J4the cactaceae

referring it to Cereus, asks if it may not be an Opuntia. In the original description the areoles are described as 6-angled, which suggests a cylindric Opuntia with angled tubercles rather than areoles.

28. CARNEGIEA Britton and Rose, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 9: 187. 1908.

A large, columnar cactus with stout, erect, many-ribbed stems and branches, the areoles felted and spiny, the spines of flowering and sterile areoles different; flowers borne singly at the uppermost areoles, diurnal, funnelform-campanulate, the stout tube nearly cylindric, expanded above into the throat; scales on tube few, broadly ovate to oblong, acute, bearing small tufts of felt in their axils; inner perianth-segments white, short, widely spreading or somewhat reflexed when fully expanded; ovary oblong, covered with scales similar to those of the tube; stamens very numerous,* about three-fourths as long as the inner perianth-segments; stigma-lobes 12 to 18, narrowly linear, reaching a little above the stamens; fruit an oblong, ellipsoid, or somewhat obovoid berry splitting down from the top into 2 or 3 sections, containing red pulp and bearing small distinct ovate scales, its areoles spineless or bearing a few short spines; seeds small, very numerous, black and shining; embryo hooked; cotyledons incumbent; endosperm wanting.

A monotypic genus of the southwestern United States and Sonora. It is dedicated to Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), distinguished philanthropist and patron of science.

1. Carnegiea gigantea (Engelmann) Britton and Rose, Journ. N. V. Bot. Gard. 9: 188. 1908.

Cereus giganteus Engelmann in Emory, Mil. Reconn. 159. i848.f

Pilocereus engelmannii Lemaire, Illustr. Hort. 9: Misc. 97. 1862.

Pilocereus giganteus Rümpler in Förster, Hand. Cact. ed. 2. 662. 1885.

Stem simple and upright, up to 12 meters high, or with one or two lateral branches, or sometimes with 8 to 12 branches, the branches 3 to 6.5 dm. in diameter; ribs 12 to 24, obtuse, 1 to 3 cm. high; areoles about 2.5 cm. apart or nearly contiguous on the upper part of the plant, densely brown-felted; spines of two kinds, those at the top of flowering plants acicular, yellowish brown, porrect, those of sterile plants and on the lower parts of flowering plants more or less subulate, the central ones stouter than the radials, often 7 cm. long; flowers 10 to 12 cm. long, sometimes nearly as broad as long when fully expanded; tube about 1.5 cm. long, green, its scales broad and short, white-felted in their axils; throat about 3 cm. long, covered with numerous white stamens; style stout, 5 to 6 cm. long, white or cream-colored; ovary somewhat tuberculate, bearing scales with woolly axils; ovules numerous; berry red or purple, obtuse, 6 to 9 cm. long, edible, its few, distant scales ovate, 2 to 4 mm. long, with or without 1 to 3 short acicular spines in their axils.

Type locality: Along the Gila River, Arizona.

Distribution: Arizona, southeastern California, and Sonora, Mexico.

The size of the giant cactus is usually overestimated, for it is generally stated to be from 15 to 24.4 meters high, while the tallest plants actually measured are not over 12 meters high. Dr. MacDougal reports weighing a plant which was approximately 5.5 meters high, which weighed nearly 770 kilograms. There are a number of Mexican and South American species which are taller and which would weigh more than Carnegiea gigantea; Lemaireocereus weberi must be many times heavier.

Although this species was not described until 1848, it seems to have been known to the early missionaries in California and Mexico (about 1540). It is referred to by Humboldt, according to Engelmann, in his work on New Spain (2: 225). According to Dr. MacDougal, the first Anglo-Saxon observation of Carnegiea gigantea was made by J. O. Pattee in 1825.

* Dr. Charles E. Bessey (Science n. s. 40: 680. 1914) reports that he had the stamens in one flower counted, and found that there were 3,482, while one ovary contained 1,980 ovules.

f It is usually stated that this species was published on page 158, this even being the reference given by Engelmann himself. Emory's report, in which this species was described, was printed at least twice the same year and about the same date, once as a Senate Document (Executive Document No. 7) and once as a House Document (Executive Document No. 41). In the former Cereus giganteus occurs on page 159 and in the latter on page 158. There has been considerable speculation and much difference of opinion as to which edition was published first, but we have recently come into possession of Emory's personal copy of the Senate Document No. 7 marked "with manuscript corrections by the author." From this copy the type of the other edition was set up.



This is sometimes called pitahaya, but it is more generally known in the • Southwest by the Indian name of sahuaro or saguaro.* The ripe fruit is much used by the Indians.

While the fruit of this cactus sometimes bears short spines, we have not observed spines in the areoles of the ovary, and presume that they develop during the growth of the berry, as they are known to do in some other cacti.

Fig. 234.—Carnegiea gigantea.

Papago Saguaro, one of the United States National Monuments, is named for this plant. This monument, consisting of over 2,000 acres of desert land, is situated about 9 miles east of Phoenix, Arizona, where there is a wonderful display of Carnegiea gigantea on the rocky hillsides.

The sahuaro is the State flower of Arizona.

Dr. Forrest Shreve has contributed the following account of the sahuaro:

"The geographical range of the sahuaro extends from the headwaters of the Yaqui River in southern Sonora northward to the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau In Sonora it is rarely found

*The following are some of the other published spellings of this name: suaharo, suguaro, suwarrow, suwarro, and zuwarrow.

more than 150 miles inland from the coast of the Gulf of California, and in southern Arizona its range follows approximately the contour of 3,500 feet on the east and north, and the lower course of the Colorado River on the west. It is found in California only in three restricted localities on the Colorado River and reaches its northern limit on that stream at a point about 40 miles north of the mouth of the Bill Williams Fork.

"The occurrence of the sahuaro is by no means continuous throughout this area, for it is never found in deep alluvial soil and is relatively rare on the nearly level plains in the drainages of the Altar, Santa Cruz, and Gila rivers. It is extremely abundant on coarse detrital soils adjacent to the larger and smaller mountains and is very common wherever there is rock in place, ascending the mountains in diminishing numbers to an elevation of about 4,500 feet. The absence of the sahuaro from alluvial soils is undoubtedly related to the adverse conditions of soil aeration in these areas, and possibly to the lack of good mechanical support.

"The localities in which the sahuaro reaches its greatest size and abundance are the uppermost portions of the slopes adjacent to small mountain ranges and hills, particularly where there is a southern or southwestern exposure. In localities of this sort throughout southwestern Arizona, it reaches a height of 30 to 35 feet, which is very seldom exceeded. Individuals of this size are freely branched and often have a gross weight of as much as 6 to 8 tons. In the vicinity of Tucson branching begins on attaining a height of about 15 feet, but on the edges of the range of this cactus branching individuals are relatively uncommon and the maximum size is rarely reached.

"The flowers of the sahuaro are borne at the crown of the main trunk and the lateral branches, usually appearing in May, while the fruit matures some weeks in advance of the summer rainy season. The small seeds are borne in great profusion, but are eaten by birds and ants so rapidly that the crop is seriously decimated before the requisite conditions for germination occur. The seeds germinate readily at the high temperatures of the summer rainy season, but the growth of the seedlings is extremely slow, so that the end of the second year finds them only one-fourth of an inch in height, and at an age of 8 to 10 years they are still less than 4 inches high. The growth continues to be slow up to a height of 3 feet or more, so that individuals of that size are approximately 30 years of age. After reaching this size the growth rate is rapidly accelerated until it reaches a maximum of about 4 inches per year. The largest individuals are 150 to 200 years of age.

"The sahuaro appears to suffer from very few diseases and natural enemies, the greatest decimation in its numbers being occasioned by mechanical agencies. When struck by lightning or wounded in any other manner during the dry season, it recovers very rapidly by the formation of a heavy callus over the wounded spot. If it is wounded in the rainy season, however, bacterial decay sets in very rapidly and a large plant may be destroyed in less than a week as a result of a small wound. The nests made in them by woodpeckers are always lined by heavy callus and appear to occasion no permanent injury.

"The roots of the sahuaro are shallowly placed and widely extended, often reaching a distance of 50 to 60 feet from the base of the plant. The woody tissue may be compared to a series of bamboo fishing rods arranged parallel to each other in the form of a cylinder. These woody rods increase in thickness with the age of the plant, so that they form a very substantial framework at the base while they taper at the summit to slender elastic rods. The fleshy tissue is found both within and outside the circle of the woody rods and the water content of these two regions appears to be the same. Determinations made near the top of the plant indicate that there is 98 per cent of water on the basis of the wet weight. There are great fluctuations in the water content of the tissue from season to season and it has been shown that large quantities of water are taken up during the rainy seasons, particularly in the summer, and that this water is gradually lost during the dry seasons, particularly in May and June. The sahuaro, like many other cacti, is able by reason of its external form to adjust its size to these fluctuations in volume.

"This plant is an extremely useful one to the aborigines of its natural range. The heavy rods are used as construction material in building houses and enclosures, and the fruit and seeds are used for making both food and drink by the Papago and Pima Indians."

Illustrations: Amer. Bot. 20: 87; Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 9: f. 32; pl. 49 to 52 Nat. Geogr. Mag. 21: 651; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: f. 20; Shreve, Veg. Des. Mt. Range pl. 3 B, 4, 5 to 8; St. Nicholas 42: 366. Amer. Gard. 11: 451, 528; Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn. 26: pl. 8, f. b; pl. 9; Bull. Torr. Club 32: pl. 3, 4; Cact. Journ. 2: 84, 130; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 61, 62; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 118: pl. 7222; Cycl. Amer.

Carnegiea gigantea. X0.6.



the cactaceae.

Hort. Bailey 1: f. 413; Emory, Mil. Reconn. pl. opp. 72; Fl. Serr. 10: pl. 977 a; 15: pl. 1600; Gard. Chron. III. 45: f. 69; Gartenflora 31: 217; Hornaday, Camp-fires on Des. and Lava opp. 42, 68, 72, 82, 154; Lumholtz, New Trails in Mex. opp. 48; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 187; Bot. Wheeler Surv. frontispiece; Nat. Geogr. Mag. 21: 711; Orcutt, Cact. 5; Plant World 9: f. 46; Ii5: f. 2; 1110: f. 2 to 4; Rümpler, Sukkulenten f. 63; Sargent, Man. Trees N. Amer. f. 558; Dict. Gard. Nicholson Suppl. f. 231; Garden 1: 263; Vegetationsbilder 4: pl. 40. b; pl. 41, 42; Garten-Zeitung 3: 58. f. 15; MacDougal, Bot. N. Amer. Des. pl. 48, 54 to 56, mostly as Cereus giganteus; Nat. Geogr. Mag. 27: 85, as Cactus; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 663. f. 88, as Pilocereus giganteus; Journ. Intern. Gard. Club 3: 17.

Plate xxii shows the top of a plant, brought to the New York Botanical Garden by Dr. MacDougal in 1903, in flower June 1912; plate xxiii is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal near Tucson, Arizona. Figure 234 is from a photograph also taken by Dr. MacDougal, 60 miles west of Tucson, showing a single plant; figure 235 shows the fruit collected by Dr. MacDougal, near Tucson, in 1905.

29. BINGHAMIA gen. nov. Bushy, more or less branched cacti, the stout branches many-ribbed; ribs low, usually very spiny; flowers white, solitary at an areole, funnelform-campanulate, opening at night, of medium size, the tube straight and stout; style exserted; stamens weak and reclining on the underside of tube; scales on ovary and tube small, narrow, bearing a few hairs in their axils but no spines; fruit turgid, juicy, globular, crowned by the withering-persistent flower; seeds black, small.

We recognize 2 species in this genus, inhabitants of western Peru; it is dedicated to Hiram Bingham, Director of the Yale University Expedition to Peru, 1914-1915. The type species is Cephalocereus melanostele Vaupel.

Key to Species.

Upper areoles of the flowering plant long-bristly, bearing spines 1. B. melanostele

Upper areoles bearing acicular spines similar to those of the lower 2. B. acrantha

1. Binghamia melanostele (Vaupel).

Cephalocereus melanostele Vaupel, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 50: Beibl. 111: 12. 1913. Much branched at base, the 10 to 12 branches strict, usually only 1 meter high; ribs 18 to 22 (perhaps sometimes more), low, close together; areoles approximate, circular, bearing short white and yellow spines; spines very numerous, diverse, those on sterile branches stiff and pungent, the

Fig. 236.—Binghamia melanostele.

Fig. 237.—Binghamia acrantha.

Fig. 236.—Binghamia melanostele.

Fig. 237.—Binghamia acrantha.

central and longer ones sometimes 3 cm. long, those on old and flowering branches numerous, when young brownish, in age nearly white, all weak, bristle-like, 3 to 8 cm. long, hardly pungent; flowers 4 to 5 cm. long, white; scales on ovary and tube minute, numerous, bearing tufts of white wool in their axils; immature fruit sometimes longer than broad; mature fruit either globular or a little depressed, red, said 'to be edible, bearing scattered minute areoles with small tufts of wool; pulp white; seeds numerous, black.

Type locality: Near Chosica, Peru, at 800 meters altitude.

Distribution: Mountains of western Peru.

The top of the flowering plant is made up of a compact mass of long white or yellowish bristle-like spines from one side of which the flowers appear, and this F. Vaupel has termed a lateral cephalium.

Plate xxiv, figure 3, shows the top of a sterile plant brought by Dr. Rose from the type locality in 1914. Figure 236 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Rose at Santa Clara, Peru, in 1914; figure 238 shows the fruit of the plant photographed at Santa Clara.

Fig. 240.—Fruit of Binghamia acrantha. X0.7.

Fig. 239.—Flower of Binghamia acrantha. X0.7.

Fig. 240.—Fruit of Binghamia acrantha. X0.7.

2. Binghamia acrantha (Vaupel).

Cereus acranthus Vaupel, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 50: Beibl. 111: 14. 1913.

Stems 1 to 3 meters high, much branched at base, the branches usually erect, 5 to 8 cm. thick; ribs 12 to 14, low, somewhat tuberculate above, but on older parts with mere constrictions; areoles large, approximate, felted and spiny; felt at first yellow, then brown, finally black; spines at first yellow, numerous, short, and spreading, except the 1 or 2 centrals, which are stouter, 3 to 4 cm. long, porrect or reflexed; flowers opening in the early evening; flower 6 to 7 cm. long, gradually tapering upward from base, about 2.5 cm. in diameter at the top; scales on ovary and flower-tube small, acute, with small tufts of wool in their axils; upper scales and outer perianth-segments mauve; limb 4 to 5 cm. broad when fully expanded; inner perianth-segments usually white, sometimes greenish, oblong, obtuse, 2 to 2.5 cm. long; style cream-colored, much exserted; stigma-lobes greenish; fruit red, its pulp white, edible, slightly acid.

Type locality: Santa Clara, east of Lima, Peru.

Distribution: Very common on the hills above Lima, from Santa Clara to Matucana.

This is one of the most common species in central Peru, being especially abundant on the hillsides and in the narrow valleys between the hills, but not extending down into the broad valleys. It often forms dense thickets. In the lower parts of its range, where the fogs are abundant, especially about Santa Clara, the branches are often covered with lichens and tillandsias.

Our specimens of flowers were obtained by bringing in fully developed buds and allowing them to open; these began to open about 6 o'clock in the evening and were fully expanded at 9.





M. E. Eaton del.

1. Top of flowering branch of Harrisiafernowii.

2. Top of fruiting joint of Harrisia bonplandii.

3. Top of branch of Binghamia melanostele.

(Natural size.)

The name Pilocereus acranthus was proposed by Schumann (see plate 5 B of Engler and Drude, Veg. Erde 12: 1911), but was never published.

Illustration: Engler and Drude, Veg. Erde 12: pl. 5 B, as Pilocereus acranthus. Figure 237 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Rose at the type locality in 1914; figure 239 shows the flower, and figure 240 the fruit of the plants photographed.

30. RATHBUNIA Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 414. 1909.

Rather slender cacti, simple or bushy, the stems and branches weak, erect or bent; ribs few,

4 to 8, prominent; spines subulate, those of the flowering areoles not differing from the others; flowers diurnal, scarlet, solitary, usually at the upper areoles, narrowly tubular, the tube bearing distant long scales and united with it except at the tip, elongated, at first straight, or in age somewhat curved, the limb more or less oblique; perianth-segments short, spreading or reflexed: filaments exserted; style slender, exserted beyond the tube; stigma-lobes narrow; ovary with small scales bearing short felt and sometimes spines in their axils; fruit capped by the withered flower, spiny or becoming smooth, globular; seeds of the typical species black, compressed, minutely pitted, with a large basal oblique hilum.

This genus commemorates Dr. Richard Rathbun (1852-1918), Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in charge of the United States National Museum, a well-known authority on marine invertebrates.

Type species: Cereus sonorensis Runge.

We here include 2 species, natives of western Mexico.

Key to Species.

Ribs 5 to 8; flowers to 10 cm. long 1. R. alamosensis

Ribs 4; flowers 12 cm. long 2. R. kerberi

1. Rathbunia alamosensis (Coulter) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 415. 1909.

Cereus alamosensis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 406. 1896. Cereus sonorensis Runge in Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 135. 1901. Rathbunia sonorensis Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 415. 1909. Cereuspseudosonorensis Gürke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 20: 147. 1910.

Columnar, 2 to 3 meters high, at first erect but generally finally bent or curved, 8 cm. thick or less, rooting at or near the tip and thus forming new plants; ribs 5 to 8, obtuse; radial spines about 11 to 18, spreading, straight, whitish; centrals 1 to 4, much stouter than the radials, 3 to

5 cm. long, porrect or ascending; flowers scarlet, 4 to 10 cm. long; scales on ovary small, acute or obtuse, with a small tuft of felt and a few bristle-like spines in the axils, those on the flower-tube with a tuft of felt and sometimes with a spine; tube-proper 1.5 cm. long; style nearly white; stigma-lobes 6, cream-colored; ovary tuberculate; fruit red, globular, 3 to 4 cm. in diameter, naked or bearing scattered clusters of 5 or 6 white acicular spines.

Type locality: Near Alamos, Sonora, Mexico. Distribution: Southern Sonora, Sinaloa, and Tepic, Mexico.

The plant grows in large clusters sometimes 8 meters in diameter; its flowers are various in size, and the perianth-limb is apparently quite variable in the degree of obliquity. In Mexico the plant is called cina.

Cereus simonii Hildmann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 43. 1895), an unpublished name, according to Schumann and Gürke, belongs here. Schumann at one time described this plant as Cereus stellatus, a very different plant from southern Mexico which we have described elsewhere as Lemaireocereus stellatus (see page 92, ante).

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 122; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 135; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 16: pl. 3, f. 5, all as Cereus sonorensis; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 4, as Cereus stellatus.

Fig. 241.—Flower of Rathbunia ala-

mosensis. X0.7. Fig. 242.—Flower of same, cut open. X0.7.

Fig. 241.—Flower of Rathbunia ala-

mosensis. X0.7. Fig. 242.—Flower of same, cut open. X0.7.

Plate xxv, figure 1, shows the top of a plant received from the Missouri Botanical Garden in 1904, which flowered in the New York Botanical Garden, June 23, 1915; figure 2 shows a flowering piece of a plant sent to the New York Botanical Garden from Guaymas, Mexico, by Dr. Rose in 1910. Figures 241 and 242 show flowers of a plant collected by Dr. MacDougal at Torres, Sonora, in 1902.

2. Rathbunia kerberi (Schumann) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 415. 1909.

Cereus kerberi Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 89. 1897.

Cleistocactus kerberi Gosselin, Bull. Mens. Soc. Nice 44: 33. 1904.

Columnar, somewhat branched, 2 meters high; ribs 4, compressed; radial spines about 16, subulate; central spines 4, stouter than the radials, 4.5 cm. long; flowers 12 cm. long; outer perianth-segments linear-lanceolate, rose-colored, reflexed; stamens exserted; scales on the ovary lanate in the axils.

Type locality: On Volcano of Colima, Mexico.

Distribution: Known only from the type locality.

Dr. Rose saw flowers of this plant in the herbarium of the Botanical Garden at Berlin in 1912 and noted that it was a Rathbunia; otherwise it is known to us only from description. In transferring it to Rathbunia (loc. cit.) we associated specimens with it from Sinaloa and Tepic, Mexico, which now appear better referable to Rathbunia alamosensis, although the flowers are longer than in typical specimens (8 to 10 cm. long) and somewhat curved.

31. ARROJADOA gen. nov.

Stems low, much branched, cylindric; roots fibrous; ribs numerous, low, straight; areoles close together, bearing small acicular spines; flowers diurnal, borne in a pseudocephalium at the top of stem or branch, small, red or pink, resembling in color and size that of a large Cactus (Melocac-tus), nearly cylindric, the tube short; perianth-segments in several rows, short, erect; stamens and style included; fruit a small, oblong, naked, juicy berry; seeds small, black.

This is a peculiar genus, with no very close allies. The original reference of its two species to Cereus is not warranted by any taxonomic considerations, for the structure, origin, and shape of the flowers and fruit are quite different. In size and form the flower is similar to Lophocereus, but here the resemblance ends. Its terminal pseudocephalium is most characteristic, for instead of remaining as a permanent crown of the plant it forms a lateral collar for the new joint which is projected through its center.

The name is in honor of Dr. Miguel Arrojado Lisboa, the present superintendent of Estrada de Ferro Central de Brazil, to whom Brazil is indebted for the extensive botanical exploration of the semiarid regions made a few years ago.

The genus contains 2 species, of which Cereus rhodanthus is selected as the type.

Key to Species.

Branches short and thick, 2 to 4 cm. in diameter . . Branches long and slender, 1 to 1.5 cm. in diameter

1. Arrojadoa rhodantha (Gurke).

Cereus rhodanthus Gurke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 69. 1908.

Low, 1 to 2 meters long, at first erect, afterwards branching and clambering; joints short, cylindric, 2 to 4 cm. in diameter; ribs 10 to 13. low; areoles small, approximate, usually less than 1 cm. apart; spines at first brown, in age white, the central ones similar to the radials except a little longer, when young accompanied by some long cobwebby hairs; bristles at the tops of the joints long, brown; flowers solitary at the upper areoles, forming in clusters of 12 to 14 at the tops of branches, pink, rigid, 3 to 4 cm. long; ovary and lower part of tube naked; uppermost scales and perianth-segments similar, obtuse; stamens numerous, included; fruit red, oblong to obovate, about 2 cm. long.

Type locality: Caatinga de Sao Raimundo, Piauhy, Brazil.

1. A. rhodantha

2. A. penicillata





M. E. Eaton del.

1. Flowering branches of Rathbunia alamosensis.

2. Flowering branches of Rathbunia alamosensis.

3. Top of flowering branch of Borzicactus acanthurus.

4. Top of stem of Arrojadoa rhodantha.

(All natural size.)

Distribution: Arid parts of Bahia and Piauhy, Brazil.

Plate xxv, figure 4, shows the flowering top of a plant obtained by Dr. Rose near Joazeiro, Brazil, in 1915, which flowered soon afterward in the New York Botanical Garden; plate xxvii, figure 1, shows a fruiting branch of a plant collected by Dr. Rose near Salgada, Bahia, in 1915.

2. Arrojadoa penicillata (Gurke).

Cereus penicillatus Gurke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk.

Plant slender, 1 to 2 meters high, much branched, often bushy, the branches 1 to 1.5 cm. in diameter; ribs usually 10, low; areoles small, close together; spines several; radial spines short, spreading; central spines longer, often 2 to 3 cm. long; pseudocephalium at the top of the joint 2 to 3 cm. in diameter, made up of long brown bristles and white wool; flowers 6 to 20 in a cluster, dark pink, 3 cm. long; fruit small, a little longer than broad, 1.5 cm. long, smooth, without scales, purplish, juicy; seeds numerous, black.

Type locality: Calderao, Bahia, Brazil.

Distribution: State of Bahia, Brazil.

Figure 243 is from a photograph taken by Paul G. Russell at Machado Portella, Bahia, in 1915.

Fig. 243.—Arrojadoa penicillata.

32. OREOCEREUS (Berger) Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 258. 1909.

Plants forming large clusters, usually low, erect, ascending or even prostrate, without a cephalium, but the areoles developing long white hairs, especially toward the tips of old branches, the stout stems and branches strongly ribbed; ribs strongly armed with spines; flowers slender, elongated, somewhat curved, diurnal; tube nearly cylindric, slightly expanded upward, the limb short, spreading, somewhat oblique, the inner perianth-segments dark red, narrow; filaments numerous, slender, exserted, attached all over the throat; anthers narrow, red; style long, exserted, with short green stigma-lobes; ovary and flower-tube bearing small narrow scales, with long black and white hairs in their axils; fruit globular, spineless, dry, dehiscing (like Echinocactus) by a basal opening; seeds numerous, dull black, with a large truncated hilum.

The name is from the Greek, signifying mountain-cereus. The genus is monotypic, in so far as known to us. The following species inhabits the Andes:

1. Oreocereus celsianus (Lemaire) Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Palermo 8: 259. 1909.

Pilocereus celsianus Lemaire in Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 185. 1850.

Pilocereusfossulatus Labouret, Rev. Hort. IV. 4: 24. 1855.

Pilocereus bruennowii Haage in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 651. 1885.

Pilocereus fossulatus gracilis Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 661. 1885.

Pilocereus fossulatuspilosior Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 661. 1885.

?Pilocereus kanzleri Haage in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 671. 1885.

Pilocereus celsianus lanuginosior Salm-Dyck in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 180. 1897.

Pilocereus celsianus gracilior Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 180. 1897.

Pilocereus celsianus williamsii Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 180. 1897.

Pilocereus celsianus bruennowii Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 180. 1897.

Cleistocactus celsianus Weber in Gosselin, Bull. Mens. Soc. Nice 44: 44. 1904.

Cereus celsianus Berger, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 16: 64. 1905.

?Pilocereus straussii Heese, Gartenflora 56: 410. 1907.

?Cereus straussii Vaupel, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 37. 1913.

Oreocereus celsianus bruennowii Britton and Rose, Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: 2404. 1916.

A bushy cactus, about 1 meter high, the slender branches either prostrate or ascending below, erect above, about 8 cm. thick; ribs about 10, obtuse, 1 cm. high, more or less broken up into tubercles; areoles bearing long hairs and several stout yellow spines sometimes over 5 cm. long; flowers borne near the tops of the stems, slender, 7 to 9 cm. long; limb 2 to 3 cm. broad; scales of the perianth-tube narrowly lanceolate, long-acuminate, 5 to 6 mm. long, much shorter than the hairs; inner perianth-segments linear to linear-oblong, acutish, the outer obtuse; fruit about 3 cm. in diameter, essentially smooth when mature, the basal pore about 5 mm. in diameter.

Type locality: Mountains of Bolivia.

Distribution: Bolivia, southern Peru, and northern Chile.

Pilocereus celsianus fossulatus Labouret (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 660. 1885) was given by Rümpler as a synonym of P. fossulatus. Pilocereus foveolatus Labouret (Rev. Hort. 1862: 428. 1862) was given by Lemaire as a synonym of P.

Fig. 244.—Oreocereus celsianus.

Fig. 245.—Oreocereus celsianus.

Fig. 244.—Oreocereus celsianus.

Fig. 245.—Oreocereus celsianus.

celsianus. Pilocereus williamsii Lemaire (Rev. Hort. 1862: 428. 1862), only a name, is usually referred here.

Illustrations: De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 50, No. 7; Knippel, Kakteen pl. 28; Wiener, 111. Gart. Zeit. 29: f. 22, No. 7, all as Pilocereus celsianus; Cact. Journ. 2: 5; Gard. Chron. 1873: f. 197, both as Pilocereus fossulatus; Dict. Gard. Nicholson 3: f. 151; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 86, both as Pilocereus bruennowii; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 169, as Pilocereus celsianus bruennowii; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 16: pl. 2, as Cereus celsianus; Gartenflora 56: f. 49, as Pilocereus straussii; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 24: 131, as Pilocereus celsianus lanuginosior.

Figure 244 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Rose above Arequipa, Peru, in 1914; figure 245 5 from a photograph of a joint; figure 246 shows the flower, and figure 247 the immature fruit of the plant photographed.

Fig. 246.—Flower of Oreocereus celsianus. X0.7.

Fig. 246.—Flower of Oreocereus celsianus. X0.7.


Cereus monvilleanus Weber in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 67. 1897.

Cleistocactus monvilleanus Weber in Gosselin, Bull. Mens. Soc. Nice 44: 45. 1904.

Columnar, branching; ribs 19, obtuse, somewhat sinuate; radial spines about 20, setaceous or acicular.

Distribution: Uncertain. Perhaps Peru, Bolivia, or Ecuador.

According to Weingart, this species is near Cereus aurivillus and, if so, it is a Borzi-cactus. So far as we are aware, its flowers are unknown. We have never seen specimens of it.

33. FACHEIROA gen. nov.

Trunk short, with numerous slender, erect or ascending branches; ribs numerous, spiny; flowers borne in a pseudocephalium, this densely brown or red-felted; flowers small, the ovary and flower-tube covered with long silky brown or red hairs; tube-proper short, smooth within; throat short, not hairy at base, bearing numerous short, included stamens; inner perianth-segments short, white; fruit small, globular, greenish, and gelatinous within; seeds black, tuberculate, with a large basal hilum.

Dr. Zehntner states that the habit of this plant is like Cereus squamosus, but that the plants differ in the manner of producing their flowers. The flowers, although about the same size, show that the two species are generically different. The generic name is from the common Brazilian one used for a number of the cacti, this one being called facheiro preto da Serra de Cannabrava. Only one species is known.

1. Facheiroa publiflora sp. nov.

Erect, 1.5 to 5 meters high, much branched; trunk short, 10 to 12 cm. in diameter; branches slender, elongated, 5 to 7 cm. in diameter, at first light green, in age grayish green; ribs about 15, low, 5 to 6 mm. high; areoles 1 cm. apart, brown-felted; spines brownish, all acicular; radial spines 10 to 12; central spines 3 or 4, somewhat longer than the radials, often 2 to 2.5 cm. long; pseudocephalium extending from the top downward for 2 dm. or more, 2 to 4 cm. broad, composed of a dense mass of short brown or red hairs; flowers 3 to 3.5 cm. long; tube-proper about 1 cm. long, smooth within; inner perianth-segments orbicular, 3 to 4 mm. in diameter; style slender, glabrous; scales on ovary and flower-tube small, 2 to 6 mm. long, greenish, glabrous, obscured by the long hairs from the axils of other scales; fruit about 2 cm. in diameter, hairy; seeds 1.5 mm. long.

Collected by Leo Zehntner on the Serra de Cannabrava (Chique-Chique district) Bahia, Brazil, October 1917

34. CLEISTOCACTUS Lemaire, Illustr. Hort. 8: Misc. 35. 1861.

Slender, erect or, clambering cacti, with numerous low ribs and approximate areoles; flowers slender, tubular, the perianth withering-persistent on the fruit; perianth-segments small, erect, red to green; stamens and style exserted; ovary and flower-tube with numerous appressed scales bearing long hairs or wool in their axils; fruit small, globular, highly colored, becoming naked; pulp white; seeds black, slightly punctate.

Type species: Cereus baumannii Lemaire.

Berger recognizes only 1 species, but mentions 3 of Cereus (C. hyalacanthus, C. laniceps, and C. parviflorus) which may belong here, while Roland-Gosselin recognizes 14 species. 16 species have been described in the genus. We recognize 3 species. The name is from the Greek, signifying closed-cactus, referring to the unexpanded limb of the flower.

Key to Species.

Flowers red or green.

Flower-tube bent; inner perianth-segments red

Flower-tube straight; inner perianth-segments green Flowers orange-yellow

1. C. baumannii

2. C. smaragdiflorus

3. C. anguinus

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