Key to Generacontinued

AA. Flowers 2 to several at an areole; columnar cacti, or with columnar branches; flowers small. Flowers without wool; areoles small.

Flowering areoles bearing many long bristles

Flowering areoles without bristles

Flowers densely woolly; flowering areoles enormously developed

36. Lophocereus (p. 177)

37. Myrtillocactus (p. 178

38. Neoraimondia (p. 181)

1. CEREUS (Hermann) Miller,* Gard. Dict. Abridg. ed. 4. 1754.

Piptanthocereus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 225. 1909.

Stems mostly upright and tall, but sometimes low and spreading or even prostrate, generally much branched, the branches strongly angled or ribbed; areoles spiny, more or less short-woolly but never producing long silky hairs; flowers nocturnal, elongated, funnelform, the upper part, except the style, falling away from the ovary by abscission soon after anthesis; tube of flower cylindric, expanding above into the swollen throat, nearly naked without; outer perianth-segments obtuse, thick, green or dull colored, the inner thin, petaloid, so far as known white, except in one species and in that red; stamens numerous, varying greatly in length, slender and weak, included; style slender, elongated but often included; stigma-lobes linear; ovary bearing a few scales naked in their axils. fruit fleshy, red, rarely yellow, naked, splitting down one side when mature, often edible; seeds black.

Type species: Cactus hexagonus Linnaeus, this being the first species cited by Miller in his Gardeners' Dictionary, 8th edition, 1768, where he described 12 species of Cereus (in the 4th edition, abridged, 1754, he described 14 species), which we now know belong to several genera.

The genus Cereus has been understood by authors at one time or another since Philip Miller's time as containing species of nearly all the genera of cacti, including even Rhipsalis and Opuntia. Schumann, in his monograph, recognized 104 species, to which he afterward added 36 in his supplement. His treatment of the genus is artificial and complex; Berger's treatment (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 16: 57 to 86. 1905) is much more natural but more inclusive, for he added Echinopsis, Pilocereus, Cephalocereus, and Echinocereus, and even suggested the possible transfer here of Phyllocactus; he divided the genus into 18 subgenera, most of which we believe require generic recognition (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 413 to 437. 1909), as also indicated by Riccobono (Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 215 to 266. 1909). From some of Berger's conclusions we differ, but chiefly in cases where he knew the plants only from herbarium specimens or from literature. In his treatment of Cereus Berger referred the species which we include in it to his series Piptanthocereus, while he took up for the Eucereus a different series, but he indicated no type species. Our treatment includes all the species of Schumann's series Compresso-costati, Formosi, and Coerulescentes, and the two species, C. tetragonus and C. hankeanus of Oligogoni. It corresponds to Berger's subgenus Piptanthocereus, but is not so inclusive. We recognize 24 species, which have similar flowers, fruit, spines, and branches; these extend from the southern West Indies through eastern South America to Argentina. The fruits of several species are edible.

The number of published Cereus binomials involved is about 900, exceeded in this family only by Mammillaria and perhaps by Opuntia.

The name Cereus is from the Greek, also from the Latin, signifying a torch, with reference to the candelabrum-like branching of the first species known. It was used by Tabernaemon-tanus on page 386 of the second part of his Kreuterbuch, published in 1625, a plant called Cereus peruvianus being there illustrated; this figure represents a tall, columnar, branching species, perhaps the same as the one to which the name peruvianus has been applied by modern authors.

*Philip Miller credits the genus Cereus to P. Hermann (Par. Botavus 112. 1698) although the name Cereus had then been in use more than seventy years.

Key to Species.

B. Species tall, columnar (except C. pachyrhizus), the joints very thick. Ribs 4 to 6, very high, flat or nearly so (Series 1. Hexagonae). Young joints glaucous, blue or bluish green. Spines of young joints short or none.

Ribs usually 4; young joints light blue 1. C. hexagonus

Ribs usually 6; young joints dark blue 2. C. hildmannianus

All joints manifestly spiny.

Young spines bright yellow 3. C. alacriportanus

Young spines not yellow.

Flowers red without 4. C. validus

Flowers green without 5. C. jamacaru

Young joints not glaucous, green, or sometimes glaucous in No. 7.

Inner perianth-segments red 6. C. tetragonus

Inner perianth-segments white (unknown in C. xanthocarpus). Outer perianth-segments red.

Spines I to 3, short or wanting or elongated in No. 7. seeds dull.

Berry red or orange, unpleasant to the taste 7. C. stenogonus

Berry yellow, edible 8. C. xanthocarpus

Spines 8 to 13, up to 4 cm. long; seeds shining.

Tree-like, 6 to 8 meters high, not densely spiny 9. C. lamprospermus

Lower, I to 3 meters high, densely spiny 10. C. pachyrhizus

Outer perianth-segments green or brownish.

Spines few, short or wanting 11. C. dayamii

Spines 6 to 10, up to 10 cm. long 12. C. argentinensis

Ribs 6 to 9, rarely 4, thicker and lower; outer perianth-segments brownish

(Series 2. Peruvianae) 13. C. peruvianus

BB. Species lower, prostrate, or bushy, the joints mostly not as stout (C. chalybaeus tall). Joints green (Series 3. Obtusae).

Ribs only 4 to 6 mm. high; plants shining 14. C. perlucens

Ribs much higher; plants dull.

Spines subulate 15. C. variabilis

Flower 20 to 24 cm. long.

Flower 12 to 16 cm. long 16. C. pernambucensis

Spines acicular.

Radial spines 5 to 7; central spine 17. C. obtusus

Radial spines 8 to 10; central spines 4 to 7 18. C. caesius

Joints glaucous blue; species slender (Series 4. Azureae).

Ribs strongly sinuate 19. C. azureus

Ribs not strongly sinuate.

Tree-like; areoles distant 20. C. chalybaeus

Bush-like; areoles close together 21. C. aethiops

AA. Flowers small, 8 cm. long or less; plants columnar (Series 5. Repandae). Flowers 7 to 8 cm. long; spines straight, acicular.

Spines up to 5 cm. long, acicular; flowers green; branches constricted 22. C. repandus

Spines 2 cm. long or less; flowers purple; branches continuous 23. C. grenadensis

Flowers 5 to 6 cm. long; spines curved, subulate 24. C. margaritensis

1. Cereus hexagonus (Linnaeus) Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8. No. 1. 1768.

Cactus hexagonus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 466. 1753.

Cactus octogonus Page in Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 1: 246. 1840.

Cereus northumberlandianus* Lambert in Loudon, Gard. Mag. 17: 91. 1841 (February). Cereusperrottetianus Lemaire, Icon. Cact. pl. 8. 1841 to 1847. Cereus lepidotus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 207. 1850.

Plant up to 15 meters high, usually branching near the base, with a trunk dm. in diameter; branches usually strict and erect, but in old plants more spreading, made up of short joints 12 cm. in diameter or more, glaucescent or light green, usually 6-angled but sometimes only 4 or 5-angled, occasionally 7; ribs thin, 3 to 5 cm. high, the margins undulate; areoles about 2 cm. apart, small, felted; spines on young branches wanting or few, very short (2 to 3 mm. long), but on old branches often 8 to 10 or perhaps more in a cluster, very unequal, the longest ones to 6 cm. long, when young brown, but lighter in age; flower 20 to 25 cm. long, its tube slender, 10 cm. long; uppermost scales green, short; outer perianth-segments lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 6 to 7 cm. long, short-apiculate, tinged with purple; inner perianth-segments much thinner than the outer ones, white,

*The name was published in Loudon's Gardener's Magazine first as Cereus northumberlandia with a suggestion by the editor that Cereus northumberlandianus was the preferred spelling but later in the same year (Hort. Univ. 2: 358. 1841) Cereus northumberlandianus was adopted. A re-examination of the description of Linnaeus's Cactus hexagonus, which came from Surinam, leads us to believe that it is the same species and as the name is older than either C. northumberlandianus or C. lepidotus we here use it.

oblong-lanceolate, 7 to 8 cm. long; stamens very numerous; style green; fruit ovoid, 5.5 to 13 cm. long, somewhat oblique, truncate or a little depressed at apex, pale red, a little glaucous, bearing small scattered areoles; rind thick; pulp white or pinkish, edible; seeds black.

Type locality: Surinam.

Distribution: Southern West Indies and northern South America. Often cultivated in the West Indies and South America. Reported from Brazil, but doubtless in error. Also cultivated in the Philippines.

This cactus is a great favorite in the West Indies, where it is much cultivated in yards and parks, and blooms abundantly, the flowers appearing all along the side of the stem. It is sometimes confused with Cereus jamacaru, and has long passed under the name of Cereus lepidotus. The plant was introduced into England from Tobago Island about 1840 by M. Nightingale, and was then supposed to be the largest cactus ever brought into Europe. Recently Mr. W. E. Broadway has sent us both living and herbarium specimens from Tobago which are identical with the so-called Cereus lepidotus. The original specimens of Cereus lepidotus came from La Guayra, Venezuela, a floral region similar to Tobago, while the Cactus hexagonus type locality was Surinam.

Fig. 1.—Cereus hexagonus.

Fig. 1.—Cereus hexagonus.

Cereus hexagonus.—Fig. 2, Flower; Fig. 3, Longitudinal section of flower; Fig. 4, Fruit. All X0.4.

It was introduced into England, according to Salm-Dyck, as Cereus karstenii.

In our earlier treatment of this species we combined it with C. peruvianus which we now believe was an error. Cereus hexagonus is confined to northern South America and the West Indies while C. peruvianus is restricted to southeastern South America.

We have seen no Colombian specimens of this species unless we should refer here flowers collected by Dr. Francis W. Pennell from the Sabana of Bolivar (No. 4782).

Cereus horridus Otto (Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 5: 370. 1837) and C. thalassinus Otto and Dietrich (Allg. Gartenz. 6: 34. 1838), referred to C. jamacaru by Schumann, probably belong here. Both are from La Guayra, Venezuela. Cereus thalassinus quadrangularis (Förster, Handb. Cact. 399. 1846) was used as a synonym of C. thalassinus.

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pl. 61, as Cereus jamacaru; Lemaire, Ic. Cact. pl. 8*, as Cereus perrottetianus; Maza and Roig, Fl. Cuba pl. 23, as Cereus lepidotus.

Text-figure 1 is from a photograph of the plant taken by Marshall A. Howe at Santurce, Porto Rico; text-figure 2 shows a flower and text-figure 3 a longitudinal section of the same drawn by Miss H. A. Wood at Hope Gardens, Jamaica; text-figure 4 shows a fruit collected by Dr. Rose near Caracas, Venezuela, in 1916.

2. Cereus hildmannianus Schumann in Martius, Fl. Bras. 42: 202. 1890.

Plant tall, up to 5 meters high, often much branched; ribs 5 or 6, high, thin, rounded, green or often with large yellow patches along the sides; areoles distant, large, at first without spines, afterward a few developing; flower elongated, funnelform, 20 to 23 cm. long; inner perianth-segments white, broad and obtuse ovary naked, 2.5 to 3 cm. long.

Type locality: State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Distribution: Eastern Brazil.

Type locality: State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Distribution: Eastern Brazil.

Fig. 5.—Cereus hildmannianus. Fig. 6.—Cereus hildmannianus.

Although this species seems to be a common yard and park plant in Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, it has never been well understood. It there forms bushy plants and is usually without spines. It is probably quite distinct from Cereus jamacaru, to which it has been referred by some authors; it grows in moister regions.

Illustrations: Martius, Fl. Bras. 42: pl. 41, f. 1; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 2: 57.

Text-figure 5 is from a photograph taken by Paul G. Russell near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1915; text-figure 6 is from a photograph taken by Dr. J. N. Mills at Rio de Janeiro in 1916.

3. Cereus alacriportanus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 87. 1837.

Cereusperuvianus alacriportanus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 115. 1897.

Cereusparaguayensis Schumann in Chodat and Hassler, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 3: 249. 1903.

Stems up to 2 meters high; ribs mostly 5, strongly compressed, 3 cm. high, separated by deep sharp intervals, rounded on the edge; areoles 2 to 2.5 cm. apart, when young filled with white wool; spines 6 to 9, all spreading, when young golden yellow, but gray when older, red at the bases, subulate, 2.5 cm. long; flowers 21 to 22 cm. long, 10 cm. broad at mouth; outer perianth-segments narrow, 1 cm. wide or less; inner perianth-segments spatulate, obtuse to acute, fringed or entire, white with a rosy tinge; stigma-lobes 13, yellowish green; ovary cylindric, naked.

Type locality: Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Distribution: Southern Brazil and Paraguay.

* Lemaire's plates are not numbered and there is more or less uncertainty as to their order. We have followed Schumann in referring this species to plate 8. In the only copy which we have examined it is plate 11.



M. E. Eaton del.

1. Top of flowering stem of Cereus alacriportanus.

2. Top of stem of Cereus peruvianus.

3. Flower of the same plant.

(Natural size.)

This species has long been in cultivation in the New York Botanical Garden under the name of Cereus alacriportanus, where it has frequently flowered. It differs somewhat from the description of C. paraguayensis by Schumann in the color of the spines and closeness of the areoles.

Cereus bonariensis is referred here by Förster (Handb. Cact. 388. 1846) as a synonym. Sweet also used the name (Hort. Brit. ed. 3. 283. 1839) but does not associate it with this species.

Illustrations: Chodat, Veg. Paraguay 1: f. 90, as C. paraguayensis; Karsten, Deutsche Fl. f. 501, No. 7.

Plate ii, figure 1, shows the plant in the New York Botanical Garden above referred to, which flowered in April 1 1915.

Fig. 7.—Cereus validus. Fig. 8.—Cereus tetragonus.

4. Cereus validus Haworth, Phil. Mag. 10: 420. 1831.

Cereus forbesii Otto in Förster, Handb. Cact. 398. 1846.* Cereus hankeanus Weber in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 88. 1897. Piptanthocereus forbesii Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 228. 1909. Piptanthocereus hankeanus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 229. 1909. Piptanthocereus labouretianus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 231. 1909. Piptanthocereus validus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 234. 1909.

Shrubby, 2 meters high or more, somewhat branched, the branches 5 to 8 cm. thick, glaucous when young; ribs 4 to 8, compressed, obtuse; radial spines 5, short, stout, 1 to 2 cm long, mostly

*The date of publication of this name is usually given as 1845; this reference, however, is only to the use of the name, without a description, in a publication of that date.

from the lower part of the areole; central spine single or rarely 2 or 3, stouter than the radials, sometimes 16 cm. long; flowers funnelform; outer perianth-segments reddish, obtuse, the inner white or reddish; style green below; stigma-lobes about 16.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Provinces of Córdoba, Catamarca, and Tucuman, Argentina.

Cereus labouretianus Martius and C. haematuricus Weber, mentioned by Schumann, are only catalogue names and should not go into the published synonymy of this species.

Illustration: Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 114, as C. hankeanus.

Plate hi, figure 1, shows the top of a plant in the New York Botanical Garden, received from Kew in 1911; figure 2 shows a joint and a flower of a plant received from La Mortola as Cereus hankeanus. Text-figure 7 is from a photograph of a plant in the same collection, received from the Missouri Botanical Garden in 1904.

5. Cereus jamacaru De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 467. 1828.

Cereus glaucus Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 35. 1834.

Cereus laetevirens Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 336. 1834.

Cereus lividus Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 3: 380. 1835.

Cactus jamacaru Kosteletziky, Allg. Med. Pharm. Fl. 4: 1393. 1835.

Cereus horribarbis Otto in Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 205. 1850.

Cereus cauchinii Rebut in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 113. 1897.

Piptanthocereusjamacaru Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 229. 1909.

Piptanthocereus jamacaru cyaneus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 230. 1909.

Piptanthocereus jamacaru glaucus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 231. 1909.

Plant up to 10 meters high, with a short, thick, woody trunk, very much branched, the branches usually erect, numerous, often forming a compact top, when young often quite blue, with few (4 to 6) ribs; ribs of young branches thin, high, more or less undulate; areoles large, 2 to 3 cm. apart; spines various, on old stems and branches numerous, at first yellow, often very long, 20 to 30 cm. long; flowers nocturnal, large, 30 cm. long, white; ovary purplish, bearing a few minute brown scales; stigma-lobes numerous, 2 cm. long; fruit large, sometimes 12 cm. long by 8 cm. in diameter, bright red, splitting down on one side showing the white edible pulp; seeds 3 mm. long, dull, roughened with blunt tubercles.

Type locality: Brazil.

Distribution: Brazil. Planted in the West Indies; perhaps naturalized on some islands.

Cereus jamacaru is one of the commonest cacti in Bahia and is found in all kinds of situations from the coast to the inland desert. It is always large, 10 meters tall or more, usually much branched. When living in dense forests it has a simple stem or only a few branches, growing tall and erect, the branches have few ribs, but these are high and at first very blue, covered with formidable spines said to be 30 cm. long at times, although we have seen none which

Fig. 9.—Cereus jamacaru.

measured more than 19 cm. in length. The flowers are large and white, opening at night; the perianth cuts off early from the ovary, leaving the style, which is persistent. The woody trunk may be 6 dm. in diameter, and boards suitable for boxes, picture frames, etc., are sawed from it. In most of the smaller houses in the country the cross pieces upon which the tile roofing is laid are from this cactus, which is called mandacaru and mandacaru de boi. The specific name jamacaru, said by some writers to be the vulgar name of the plant in Brazil, is doubtless a corruption of mandacaru. It is sometimes planted about country houses, often as a kind of hedge. In times of great drought the farmers cut off the young branches from these cacti to feed to their cattle.

Cereus horridus Otto (Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 5: 370. 1837) and C. thalassinus Otto and Dietrich (Allg. Gartenz. 6: 34. 1838), referred to C. jamacaru by Schumann, belong elsewhere; both are from La Guayra, Venezuela.

Cereus lividus was based upon a Brazilian species. Two years after it was described, Pfeiffer redescribed it, referring to it as a synonym C. perotetti (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 98), and giving the distribution as Brazil and La Guayra, Venezuela. The plant from La Guayra is doubtless C. hexagonus.

Cereus lividus glaucus (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 359. 1853), given as a synonym of C. lividus, may belong here.

Cereus jamacaru glaucus (Ladenberg, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 70. 1893) is only a name.

Illustrations: Karsten, Deutsche Fl. f. 501, No. 8; Pison, Hist. Nat. Bras. 100. f. 1; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 25; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 95: pl. 5775, this last as Cereus lividus.

Figure 9 is from a photograph taken by Mr. P. H. Dorsett near Joazeiro, Bahia, Brazil, in 1914.

6. Cereus tetragonus (Linnaeus) Miller, Gard. Dict. ed 8. No. 2 1768.

Cactus tetragonus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 466. 1753.

Plant upright, 1 to 2 meters high, freely branching; branches green, erect, forming a narrow compact top; ribs mostly 4, rarely 5, at first high, separated by acute intervals, compressed, obtuse; areoles close together, white-felted; spines brown to nearly black, usually acicular to subulate; radial spines 5 or 6, 6 to 8 mm. long; central spines solitary or several, a little stouter than the radials; flower funnelform, 13 cm. long; all the perianth-segments reddish; ovary bearing small scales, glabrous.

Type locality: Curacao, according to Linnaeus, but not known there now.

Distribution: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, according to Schumann.

Our description is drawn partly from living specimens in the New York Botanical Garden.

Cereus tetragonus ramosior Link and Otto (Verh. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 6: 432. 1830) is given by name only; C. tetragonus major Salm-Dyck (Walpers, Repert. Bot. 2: 277. 1843) is given as a synonym for C. tetragonus.

Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 158.

Figure 8 is from a photograph of a plant in the New York Botanical Garden, received from Mr. Frank Weinberg in 1901.

7. Cereus stenogonus Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 165. 1899.

Tree-like, up to 6 to 8 meters high, much branched or nearly simple, bluish green to yellowish green; ribs 4 or 5, very narrow, high; spines 2 or 3, short, conic, the longest 6 to 7 mm. long or subulate and the longer up to 4.5 cm. long; flowers large, 20 to 22 cm. long, funnelform, the tube long and slender; outer perianth-segments narrow, 7 to 8 cm. long, mucronate, rose-colored or with rose-colored margins; fruit large, 10 cm. long or less, red or orange without, with white or carmine flesh; seeds dull.

Type locality: Paso la Cruz, Paraguay.

Distribution: Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.

We know the species only from description, from a flower collected by Dr. E. Hassler from the region of the type locality, and from living plants and specimens collected by Dr. Shafer at Posadas, Argentina. It is now grown in the Hanbury Garden at La Mortola, Italy.

Figure 10 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Shafer at Posadas, Argentina, in 1917.

8. Cereus xanthocarpus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 32. 1903.

Tall, tree-like, up to 6 meters high, somewhat branched, very spiny at apex; ribs of branches 4 to 6, high, very narrow; areoles 3 to 4 cm. apart, white-woolly; spines 3 or 4, short, conic, dark brown; flowers opening at night; flower-tube 12.5 cm. long, yellowish green below, whitish green above; outer perianth-segments oblong to lanceolate, to 12 cm. long, whitish green; inner perianth-segments white; fruit yellow, oblong, 6.5 to 7 cm. long, the flesh white; seeds 2 mm. long, kidney-shaped.

Type locality: Calle Manora, Paraguay.

Distribution: Paraguay.

We have not seen this species; in its yellow fruit it differs from most other known members of this genus.

All we know about Cereus coracare Gosselin is that Hirscht (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 159. 1899) states that Mr. Roland-Gosselin is to be thanked for a splendid fruit of Cereus coracare, which in form and size resembles an apple, is of a beautiful color and of excellent taste to eat, and a note of Graebener (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 174. 1902) that Cereus coracare was from Paraguay and was then 19 cm. high. It may belong here.

The status of this and the following two species, all from Paraguay, can be determined only by further observations in that region.

9. Cereus lamprospermus Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 166. 1899.

Tree-like, 6 to 8 meters high, very much branched; branches green, soon erect; ribs 6 to 8, thickish and obtuse, separated by rounded intervals; spines 8 to 11, hardly, distinguished as radials and centrals; areoles 2 to 2.5 cm. apart, subulate; flower 15 to 16 cm. long; outer perianth-segments green with reddish tips; stigma-lobes 13; ovary nearly naked; seeds black, shining.

Type locality: Fuerte Olympo, Paraguay.

Distribution: Paraguay.

10. Cereus pachyrhizus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 33. 1903.

Plant upright, 1, or at the most, 3 meters high, with swollen tuberous roots; branches or stem up to 10 cm. thick, rounded at the apex, terminated by large and numerous spines; older joints yellowish brown, younger ones yellowish green, subglaucous; ribs 6, very strongly compressed laterally, up to 1 cm. thick and 5 cm. high, separated by sharp, deep furrows, subsinuate; areoles 2.5 to 3 cm. apart, circular, 5 to 6 mm. in diameter; with short felt, which is not curly even when young; spines 10 to 13, poorly differentiated into radial and central ones, one of the latter being longest and up to 3 cm. long; all spines subulate and very sharp; fruit ellipsoid, 5 cm. long, 3 to 4 cm. in diameter, naked, smooth; seeds 2.5 mm. long, subcompressed, shining.

Type locality: Cerro Noaga, Paraguay.

Distribution: Paraguay.

This species is unknown to us, except from the original description. It is recorded as growing on bare, granitic rocks at 350 meters altitude.

Fig. 10.—Cereus stenogonus.

11. Cereus dayamii Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 480. 1905.

Tree-like, 10 to 25 meters high, with a cylindric trunk; branches 5-ribbed or 6-ribbed; ribs 3 cm. high, pale green; areoles orbicular, large, to 6 mm. in diameter; spines few or wanting, when present 4 to 12 mm. long, brown with a yellowish base; flowers funnelform, large, glabrous, up to 25 cm. long; inner perianth-segments white; fruit oblong, glabrous, red without, 6 to 8 cm. long; pulp white, edible; seeds black.

Type locality: Near Colony of Resistencia, Chaco, Argentina.

Distribution: Southern Chaco, Argentina.

Figure 11 is from a photograph given to Dr. Rose by Dr. Spegazzini.

12. Cereus argentinensis nom. nov.

Cereusplatygonus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 481. 1905. Not Otto. 1850.

Erect, 8 to 12 meters high, with a definite trunk; branches numerous, stout, curved at base but soon erect, 10 to 15 cm. in diameter; ribs 4 or 5, 4 to 5 cm. high, thin in section, separated by wide intervals; radial spines to 8, brownish, 3 to 5 cm. long; central spines 1 or 2, 10 cm. long; flowers funnelform, large, 17 to 22 cm. long, inodorous; outer perianth-segments green or reddish at tips; inner perianth-segments white; fruit glabrous, smooth.

Type locality: Central Chaco, Argentina.

Distribution: Territory of the Chaco, Argentina.

This species must be close to C. stenogonus, as suggested by Berger, although Spegazzini says it is distinct; it must also be closely related to C. dayamii.

Figure 12 is from a photograph of a plant of C. platygonus Spegazzini, in Dr. Spegazzini's garden at La Plata, Argentina.

13. Cereus peruvianus (Linnaeus) Miller,

Cactus peruvianus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 467. 1753.

?Cereus calvescens De Candolle, Mem. Mus.

?Cereus spinosissimus Förster, Hamb. Gartenz.

Usually tall, said to reach 16 meters in height, tree-like, with a large much branched top; branches 10 to 20 cm. in diameter, usually green, sometimes glaucous, with 6 to 9 ribs, sometimes as few as 4; spines acicular, to 10, brown to black, 1 to

3 cm. long; flower rather large, about 15 cm. long, with a thick tube; upper scales and outer perianth-segments obtuse, red or brownish; inner perianth-segments oblong, white; fruit subglobose, orange-yellow, somewhat glaucous, about

4 cm. in diameter; seeds black, 2 mm. broad, rough.

Type locality: Uncertain. Linnaeus says it is from Jamaica and the arid coast of Peru. No native Cereus is known either from Jamaica or Peru. It was called Cereus peruvianus by Bauhin in 1623 but no station was given. Our description applies to the plant from the southeastern coast of South America for which the name Cereus peruvianus has been used by most recent authors.

Fig. 11.—Cereus dayamii.

Distribution: Southeastern South America; widely planted in tropical America.

Cereus peruvianus tortuosus (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 30. 1845) and C. peruvianus tortus (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 46. 1850) are names only.

Cereus peruvianus monstrosus is a common garden form first described as a variety by De Candolle (Prodr. 3: 464. 1828). It is similar to the typical form except that the ribs are often broken into irregular tubercles or are unevenly sulcate. This has also been

Cactus Large Specimens
Fig. 12.—A cultivated specimen of Cereus argentinensis.

taken up as Cereus monstrosus (Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 1: 334. 1840), as Cereus monstrosus minor (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: 163. 1891) and as C. monstruosus Schumann (Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: 178. 1894). It seems to be the same as Cactus abnor-mis Willdenow (Enum. Pl. Suppl. 31. 1813).* Cereus peruvianus monstruosus nanus is a somewhat similar form mentioned by Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 115. 1897) perhaps

*Taken up later as Cereus abnormis by Sweet (Hort. Brit. 171. 1826). Another abnormal form is C. peruvianus cristatus (Graebener, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 29. 1901).

intended for C. peruvianus monstrosus minor (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 46. 1850). C. peruvianus brasiliensis (Förster, Handb. Cact. 390. 1846) probably does not apply to this species.

Cereus surinamensis Trew (Ephem. Nat. Cur. 3: 394. pl. 7, 8, 1733) is referred here by Förster, but to C. monoclonos by Pfeiffer. The illustrations, though poor, indicate that it is a Cereus and not a Cephalocereus. From the name we should expect it to be referable to Cereus hexagonus.

Förster (Handb. Cact. 389. 1846) states that Pfeiffer has called this plant Cereus decan-dollii, but Förster doubts the correctness of this.

This species has long been known under the name of Cereus peruvianus, and is probably the most widely cultivated Cereus. In conservatories it is rarely found more than 2 meters in height.

Illustrations: Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 1, 28 to 31; Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 131; Cact. Journ. 2: March; Hist. Acad. Paris 1741: pl. 4, 5; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 7; Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 5; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 5: pl. opp. 12; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 2: f. 884, all as Cereus peruvianus; Cact. Journ. 1: 79; October; Gard. Chron. 1873: f. 31; III. 24: f. 46; Home Farm. Gard. III. 60: 145; Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: pl. 11, all as Cereus peruvianus monstrosus; Gerarde, Herball ed. 1. 1015;

ed. 2 and 3, 1179, all as Cereus peruvianus spinosus; Bradley, Hist. Fig. 13._C. peruvianus.

Succ. Pl. ed. 2. pl. 1, as Cereus erectus maximus etc.; DeTussac, Fl. Xo.8.

Antill. 2: pl. 33; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. 410. f. 6855, as Cactus peruvianus.

Plate 11, figure 2 , represents the top of a plant in the collection of the New York Botanical Garden; figure 3 shows the flower of the same plant. Figure 13 shows a fruit of a plant in the same collection.

14. Cereus perlucens Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 173. 1900.

Columnar, erect, not very high; ribs 6 or 7, thin but obtuse, 4 to 6 mm. high, bright green or more or less bluish green or even violet when young, somewhat pruinose; areoles about 1 cm. apart, circular, bearing curly woolly hairs; radial spines 8 to 10, chestnut-brown, spreading, acicular, 1 cm. long; central spine solitary, stouter than the radials.

Type locality: Along the Amazon, Manaos, Brazil. Distribution: Brazil.

We know this species only from a cutting received from the Berlin Botanical Garden; Dr. Schumann referred it to his series Formosi, between his C. pitajaya (C. obtusus) and C. caesius; he did not know the flower, however, and was not certain but that it might not belong to his genus Pilocereus; the cutting appears to us to represent a Cereus.

15. Cereus variabilis Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 105. 1837.

Creeping over rocks or clambering into trees, up to 4 meters high; stem made up of short thick joints, 18 to 30 cm. long by 6 to 9 cm. in diameter; ribs 3 to 5, stout, when old strongly crenate, obtuse, with strong indentations on the sides extending from the areoles with a broad upward bend to the bottoms of the ribs; spines about 8, yellowish, the longest about 5.5 cm. long; flower 20 to 27 cm. long, with a very slender, green, and somewhat angled tube; scales of the ovary and lower part of the flower-tube ovate, acute; outer perianth-segments green or yellowish green, linear, acute; inner perianth-segments white.

Type locality: Not definitely cited. Distribution: Coast of central Brazil.

The plant collected by Dr. Rose on Ilha Grande, near Rio de Janeiro, flowered in the New York Botanical Garden, August 9, 1916, the flower being unusually large. We feel convinced that this is the plant illustrated as below cited. Here, too, is perhaps to be referred

plate 4084 of Curtis's Botanical Magazine with the name Cereus pitajaya, although its flowers are smaller and the inner perianth-segments are more serrate.

While this species is somewhat similar to the common low Cereus pernambucensis of the Brazilian coast, it is stouter, often reaching a height of 4 meters, and has much larger flowers.

Cereus glaucus speciosus (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 106. 1837) is referred to Cereus variabilis by both Pfeiffer and Rümpler. C. brandii (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 49. 1850) and C. colvillii (Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 736. 1885) of English gardens are also referred here.

C. variabilis glaucescens Salm-Dyck, var. laetevirens Salm-Dyck, var. micracanthus SalmDyck, var. salm-dyckianus, and var. obtusus are all given by Walpers (Repert. Bot. 2: 277. 1843) as synonyms of this species. The last name probably should be referred to Cereus obtusus. The varieties gracilior and ramosior (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 49. 1850) are only names. Of this relationship is Cereus grandis Haworth (Suppl. Pl. Succ. 76. 1819) and its two varieties gracilior Salm-Dyck and ramosior Salm-Dyck (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 376. i853).

Cereus prismatiformis, C. hexangularis, and C. affinis (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 106. 1837) were all given as synonyms of Cereus variabilis.

Illustrations: Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 15, as Cereus variabilis; Vellozo, Fl. Flum. 5: pl. 23, as Cactus tetragonus.

Cereus Three Ribs
Fig. 14.—Cereus pernambucensis.

16. Cereus pernambucensis* Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 58. 1839.

?Cereus tetragonus minor Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 337. 1834.

Cereusformosus Förster, Handb. Cact. 404. 1846.

Plant various in habit, often growing in clumps and then sometimes 4 to 5 meters broad, creeping and sprawling, usually 2 to 4 dm. high, perhaps much higher; branches usually short, with 3, 4, or 5 ribs, pale green, sometimes nearly white; ribs prominent, often strongly crenate and very thick; areoles large, 1.5 to 2 cm. apart, at first brown-woolly, afterwards with short white wool; intervals between ribs of young shoots acute, deep, but on old shoots broad and

*Originally, but erroneously, spelled Cereus fernambucensis.

shallow; spines 4 to 10, acicular, yellowish brown to bright yellow, the longest ones 5 cm. long; flower-buds purplish, erect, 16 cm. long, pointed; scales on ovary and lower part of flower-tube minute, deep red, naked in their axils; flowers white; fruit narrowly oblong, 6 to 7 cm. long, purplish red, when mature splitting on one side exposing the white edible pulp and black seeds; style persisting after the perianth falls; seeds shining, 2 mm. long.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Coast of Brazil and Uruguay.

This species of the coast of Brazil is what Schumann described as Cereus pitajaya, but an examination of the original description of Cactus pitajaya Jacquin shows that this plant came from the coast of Colombia and is evidently an Acanthocereus.

Cereus pernambucensis is common along the seacoast of Brazil. Dr. Rose observed it at Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Cabo Frio, and at Santos, but it is reported from both north and south of those regions. It is very common in the sand just back of the ocean beach, and on rocks near the sea, where it is usually low, often prostrate, growing in clumps. At times it grows much taller, unless we have associated another species with it. The taller plants suggest a small form of C. jamacaru, which is normally an interior desert species, while C. pernambucensis is to be found only on the coast; besides the differences in size of flowers and fruits, C. pernambucensis has shining seeds, which in the other species are dull.

Illustration: Vellozo, Fl. Mum. 5: pl. 22, as Cactus pentagonus.

Figure 14 is from a photograph taken by Paul G. Russell at Bahia, Brazil, in 1915.

17. Cereus obtusus Haworth, Rev. Pl. Succ. 70. 1821.

Low, branching at base, dull green slightly glaucous; branches at first strongly ribbed, but in age simply angled; ribs on young growth separated by deep intervals, obtuse, 2 to 2.5 cm. high, with long grooves running down from the areoles; areoles 1 to 2 cm. apart; spines acicular, yellowish; radial spines usually 5 to 7; central spine 1; flower and fruit unknown.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: South America, presumably Brazil.

The above description is drawn from a plant sent from the Edinburgh Botanical Garden to New York in 1902.

Figure 15 is from a photograph of the specimen above mentioned.

18. Cereus caesius Salm-Dyck in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 89. 1837.

Cereusjamacaru caesius Salm-Dyck in Fobe, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 90. 1908.

Piptanthocereus jamacaru caesius Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 230. 1909.

Branching at base; branches strongly angled; ribs 5 to 7, high, somewhat acute, repand; areoles 1.5 to 2.5 cm. apart; spines acicular, brown, the radials 8 to 10; central spines 4 to 7, similar to the radials, 12 mm. long or less; flowers and fruit unknown.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Probably Brazil.

This species was described from greenhouse plants of unknown origin; later these were supposed to have come from South America, probably from Brazil. We have studied a cutting received from the Berlin Botanical Garden.

Cereus glaucus (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 89. 1837) was published as a synonym of C. caesius. Cereus laetevirens caesius (Förster, Handb. Cact. 400. 1846), published as a synonym only, doubtless applies to this species.

19. Cereus azureus Parmentier in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 86. 1837.

Cereus seidelii Lehmann in Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 200. 1850.

Cereus azureus seidelii B. Dams, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 157. 1904.

Piptanthocereus azureus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 225. 1909.

Probably branching at base, bluish pruinose; branches elongated, slender, flexuous; ribs 6 or 7, obtuse, repand; areoles remote, with brown tomentum and grayish wool; radial spines 8 to 12, white, with black tips; central spines 1 to 3, brown, stouter than the radials; flowers nocturnal, 10 to 12 cm. long; inner perianth-segments white, lanceolate, acuminate, 10 cm. long, the margins dentate; stamens numerous, green; style longer than the stamens, green; stigma-lobes 14, spreading, linear; ovary glabrous, bearing a few scales; fruit not known.

Type locality: Brazil.

Distribution: Brazil.

The illustration of Schumann, here cited, resembles the species of Argentina more than those of Brazil. Cereus azureus is reported growing in the Hanbury Garden at La Mortola, Italy, and plants are now to be seen in the New York Botanical Garden, where one flowered in 1915.

Illustration: Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 26.

Fig. 16.—Cereus aethiops.

Fig. 16.—Cereus aethiops.

20. Cereus chalybaeus Otto in Förster, Handb. Cact. 382. 1846.

Piptanthocereus chalybaeus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 227. 1909.

Stems 2 to 3 meters high, with few ascending branches; ribs 6, very high on the young parts of the stems and there separated by wide intervals, more or less purplish; radial spines usually 7, but on old stems much more numerous; central spines several, a little longer than the radials, all dark brown; perianth large, about 2 dm. long and about as broad when fully expanded; flower-tube about 1 dm. long, purplish, bearing long tubercles crowned by minute scales; outer perianth-segments pinkish, narrowly oblong, the inner white, acute, sometimes toothed; filaments numerous, long-exserted beyond the throat, but shorter than the perianth-segments; style elongated, much longer than the filaments, weak; stigma-lobes many; fruit spherical, smooth, yellow.

Type locality: Not cited. Distribution: Northern Argentina.

This species is similar to the so-called Cereus coerulescens, of Argentina, which was taken up as Cereus landbeckii by Philippi, but the former has different stems, is stouter, and usually has shorter spines.

Cereus chalybaeus was described from a plant grown in the Botanical Garden at Berlin in 1846, which we do not know; but we are accepting as this species the plant so identified and figured by T. Gürke as below cited. Our description of the flower is drawn from this illustration.

Dr. Schumann states that the species comes from near Córdoba, Argentina, and there Dr. Rose collected specimens in 1915 which have been used for this description.

Walpers (Repert. Bot. 2: 340. 1843) referred this species to C. polychaetus, an older species which seems to have been overlooked by recent writers.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 135; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 27.

21. Cereus aethiops Haworth, Phil. Mag. 7: 109. 1830.

Cereus coerulescens Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 33. 1834.

Cereus landbeckii Philippi in Regel, Gartenflora 24: 162. 1875.

Cereus coerulescens landbeckii Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 122. 1897.

Cereus coerulescens melanacanthus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 122. 1897.

Stems bluish green to purplish, 1 to 2 meters high, usually much branched; joints 3 dm. long or more, somewhat tapering toward the apex; ribs 7 or 8, low, somewhat tuberculate, obtuse or rounded, separated by acute intervals; areoles large, black; radial spines about 9 or even more, black, at least at bases and tips; central spines usually solitary, a little stouter than the radials, ascending; flower long, tubular, 22 cm. long, with a limb 12 cm. in diameter; outer perianth-segments linear-lanceolate, rose-colored; inner perianth-segments white; filaments and style included, the former attached all along the inner surface of the long tube; fruit ovoid to oblong-ovoid, more or less brownish when mature, truncate at apex, with a thick rind, smooth, somewhat glaucous, 6 cm. long; seeds black, 2 mm. long, coarsely tuberculate above, finely tuberculate at base, with a large depressed hilum.

Type locality: Brazil.

Distribution: Western border of Argentina to Brazil.

Cereus mendory Hortus (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 85. 1837), C. melanacanthus Hortus (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 122. 1897), and C. nigrispinus Labouret (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 122. 1897), usually cited as synonyms of this species, are unpublished. Cereus coerulescens fulvispinus (Graebener, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 19: 137. 1909) and C. coerulescens longispinus (Weingart, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 16: 93. 1906) are referred here, but they have not been described.

Cereus coeruleus Lemaire (Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 80. 1839) was supposed to be a variety of the above species when first described but was said to be twice as large with stouter, longer spines.

We have followed Schumann and others in combining the plants from Brazil and western Argentina under one name, although there are indications that the specimens from Mendoza, Argentina, which were taken up by Philippi as C. landbeckii, are distinct.

Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 68: pl. 3922; Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 24; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 28, all three as Cereus coerulescens; Gartenflora 24: pl. 832, as Cereus landbeckii; Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 127, as Cereus coerulescens melana-canthus.

Figure 16 is from a photograph taken at Alto Pencoso, San Luis, Argentina, by C. Bruch in 1914; figure 17 shows a fruiting branch of C. aethiops from Mendoza, Argentina, brought by Dr. Rose to the New York Botanical Garden in 1915.

22. Cereus repandus (Linnaeus) Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8. No. 5. 1768.

Cactus repandus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 467. 1753.

Cereus hermannianus Suringar, Versl. Med. Akad. Wetensch. III. 2: 194 1886.

Pilocereus repandus Schumann in Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 361: 181. 1894, as to name.

Tall, tree-like plant, up to 10 meters high, with a much branched top; trunk 4 dm. in diameter; branches grayish green, usually upright or somewhat curved below, bearing numerous constrictions about 2 dm. apart; ribs usually 9 or 10, rather low for this genus, about 1 cm. high; areoles 5 to 15 cm. apart, small; spines numerous, gray, acicular, the longest ones 5 cm. long; flowers nocturnal, narrowly funnelform, 7 to 8 cm. long, the limb 2.5 to 3 cm. broad, dark green except tips of inner perianth-segments; ovary bearing a few small ovate scales with a little felt in their axils; fruit dark red (occasionally white), oblong, 3 to 4 cm. long, with white flesh; seeds dull black, tuberculate

Type locality: Tropical America.

Distribution: Curaçao, Aruba, and Bonaire.

Schumann (Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: 181) has confused this species with Cephalocereus lanuginosus and has published it under Pilocereus repandus.

Common on Curaçao, where it often grows in thickets, sometimes forming the dominant feature of the landscape and there known as kadoesji and breebee.

Figure 18 shows a fruit of a plant on Curaçao; figure 19 is from a photograph of the same plant taken by Dr. Britton and Dr. Shafer in 1913.

Fig. 17.—Fruiting branch of Cereus aethiops. X0.6.
Fig. 19.—Cereus repandus.

23. Cereus grenadensis sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 223.)

24. Cereus margaritensis Johnston, Proc. Amer. Acad. 40: 693. 1905.

Stem columnar, erect, 5 to 8 meters high, with a trunk 1 to 2 meters long; branches ascending, gray; ribs usually 8; areoles 1 cm. apart or less; spines 11 to 15, somewhat swollen at base; radial spines about 10, acicular, 5 to 10 cm. long, spreading or reflexed; central spines 1 to 3, stouter and twice as long as the radials, porrect or reflexed; flower-bud obtuse; flowers to 6 cm. long; fruit oblong, 4 cm. long; seeds black, covered with blunt tubercles.

Type locality: El Valle, Margarita Island, Venezuela. Distribution: Known only from Margarita Island.


The following species have been described under Cereus, but their flowers are unknown or incompletely described:

Cereus beneckei Ehrenberg, Bot. Zeit. 2: 835. 1844.

Cereus farinosus Haage in Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 355. 1845. Cereus beneckei farinosus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 48. 1850. Piptanthocereus beneckei Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 226. 1909.

Plants 4 to 5 meters high, much branched; branches 6 to 7 cm. in diameter, the growing tips glaucous;. ribs 8, strongly tuberculate, obtuse, separated by narrow intervals; areoles small, borne on the upper side of the tubercle, black-felted; spines 1 to 5, acicular, about 1 cm. long, brownish; flowering areoles without wool; flowers small, less than 4 cm. long, greenish brown, night-blooming; inner perianth-segments rose-colored; fruit small, spineless.

Type locality: Mexico, on red lava beds.

Distribution: Central Mexico.

This species is reported by Dr. Purpus from near Tehuacan, Mexico, while Dr. Rose collected it at Iguala Canyon, Guerrero, Mexico, in 1905. This latter specimen is now growing in the New York Botanical Garden, but has never flowered. It is not a true Cereus nor is it referable to any genus which we know. It is characterized by its peculiar tuberculate ribs and small flowers. It was named for A. Benecke, a dealer in succulents, at Birkenwerder near Berlin. Echinocactus farinosus (Förster, Handb. Cact. 396. 1846) is a synonym.

Illustration: Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 22. Cereus gracilis Haworth, Phil. Mag. 1: 126. 1827. Not Miller, 1768.

Slender, green, nearly erect, terete, simple or with few branches; spines white, at first 2 to several but in age solitary, long; flowers and fruit unknown.

Type locality: "In America calidiore."

According to Haworth this species has the habit of Euphorbia hystrix but is less spiny and the spines are half as long. According to Haworth and De Candolle, this species is related to Cereus nanus (Opuntia pestifer), but a careful study of the descriptions does not suggest a very close relationship.

Cereus tenuis Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 8: 407. 1840.

Described as erect, slender, green, shining, with 8 angles; intervals between the ribs acute, narrow; areoles close together, small, bearing white felt, white wool, and straight, acicular yellow spines; radial spines 8, the central solitary; flowers and origin unknown.

Cereus subintortus, C. subintortus flavispinus Salm-Dyck, and C. haageanus Salm-Dyck (Förster, Handb. Cact. 381. 1846) are, according to Förster, of this relationship. Cereus trigonodendron Schumann, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 40: 413. 1908.

Tall, 15 meters high, with simple or few-branched stems; ribs 3, prominent; radial spines 6; central spine I, about 6 mm. long; flowers described as about 10 cm. long and red.

This species was very briefly described by Schumann. Vaupel (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 184. 1913) has described the species at more length but not in sufficient detail to enable us to place it. It is very tall with few strict branches and only 3-angled stems, and with red flowers. It probably is not a Cereus nor is it like any other Peruvian cacti.

Type locality: Department of Loreto, Peru.

Distribution: Northeastern Peru.

E. C. Erdis, in 1915, collected at Pumachaca, at an altitude of about 1,500 meters, a very peculiar cactus which may be referable here. The small plant which he sent in had only 4 thin wing-like ribs, but the newer growth has 5 ribs; the spines are 6 to 9, dark brown, acicular. A small live plant is in the collection at Washington.

Illustration: Bot. Jahrb. Engler 40: pl. 10.

Cereus multangularis (Willdenow) Haworth, Suppl. Pl. Succ. 75. 1819.

Cactus multangularis Willdenow, Enum. Pl. Suppl. 33. 1813.

?Cereus multangularispallidior Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 78. 1837.

Echinocereus multangularis Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 825. 1885.

Echinocereus multangularis pallidior Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 825. 1885.

Cactus multangularis, when first described, was not sufficiently characterized for identification. Schumann associated the name multangularis with a Peruvian plant and referred considerable synonymy to it. We know no plant of Peru which answers his description.

To this species Schumann refers Cereus flavescens (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 79. 1837) and with it should be referred Echinocereus flavescens (Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 826. 1885). Cereus multangularis var. albispinus and var. prolifer Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 62. 1834) and var. rufispinus Fobe (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 75. 1908) are unpublished names.

Cereus kageneckii Gmelin (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 77. 1837), also, according to the Index Kewensis, Cactus hageneckii (De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 463. 1828) and Cereus ochracanthus (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 78) were published as synonyms.

In the Engelmann Herbarium is a single specimen labeled "Cereus multangularis" with the following note: "Columnar, similar to serpentinus, coll. Germantown, Pa., October 27, 1869." We believe this plant is Nyctocereus serpentinus.

Dr. A. Hrdlicka collected in March 1913, in the mountains southeast of Nasea, Peru, at an altitude of 5,000 to 7,000 feet, a curious plant which may represent the one referred here by Schumann. It is a low cespitose plant, rarely 2 feet high, with numerous low almost indistinct ribs, nearly hidden by the numerous spines; areoles approximate, 4 to 5 mm. apart, felted and spiny; spines 25 or more, brown or white with brown tips, the longest ones 12 mm. long; flower-buds scaly, woolly, and setose in their axils. Living specimens were sent to Washington, but these eventually died without flowering.

Cereus lecchii (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 78. 1837; Cactus lecchii Colla and C. lanu-ginosus aureus Colla, Hort. Ripul. 25. 1825; Echinocactus lecchii Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3. 283. 1839) is referred here by Schumann. Cereus lanuginosus aureus (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 78. 1837) was given as a synonym of C. lecchii. Cactus lecchii was illustrated by Colla in his Fourth appendix to the Hortus Ripulensis (Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino 35: pl. 2 ).

Cereus limensis Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 353. 1845.

Echinocereus limensis Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 824. 1885. Cereus multangularis limensis Maass, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 119. 1905.

Stems erect, thick, very green; ribs 12, obtuse, subrepand; areoles close together, oval, filled with yellow tomentum; spines acicular, setaceous, rigid, the central ones 8 to 10, divergent, yellowish red, one longer than the others; radial spines 20 to 25, reddish yellow above, white below.

The above is a free translation of the original.

This species is not determinable but was referred by Schumann to Cereus multangularis. Echinocereus multangularis limensis Lemaire (Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 824. 1885) was given as a synonym of Echinocereus limensis.

Cereus langlassei, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 145. 1904. Mentioned as a seedling from Paris. Weingart (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 29: 105. 1919) described the plant after it had made some growth and compared it with C. eburneus (Lemaireocereus griseus.) Cereus horizontals Gillies in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3. 285. 1839. Described as horizontal with stems of 5 or 6 angles. Cereus amblyogonus G. Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3. 284. 1839. Described as "blunt angled" and introduced from South America. Cereus caudatus Gillies in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3. 285. 1839. Described only as "tailed"

and introduced from Chile in 1828. Cereus longifolius Karwinsky in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3. 286. 1839. Described as "long-leaved." Cereus de laguna Haage in Förster, Handb. Cact. 433. 1846. Said to be similar to C. ge-

ometrizans and C. eburneus and to be from Brazil. Cereus regalis Haworth in Sprengel, Syst. 2: 496. 1825. Described as erect, 9-ribbed, and with elongated yellow equal spines.

Cereus ovatus Don (Loudon, Hort. Brit. 195. 1830; Cactus ovatus Gillies) and Cereus decorus Loddiges (Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. 62. 1845) were both introduced into India in 1840 but are not now known nor have they been described.

Cereus flavispinus Roezl in Morren (Belg. Hort. 24: 39. 1874), collected by Roezl probably in the high mountains above Lima, was never formally published.

The following names of Cereus we have been unable to refer to any of the species otherwise mentioned in this work:

Cereus aculeatus Förster, Handb. Cact. 433. 1846.

albertinii Fobe, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 175. 1908. atrovirens Förster, Handb. Cact. 433. 1846. concinnus Haage in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 167. 1897. damacaro Haage in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 167. 1897. incrassatus Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beförd. Gartenb. 6: 432. 1830. jacquinii Rebut in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 167. 1897. karwinskii Haage in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 167. 1897. longipendunculatus Förster, Handb. Cact. 433. 1846. lormala Maass, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 119. 1905. ophites Lemaire, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 173. 1894. pruinatus, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 181. 1901. robustus Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 13: 111. 1903. rogalli Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 96. 1899. salpingensis Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 181. 1901. schoenemannii Hildmann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 43. 1895. spathulatus Förster, Handb. Cact. 433. 1846. steckmannii Jacobi, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 43. 1895.

tellii, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 43. 1895. A name from Hildmann's Catalogue.

trichocentrus Förster, Handb. Cact. 433. 1846.

verschaffeltii Haage in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 167. 1897.

2. MONVILLEA gen. nov.

Night-blooming cacti with long, slender, half-erect stems, often forming thickets; flowers borne toward the top of the stem, of medium size, without felt or spines; tube proper in typical species slender, tapering into a short throat; scales minute; outer perianth-segments greenish or pinkish; inner perianth-segments white or yellow; stamens white, not in definite rows but scattered over the throat; style slender, white, with linear stigma-lobes; flower-tube rigid after anthesis, withering on the ovary; scales on the ovary minute, their axils naked; fruit glabrous, red, plump, spineless; flesh of fruit white, juicy; seeds small, black.

Type species: Cereus cavendishii Monville.

The generic name commemorates M. Monville, a well-known student of this family. We recognize 7 species, all South American.

Key to Species.

Flower-tube slender, straight; stamens and style more or less exserted. Ribs 6 to 10.

Flowers white 1. M. cavendishii

Flowers yellow 2. M. insularis

Plants erect, bluish green, more or less spotted; branches with 3 or 4 sharp ribs, these deeply serrate 3. M. spegazzinii

Plants decumbent; branches with 4 or 5 rounded ribs 4. M. phatnosperma

Flower-tube short and stout, somewhat curved; stamens and style included. Spines subulate, often elongated.

Fruit globular; flower strongly angled; flower-bud pointed 5. M. diffusa

Fruit oblong; flower not strongly angled; flower-bud obtuse 6. M. maritima

Spines acicular, all very short 7. M. amazonica

1. Monvillea cavendishii (Monville).

Cereus serpentinus splendens Salm-Dyck in Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 79. 1839. Cereus cavendishii Monville, Hort. Univ. 1: 219. 1840.

Cereuspaxtonianus Monville in Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 211. 1850. Cereus splendens Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 214. 1850. Cereus saxicola Morong, Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci. 7: 121. 1893. Cereus euchlorus Weber in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 84. 1897. Cereus rhodoleucanthus Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 187. 1899. Eriocereus cavendishii Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 239. 1909.

In cultivation more or less branched at base, 1 to 3 meters high, suberect or clambering, green, 2 to 3 cm. in diameter; ribs 9 or 10, low and rounded; areoles small, about 1 cm. apart; spines acicular,

8 to 12, brown; flower 10 to 12 cm. long, the tube 5 to 6 cm. long; outer perianth-segments pinkish; inner perianth-segments white; ovary small, bearing a few very small scales, these broader than long, with minute brown chartaceous tips; fruit globular, 4 to 5 cm. in diameter.

Type locality: Carthagene.*

Distribution: Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay.

This is one of the best flowering species we have in cultivation. The flowers open at night and appear more or less abundantly from April to September.

The species was named for William Spencer Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire, who had a magnificent collection of plants at Chatsworth.

Cereus anguiniformis (Weingart, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 6. 1908) and C. saxicola an-guiniformis Riccobono (Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 252. 1909) probably belong here.

We have referred here Cereus euchlorus, which originally came from Sao Paulo, Brazil. We have specimens growing which were obtained under this name from M. Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, in 1901.

Fig. 20.—Monvillea cavendishii. Fig. 21.—Monvillea insularis. X0.5.

Botanists have been much in doubt as to the relationship of this species. Schumann in his Monograph refers it along with Cereus striatus (now Wilcoxia) to his series Tenuiores. In his Nachtrage, publi

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