mollendo, Peru. Distribution: Throughout western Peru.

In 1914, Dr. Rose studied the plant in its native habitat and collected complete specimens. It is one of the most remarkable of all cacti in its very stout, few-ribbed branches, immense brown areoles and greatly elongated spines, these, perhaps, the longest of any. These areoles doubtless produce flowers year after year and the indication is that the largest of these areoles must be of great age. The plant itself must grow very slowly, for it is found only on the borders of

Fig. 259.—Cluster of spines of Neoraimondia macrostibas. X0.6.
Fig. 260.—Neoraimondia macrostibas.

the barren Peruvian deserts, where its water supply is very meager. The elongated spines (24 cm. long) are the longest we have seen in any cacti, although Cereus jamacaru is reported to have spines 30 cm. long, but the longest we have measured were only 19 cm. long.

The unusual specific name given to this plant probably refers to the peculiar areoles. Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 13: 168, 169, both as Pilocereus macrostibas.

Figure 257 is from a photograph taken by C. H. T. Townsend near Chosica, Peru; figure 258 shows a flower and young fruit on the much enlarged areole, collected by Dr. Rose near Arequipa in 1914; figure 259 shows a cluster of spines obtained by Dr. Rose at Chosica, Peru; figure 260 is from a photograph of a top of the Chosica plant brought by Dr. Rose to the New York Botanical Garden.

Subtribe 2. HYLOCEREANAE.

Elongated, vine-like, climbing, trailing or pendent, branched cacti, the stems and branches angled, ribbed, fluted, or rarely flat, the joints emitting aerial roots, the areoles usually spiny; flowers mostly large and white, rarely red or pink; perianth-limb regular, or in Aporocactus more or less oblique; fruit a fleshy berry, often large.

We group the species known to us in 9 genera.

Key to Genera.

A. Joints angled, ribbed, winged, or fluted.

Ovary and fruit covered with large foliaceous scales, their axils neither spiny, hairy, nor bristly;

flowers mostly large, nocturnal; stems and branches 3-angled or 3-winged.

Perianth-tube elongated; flowers very large, their scales naked in the axils 1. Hylocereus (p. 183)

Perianth-tube scarcely any; flowers small, some of their scales with tufts of short hairs and occasional bristles in the axils 2. Wilmattea (p. 195)

Ovary and fruit not bearing large foliaceous scales, their axils spiny, hairy, or bristly.

Flowers elongate-funnelform, very large, mostly nocturnal, the tube and ovary usually bearing scales, hairs, or spines.

Stems ribbed, fluted, or angled 3. Selenicereus (p. 196)

Stems winged.

Areoles of ovary and flower-tube bearing felt and spines subtended by short scales; flowers nocturnal 4. Mediocactus (p. 210)

Areoles of ovary and flower-tube bearing long hairs; flowers diurnal 5. Deamia (p. 212)

Flowers short-funnelform or funnelform-campanulate. Perianth-limb regular, the tube stout; flowers white.

Tube of the flower bearing short foliaceous scales; areoles of the tubercu-

late ovary bearing long hair 6. Weberocereus (p. 214)

Areoles of flower-tube and of non-tuberculate ovary beating short black spines 7. Werckleocereus (p. 216)

Perianth-limb somewhat oblique, the tube slender; flowers pink 8. Aporocactus (p. 217)

AA. Joints flat 9. Strophocactus (p. 221)

1. HYLOCEREUS (Berger) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 428. 1909.

Climbing cacti, often epiphytic, with elongated stems normally 3-angled or 3-winged, and branches emitting aerial roots, the areoles bearing a tuft of felt and several short spines, or spineless in one species; areoles on seedlings and juvenile growths often bearing bristles; flowers very large, nocturnal, funnelform, the limb as broad as long, and as long as the tube or longer; ovary and tube bearing large foliaceous scales but no spines, felt, wool, or hairs; outer perianth-segments similar to the scales on the tube, but longer; petaloid perianth-segments narrow, acute or acuminate, mostly white, rarely red; stamens very many, in two series, equaling or shorter than the style; style cylindric, rather stout and thick, the linear stigma-lobes numerous, simple or branched; fruit spineless but with several or many persistent foliaceous scales mostly large and edible; seeds small, black; cotyledons large, flattened above, thick, ovate, acute, connate at base.

We know 18 species, natives of the West Indies, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Most of them are closely related, having similar stems, flowers, and fruits.

Type species: Cactus triangularis Linnaeus.

The name is from the Greek, meaning forest-cereus.

Key to Species.

A. Areoles spiniferous; ribs not deeply crenate.

B. Stems bluish or more or less whitened or gray. Margin of joints horny. Spines short, conic.

Outer perianth-segments acuminate, as long as the inner, white ones 1. H. guatemalensis

Outer perianth-segments acute, much shorter than inner, golden-tipped ones . . . 2. H. purpusii Spines acicular, slender.

Outer perianth-segments linear-lanceolate, acuminate 3. H. ocamponis

Outer perianth-segments oblong-lanceolate, obtuse 4. H. bronxensis

Margin of joints not horny; spines few, conic.

Branches slender, 4 cm. thick or less, scarcely crenate.

Stigma-lobes entire 5. H. polyrhizus

Stigma-lobes bifid 5a. H. venezuelensis

Branches stout, 5 to 10 cm. thick 6. H. costaricensis

Key to Species—continued.

A. Areoles spiniferous; ribs not deeply crenate. BB. S tems blight green.

Margin of stems horny.

Ribs of stem broad, thin, crenate 7. H. undatus

Ribs of stem thick, scarcely crenate 8. H. cubensis

Margin of stems not horny

Stigma-lobes branched or forked.

Spines several-, margins of stem nearly straight; stigma-lobes branched 9. H. lemairei

Spine one; margins of stem undulate; stigma-lobes forked (at least some times) 10. H. monacanthus

Stigma-lobes (so far as known) entire.

Perianth-segments red or reddish purple.

Ribs thin, almost wing-like; perianth-segments linear 11. H. stenopterus

Joints angular, not winged; inner perianth-segments oblanceolate 12. H. extensus

Inner perianth-segments white.

Scales on the ovary few and scattered 13. H. napoleonis

Scales on the ovary brown, large, imbricated.

Joint-angles strongly tubercled 14. H. trigonus

Joint-angles scarcely tubercled or not at all.

Joints somewhat crenate 15. H. triangularis

Joints not crenate 16. H. antiguensis

AA. Areoles without spines; ribs very deeply crenate 17. H. calcaratus

1. Hylocereus guatemalensis (Eichlam).

Cereus trigonus guatemalensis Eichlam, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 21: 68. 1911.

Stems high-climbing, 3 to 5 meters long, stout, mostly 3-angled, 2 to 7 cm. broad, the basal parts often narrow or nearly terete; joints beautifully glaucous or in time becoming more or less greenish; ribs low-undulate, the margins horny, not at all glaucous; areoles 2 cm. apart or less; spines 2 to 4, 2 to 3 mm. long, conic, dark, but on seedlings numerous and bristle-like; flowers 3 dm. long; outer perianth-segments rose-colored, acuminate; inner perianth-segments lanceolate, acute, white; style yellow, 7 mm. in diameter; stigma-lobes 25, entire; fruit 6 to 7 cm. in diameter, covered with large scales; seeds black.

Type locality: Guatemala. Distribution: Guatemala.

We have grown plants from seeds; the seedlings are erect, 4-angled, the spines numerous, the bristles white, the cotyledons 1 mm. long.

Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 155, as Cereus trigonus gua-temalensis.

Figure 261 shows a joint of a plant sent to the New York Botanical Garden from Fiscal, Guatemala, by C. C. Deam.

2. Hylocereus purpusii (Weingart). guatemalensis. X0.5.

Cereus purpusii Weingart, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 19: 150. 1909. Stems bluish, climbing, elongate, epiphytic; ribs 3 or 4, with horny margins only slightly undulate; areoles small; spines 3 to 6, short; flowers large, 25 cm. long and nearly as broad when fully expanded; outer perianth-segments narrow, purplish; middle perianth-segments golden; inner perianth-segments broad, white except at the golden tips.

Type locality: Near Tuxpan, Mexico. Distribution: Lowlands of western Mexico.

We have grown this plant but have not seen the flowers, our description of them being founded on that of Mr. Weingart.

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 22: 26, 27, both as Cereus purpusii.

3. Hylocereus ocamponis (Salm-Dyck) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 429. 1909.

Cereus ocamponis Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 220. 1850.

Stems strongly 3-angled, at first bright green, soon glaucous, dull bluish green in age; ribs rather deeply undulate, their margins with a horny, brown border; areoles 2 to 4 cm. apart, borne

M li

Jim?

M. E. Eaton del.

1. Flowering branches of Rathbunia alamosensis.

2. Flowering branches of Rathbunia alamosensis.

3. Top of flowering branch of Borzicactus acanthurus.

(All natural size.)

near the bottom of each undulation; spines 5 to 8, acicular, 5 to 12 mm. long; flowers 25 to 30 cm. long and fully as broad; outer perianth-segments narrow, long-acuminate, greenish, spreading or reflexed; inner perianth-segments oblong, acuminate, white; style stout; stigma-lobes linear, entire, green; ovary covered with imbricated, ovate, acute, purplish-margined scales.

Type locality: Mexico or Colombia.

Distribution: Mexico?

The above flower description is drawn from New York Botanical Garden specimens which bloomed in 1912 (,No. 6170). The species is known to us from cultivated plants only.

Mr. Weingart is strongly of the opinion that Cereus napoleonis Graham is the same as this species and, if so, this name should be used. He states that C. napoleonis was described from an old plant, while the other species was described from young plants, which, he thinks, would account for the differences in the descriptions. We believe, however, that the two species are distinct and that C. napoleonis is much nearer H. triangularis.

Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 29, as Cereus ocamponis.

Plate xxviii shows a flowering joint of a plant in the collection of the New York Botanical Garden.

A species related to H. ocamponis but probably distinct was collected by T. S. Brandegee on rocks of Cerro Colorado, Sinaloa, Mexico, November 1904. Mr. Brandegee states that it is also epiphytic on trees. Rose, Standley, and Russell collected the same species at Villa Union, near Mazatlan, in 1910, but, although we have had it in our collections ever since, it has not yet flowered.

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