Lemaireocereus godingianus sp nov

Large plant 3 to 10 meters high with a short, thick, woody trunk 2 to 5 dm. in diameter, becoming smooth; joints bright green when young, grayish afterwards; ribs 7 to 11; spines acicular, 2 to 4 cm. long, brownish when young; flowers large, white, 10 to 11 cm. long; tube proper 2 cm. long with walls 1 cm. thick or more; areoles on flower-tube and ovary closely set, large, bearing brown wool and yellow bristles; fruit large, 10 cm. long or more, covered with yellow spines.

Collected by J. N. Rose and George Rose at Huigra, Ecuador, August to November 1918 (No. 22127).

This species is very common on the dry hills both below and above Huigra, Ecuador, ranging from about 3,500 to 6,000 feet, where it is the most conspicuous plant in the landscape. It is associated with a Furcraea, several species of Opuntia, a Bauhinia, and a Zanthoxylum. It is frequently overrun by vines, such as species of Passiflora and Ipomoea.

It overlaps the lower range of an undescribed species of Trichocereus and has been frequently confused with that species. (See page 135.)

This plant is named for Dr. F. W. Goding, United States Consul-General at Guayaquil, Ecuador, a well-known entomologist, who assisted Dr. Rose in his botanical explorations in Ecuador.

Illustration: Smiths. Misc. Coll. 70: f. 48, as giant cactus.

Figure 134 is from a photograph taken by George Rose at Huigra.

10. Lemaireocereus aragonii (Weber).

Cereus aragonii Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 8: 456. 1902.

Columnar, 5 to 6 meters high, dark green with glaucous bands at intervals of growth; terminal branches about 3 meters long, 12 to 15 cm. in diameter; ribs 6 to 8, very large, 2 to 3 cm. high, rounded; areoles about 2 cm. apart, large, brown-felted; spines gray, about 8 to 10, but new ones developed from time to time, acicular, the radial ones about 1 cm. long, one of the centrals 2 to 3 cm. long; flowers 6 to 8 cm. long; ovary tuberculate, bearing clusters of spines; flesh of the fruit white; seeds large, black, to 6 mm. long.

Type locality: Western Costa Rica.

Distribution: Costa Rica.

This cactus is used a good deal as a hedge plant in Costa Rica, much as is Pachycereus marginatus on the table-lands of Mexico. It is the only columnar cactus in Costa Rica. We have had living specimens of it in Washington since 1907, but they have never grown very much.

A cristate form of Cereus aragonii was named as a variety (palmatus) by Weber (Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 8: 456. 1902).

Illustrations: Boletin de Fomento Costa Rica 4: 117; Iberica 48: 339, both illustrations from the same source as the one used as figure 135.

Figure 135 is from a photograph taken by Otto Lutz at Tres Rios, Costa Rica, 1,350 meters altitude.

11. Lemaireocereus stellatus (Pfeiffer) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 426. 1909.

Cereus stellatus Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 4: 258. 1836.

Cereus dyckii Martius in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 87. 1837.

Cereus tonelianus Lemaire, Illustr. Hort. 2: Misc. 63. 1855.

Stenocereus stellatus Riccobono Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 253. 1909.

Stenocereus stellatus tonelianus* Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 254. 1909.

Plant 2 to 3 meters high, branching at base, rarely branching above, pale bluish green; ribs 8 to 12, low, obtuse; radial spines 10 to 12; centrals several, often much longer than the others,

Fig. 134.—Lemaireocereus godingianus.

*Riccobono in error spells it " tenellianus."

sometimes 5 to 6 cm. long; areoles 1 to 2 cm. apart; flowers appearing at or near the top of the plant, red, small, narrowly campanulate, about 4 cm. long; ovary bearing small scales subtending wool and bristly spines; fruit red, spiny, globular, about 3 cm. in diameter; spines deciduous; seeds dull, pitted.

Type locality: Mexico. Distribution: Southern Mexico.

The fruit is known in the markets as joconostle and sometimes as tuna. The above description is drawn from Dr. Rose's specimens, which seem to represent L. stellatus, but the identification has not been confirmed by reference to the type specimen.

Cereus joconostle Weber (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 79. 1897) 15 known only as a synonym of this species.

Fig. 135.—Lemaireocereus aragonii.

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: pl. 20; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 16: pl. 3, f. 1 to 4; U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Pl. Ind. Bull. 262: pl. 12, as Cereus stellatus; Bull. Soc. Acclim. France 52: f. 3, as Cereus dyckii; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pl. 69. Figure 136 is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal at Tomellin, Mexico, in 1906.

12. Lemaireocereus treleasei Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 426. 1909.

Cereus treleasei Vaupel, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23 37. 1913.

Plant 5 to 7 meters high, simple or with a few strict branches; ribs about 20; areoles approximate with a peculiar V-shaped depression just above each one; spines rather short, yellowish; flowers pinkish, 4 to 5 cm. long, diurnal; scales on ovary and flower-tube subtending slender whitish bristles; fruit red, about 5 cm. in diameter, covered with clusters of deciduous spines; seeds black with a dull, rugose surface and a large oblique basal hilum.

Type locality: Road between Mitla and Oaxaca, Mexico.

Distribution: Oaxaca, Mexico.

In flower and fruit this much resembles L. stellatus, but has a different habit, more ribs, and different areoles. This plant is not common in the deserts about Oaxaca, but when it does occur is found in clumps. It is characterized by its strict elongated stems, which seldom branch.

Figure 137 is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal at the type locality in 1906.

Fig. 136.—Lemaireocereus stellatus.

13. Lemaireocereus deficiens (Otto and Dietrich).

Cereus deficiens Otto and Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 6: 28. 1838.

Cereus clavatus Otto and Dietrich, Allg. Gartenz. 6: 28. 1838.

Cereus eburneus clavatus Fobe, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 78. 1908.

A tall tree-like plant, with a more or less definite trunk and many stout erect branches, the old trunk often spineless; branches somewhat glaucous; ribs 7 or 8, very broad at base; areoles borne at the depressions on the ribs, large, white or brown-felted; spines about 8, grayish with black tips, more or less spreading, sometimes appressed, 1 to 1.5 cm. long, the clusters either with or without central ones, these, when present, 3 cm. long and a little flattened; flowers only 5 to 6 cm. long; ovary without spines, the areoles felted; fruit very spiny, edible, its flesh either red or white, juicy.

Type locality: Caracas, Venezuela.

Distribution: Central part of coast of Venezuela.

This species is common on all the hills about La Guayra, is less common in the mountains toward Caracas, and is also to be found along the coast at Puerto Cabello. About towns it is much used as a hedge plant.

Figure 138 is from a photograph taken by Mrs. J. N. Rose near Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, in 1916.

Fig. 137.—Lemaireocereus treleasei.

14. Lemaireocereus weberi (Coulter) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 426. 1909.

Cereus weberi Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 410. 1896.

Cereus candelabrum Weber in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 106. 1897.

Plant very large, 10 meters high or more, with a trunk short but thick and often with hundreds of nearly erect branches arising from near the base, dark bluish green, slightly glaucous; ribs usually 10, rounded; areoles large; radial spines usually 6 to 12, spreading, more or less acicular, 1 to 2 cm. long; central spine usually up to 10 cm. long, solitary, flattened, often more or less deflexed, except those of the upper areoles, at first brown to blackish, much longer than the laterals; areoles white-felted; flowers 8 to 10 cm. long; scales on flower-tube narrow, thin, bearing long brown hairs in their axils; inner perianth-segments oblong, 2 cm. long; ovary globular, covered by the dense brown felt of its areoles; fruit oblong, edible, 6 to 7 cm. long, very spiny, the spine-clusters deciduous in ripening.

Type locality: A few miles south of Tehuacan, Puebla, Mexico.

Distribution: Puebla and Oaxaca, Mexico.

This plant is called cardon and candebobe.

Cereus belieuli and C. pugionifer are two garden names referred here by Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 107. 1897).

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: pl. 21; MacDougal, Bot. N. Amer. Des. pl. 21; Nat. Geogr. Mag. 21: 705; Journ. Intern. Gard. Club 3: 16; U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Pl. Ind. Bull. 262: pl. 11, all as Cereus weberi; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. f. 37; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 24; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 29: 352. f. 7; 353. f. 8, as Cereus candelabrum; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pl. 71.

Figure 139 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Rose at Tomellin, Mexico, in 1905; figure 140 shows clusters of spines and figure 141 a fruit collected by H. H. Rusby at Cuicatlan, Oaxaca, in 1910.

Fig. 138.—Lemaireocereus deficiens.

g. 139.—Lemaireocereus weberi.

15. Lemaireocereus queretaroensis (Weber) Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 6, f. 2. 1909.

Cereus queretaroensis Weber in Mathsson, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: 27. 1891.

Pachycereus queretaroensis Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 422. 1909.

Plant 3 to 5 meters high, with a short woody trunk, much branched above; ribs 6 to 8, prominent, obtuse; areoles about 1 cm. apart, large, brown-woolly, very glandular; spines 6 to 10, at first red, becoming grayish in age, acicular, rather unequal, sometimes only 15 mm. long, at other times 5 cm. long; flowers 7 to 8 cm. long; ovary with many woolly areoles subtended by ovate scales 2 mm. long or less; fruit spiny, edible.

Fig. 138.—Lemaireocereus deficiens.

g. 139.—Lemaireocereus weberi.

15. Lemaireocereus queretaroensis (Weber) Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 6, f. 2. 1909.

Cereus queretaroensis Weber in Mathsson, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: 27. 1891.

Pachycereus queretaroensis Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 422. 1909.

Plant 3 to 5 meters high, with a short woody trunk, much branched above; ribs 6 to 8, prominent, obtuse; areoles about 1 cm. apart, large, brown-woolly, very glandular; spines 6 to 10, at first red, becoming grayish in age, acicular, rather unequal, sometimes only 15 mm. long, at other times 5 cm. long; flowers 7 to 8 cm. long; ovary with many woolly areoles subtended by ovate scales 2 mm. long or less; fruit spiny, edible.

Type locality: Queretaro, Mexico.

Distribution: Central Mexico.

This species was formerly referred by us to the genus Pachycereus, but it has since been learned that the fruit is not dry, but juicy and edible, and therefore the plant is more properly a Lemaireocereus. Its peculiar glandular areoles are like those of L. thurberi, although otherwise the two species are quite different. This plant is said to be cultivated in Jalisco and Queretaro, Mexico, doubtless for its edible fruits, which are also called pitahaya. We have had the plant in cultivation in Washington since 1907, but it has made little or no growth.

Dr. Rose has collected the species at several localities in central Mexico, including the type locality (No. 11133).

Illustrations: Bull. Soc. Acclim. France 52: 18. f. 2, as Cereus queretaroensis; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 6, f. 2.

Figure 142 shows the spine-bearing stem-areoles of an herbarium specimen collected by Dr. Rose near Queretaro, Mexico, in 1906.

16. Lemaireocereus montanus sp. nov.

Tree-like, 6 to 7 meters high, with a definite smooth trunk 1 meter long or more, with few branches, at first spreading, then nearly erect; ribs few, usually 8, prominent areoles 1 to 1.5 cm. apart, large, filled with short brown wool; spines few, 6 or less, pale in color, rather stout, one of them longer, sometimes 3 cm. long; flowers 6 to 7 cm. long, opening during the day; outer perianth-segments purplish; scales on the ovary ovate, 4 to 6 mm. long, imbricated, acuminate, with erose margins.

This species was found well up on the side of Alamos Mountain, associated with Lemaire-ocereus thurberi, but usually at a higher altitude than that at which that species is generally found. It differs from L. thurberi in its habit, number of ribs, armament, and flowers. Like L. thurberi it has brown areoles, which are not found in any of the other species except L. queretaroensis of the table-land region of central Mexico.

Collected by Rose, Standley, and Russell above Alamos, Mexico, March 18, 1910 (No.

13039).

17. Lemaireocereus thurberi (Engelmann) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 426. 1909.

Usually without a definite trunk, sending up from the base 5 to 20, or even more, erect or ascending branches 3 to 7 meters high, 15 to 20 cm. in diameter, the basal ones usually simple but occasionally with lateral branches, this doubtless being caused by injuries to the growing tips; ribs numerous, 12 to 17, rather low but sometimes 2 cm. high, rounded, separated by narrow intervals; areoles 10 to 15 or rarely 30 mm. apart, large, sometimes becoming 1 cm. in diameter, circular, brown-felted, more or less glandular, the whole areole becoming a wax-like mass; spines numerous, acicular to subulate, unequal, brownish to black, becoming gray in age, the longest ones sometimes 5 cm. long; flowers mostly borne near the top of the stem but sometimes 3 dm. below the top, 6 to 7.5 cm. long including the ovary, opening during the day; outer perianth-segments broad, reddish, imbricated, gradually passing into the scales on the tube; inner perianth-segments light purple with

Fig. 140.—Cluster of spines of Lemaireocereus weberi. X0.7. Fig. 141.—Fruit of same. X0.7.

Fig. 142.—Part of rib, showing spine-clusters of Lemaireocereus queretaroensis. X0.7.

Fig. 140.—Cluster of spines of Lemaireocereus weberi. X0.7. Fig. 141.—Fruit of same. X0.7.

Fig. 142.—Part of rib, showing spine-clusters of Lemaireocereus queretaroensis. X0.7.

Cereus thurberi Engelmann, Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 17: 234. 1854. Pilocereus thurberi Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 689. 1885. Cereus thurberi littoralis K. Brandegee, Zoe 5: 191. 1904.

nearly white margins, widely spreading or even turned back at the apex, broad, obtuse; filaments short, numerous, erect, white, borne all over the throat, 2 to 2.5 cm. long; lower part of flower-tube or tube proper smooth within; ovary tuberculate, bearing small, ovate, acute scales, these with white and brown hairs in their axils; fruit globular, 4 to 7.5 cm. in diameter, edible, very spiny, but in age naked, olive without, crimson within; seeds black, shining, 1.8 to 2 mm. long.

Type locality: Canyon near the mountain pass of Bachuachi, Sonora, Mexico.

Distribution: Southern Arizona, in the Comobabi, Quijotoa, and Ajo Mountains, throughout western Sonora, and on both coasts of Lower California. The Index Kewensis says it is from New Mexico, doubtless an error for northern Mexico. In the cape region of Lower California a slender form is found which has been described as a variety.

The flowers, which appear from March to August, are followed by the large delicious fruit much prized by the native, who knows it as pitahaya or pitahaya dulce.

Fig. 143.—Lemaireocereus thurberi.

Fig. 144.—L. thurberi: a, flower; b, fruit. X0.7.

Fig. 143.—Lemaireocereus thurberi.

Fig. 144.—L. thurberi: a, flower; b, fruit. X0.7.

The species was named for George Thurber (1821-1890), one of the collectors on the first Mexican Boundary Survey.

The habit of branching just at the base is unusual in this genus, in which most of the species have definite, though often short, trunks.

This is the only species of Lemaireocereus which reaches the United States and is the only one found in northwestern Mexico or Lower California. Two other species were credited to Lower California in our former treatment (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 425), but these we now refer to another genus (see pages 1115, 116).

Whether the flowers open at night or during the day has been in dispute. Dr. Rose, who studied the species in Lower California, observed the flowers widely expanded at 2 o'clock on a bright sunny day. F. E. Lloyd, in a letter dated September 6, 1909, says, "I notice that what we have hitherto called Cereus thurberi is stated by you as having a day-blooming flower. You may recall that I made a special study with reference to this point at the Quijotoa Mountains and found it strictly night-blooming. The photograph which you have of the flower I made between 4 and 5 o'clock in the morning, just before sun-up."

Cereus thurberi monstrosus (E. Dams, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 182. 1904) is not an unusual form.

Illustrations: Bull. Soc. Acclim. France 52: f. 4; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 74, f. 15; Hor-naday, Campfires on Des. and Lava opp. 68, 136; MacDougal, Bot. N. Amer. Des. pl. 8; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 17: 105, as Cereus thurberi.

Figure 143 is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal at Torres, Sonora, in 1902; figure 144a shows a flower of the plant collected by F. E. Lloyd on the Quijotoa Mountains, Arizona, in 1906; and figure 144b shows a fruit of the same.

18. Lemaireocereus laetus (HBK.) Britton and Rose, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: 157. 1919.

Cactus laetus Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 6: 68. 1823. Cereus laetus De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 466. 1828. Plant to 6 meters high, much branched, bluish gray but not glaucous; ribs to 8, prominent; areoles 2 to 3 cm. apart; spines brown when young, becoming gray to nearly white in age, usually 1 to 3 cm. but sometimes 8 cm. long, subulate; flowers 7 to 8 cm. long; inner perianth-segments white, 2 cm. long; fruit green without, very spiny, splitting down the side when ripe, white within; pulp edible; seeds black.

Type locality: Near Sondorillo, formerly in Ecuador but now in Peru. Distribution: Central Peru and southern Ecuador.

Dr. Rose found the species in Catamayo Valley in southern Ecuador, where it is very common (No. 23340); it was, however, seen only in this one locality in Ecuador. We also refer here the plant collected by Dr. and Mrs. Rose along the Rimac River below Matucana, Peru, July 9, 1914 (No. 18650).

Fig. 145.—Lemaireocereus laetus. Fig. 146.—Lemaireocereus laetus.

We have referred here the plant from Catamayo, as it is the only wild one we know in this region which could possibly have been described as Cactus laetus. It is such a conspicuous plant that we do not believe Humboldt would have passed it by without some reference. Through the kindness of Dr. Charles Wood we were able to send to the Natural History Museum of Paris specimens of this Catamayo plant in order to have it compared, if possible, with Humboldt's type. M. Lecomte, however, informs us that no specimen can be found. It is of interest to note that in 1825 Sprengel, who redescribed this species in his edition of the Systema, placed it next to Cereus eburneus and questions whether it is not the same as C. hystrix.

The original description of Cactus laetus is very brief and unsatisfactory.

Figure 145 shows a plant, growing on the flats of the Catamayo Valley, southern Ecuador, photographed by George Rose in 19 18; figure 146 is from a photograph taken by Mrs. J. N. Rose at Matucana, Peru; figure 147 shows its flower and figure 148 its fruit.

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