1. Cleistocactus baumannii Lemaire, Illustr. Hort. 8: Misc. 35. 1861.
Cereus baumannii Lemaire, Hort. Univ. 5: 126. 1844.
Cereus colubrinus Otto in Förster, Handb. Cact. 409. 1846.
Cereus tweediei Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 76: pl. 4498. 1850.
Aporocactus baumannii Lemaire, Illustr. Hort. 7: Misc. 68. i860.
Aporocactus colubrinus Lemaire, Illustr. Hort. 7: Misc. 68. i860.
Cleistocactus colubrinus Lemaire, Illustr. Hort. 8: Misc. 35. 1861.
Cereus baumannii colubrinus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 133. 1897.
Cereus baumannii flavspinus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 133. 1897.
Cleistocactus baumannii colubrinus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 266. 1909.
Cleistocactus baumanniiflavispinus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 266. 1909.
Somewhat branching at base, 2 meters high or more, 2.5 to 3.5 cm. in diameter, dark green; ribs 12 to 16, low; areoles approximate, brown or black-felted; spines acicular, 15 to 20, white, yellow, or brown, 4 cm. long or less; flower orange to scarlet, 5 to 7 cm. long, narrow, 1 cm. in diameter, curved, with oblique limb; scales on ovary and flower-tube ovate, acute; perianth-segments short and broad, acute; stamens numerous, shortly exserted, appressed against the upper part of the flower-tube; fruit 1 to 1.5 cm. in diameter, red with white pulp.
Type locality: Not cited.
Distribution: Argentina; reported also from Paraguay and Uruguay.
Cereus subtortuosus Hortus (Förster, Handb. Cact. 409. 1846) was given as a synonym of Cereus colubrinus. Cereus colubrinus flavispinus Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 32. 1845) seems never to have been described though Schumann takes it up under C. baumannii and attributes it to Salm-Dyck. Förster in his Handbuch refers it as a synonym of C. colubrinus.
According to Weingart, C. grossei (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 8. 1908) is only a variety of this species, while C. anguiniformis (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 6. 1908) is true C. baumannii.
Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 57; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 13: 139; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 16: pl. 9, f. 2 to 5; pl. 12, f. 2, all as Cereus baumannii; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 76: pl. 4498; Fl. Serr. 6: pl. 559; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3. f. 19394, all as Cereus tweediei.
Plate xxvii, figure 2, shows a flowering top of a plant in the New York Botanical Garden.
2. Cleistocactus smaragdiflorus (Weber).
Cereus smaragdiflorus Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 281. 1894.
Cereus baumannii smaragdiflorus Weber in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 134. 1897.
Stems slender, 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter; ribs low, 12 to 14; radial spines numerous, acicular; central spines porrect, several, stouter, the longer ones 2 cm. long, yellowish to dark brown; flowers small, 4 to 5 cm. long, straight, a little constricted above the ovary, the tube and ovary red; upper scales on flower-tube and outer perianth-segments with a long mucro; perianth-segments small, green, acute to mucronate; filaments included; style slightly exserted; stigma-lobes 5 to 8; fruit globose, 1.5 cm. in diameter; seeds small, black.
Type locality: Not cited.
Distribution: Provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Catamarca, and La Rioja, Argentina.
We have known little of this species until quite recently. In 1917 Dr. Shafer collected on a dry sandy bank at Caliligua, Jujuy, a plant (No. 69) which was sent to the New York Botanical Garden, where it flowered while this volume was going through the press.
The flowers are so different from the typical species that there is some doubt in our minds whether it is a true Cleistocactus.
Through the kindness of Dr. Juan A. Dominguez, director of the Museo Farma Co-logico at Buenos Aires, Dr. Rose was permitted to bring to the United States certain critical specimens for detail study. Among these plants were flowers of a Cleistocactus, straight and regular but much larger than those of C. smaragdiflorus. Unfortunately, only flowers were preserved. These may be described as follows: flowers 6 to 7 cm. long, straight; outer perianth-segments apiculate; inner perianth-segments oblong, obtuse or rounded; stamens and style exserted. The plant was collected by Fritz Claren in Jujuy, Department of Santa Catalina, altitude 3,400 to 4,300 meters, in 1901 (No. 11576). It is probably an undescribed species, but it deserves further study.
The name Cereus colubrinus smaragdiflorus Weber (Dict. Hort. Bois 281. 1894) , without formal publication, is implied, but the name was not actually used until later (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 122. 1905).
Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 87 Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 123, both as Cereus smaragdiflorus.
Figure 248 is from a photograph of an Argentine specimen communicated by Dr. Spegazzini as typical.
3. Cleistocactus anguinus (Gürke).
Cereus anguinus Gürke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 17: 166. 1907.
Branches decumbent; ribs 10 or 11, low; radial spines 18 to 22, grayish but brownish at base and apex, slender; central spines 1 or 2, stouter than the radials, yellowish; flowers somewhat one-sided, tubular, 7 cm. long, orange-yellow, 7.5 cm. long; stamens exserted.
Type locality: Paraguay.
We have studied a small plant in the collection of the New York Botanical Garden received from the Berlin Botanical Garden in 1914; vegetatively this resembles Cleistocactus baumannii. We also refer here a plant collected by J. A. Shafer at Paraguavi, Paraguay, March 21, 22, 1917 (No. 144).
PUBLISHED SPECIES, KNOWN TO US ONLY FROM DESCRIPTION. Cleistocactus laniceps (Schumann) Gosselin, Bull. Mens. Soc. Nice 44: 32. 1904.
Cereus laniceps Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 93. 1897.
Upright, 4 meters high or less; branches 5 cm. thick; ribs 9, blunt; areoles large, 6 mm. in diameter or more; spines usually 3 at an areole in a vertical row, subulate, gray, about 1.5 cm. long; flowers from a single rib, 3.5 cm. long; ovary spherical, 5 mm. long, covered with subulate scales, these bearing copious brown wool in their axils; fruit red, woolly, 1 cm. in diameter. It was collected near Tunari, Bolivia, at 1,300 meters altitude.
Cleistocactus parvisetus (Otto) Weber in Gosselin, Bull. Mens. Soc. Nice 44: 46. 1904.
Cereus parvisetus Otto in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 79. 1837.
Originally described from a Brazilian specimen grown at Berlin, as follows: Simple, slender, 12 to 15 mm. in diameter, erect, with 12 angles; ribs somewhat compressed; areoles close together, white; upper spines 4 or 5, brown; lower spines 6 to 8, white, hair-like.
According to Schumann this species is found in the Serra da Lapa, Minas Geraes, Brazil. We do not know its relationship, although Weber thought it was a Cleistocactus. It was introduced only once, probably by Riedel, and is not now in cultivation.
This comes from the same region as the species of Leocereus and should be compared with plants of that genus.
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