Hylocereus stenopterus Weber Britton and Rose Contr U S Nat Herb 12 429 1909

Cereus stenopterus Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 8: 458. 1902.

A weak vine, not rooting freely from the sides, at least in cultivation, the joints 4 cm. broad, light green in color, not glaucous; ribs 3, thin; areoles slightly elevated; spines 1 to 3, small, yellow; flower 10 to 12 cm. long, opening at night, closing very early (completely closed at 9 a. m.); tube short, about 2 cm. long; perianth-segments all similar, reddish purple, linear, about 7 cm. long; stamens short, exserted; style white, thick, much exserted; stigma-lobes white, when closed forming an ovoid acuminate cluster; scales on ovary and flower-tube orbicular or the upper ones narrowly ovate, green, with purple margins.

Type locality: Vallée de Tuis, Costa Rica.

Distribution: Costa Rica, Central America.

This species is common in Costa Rica, and in recent years has been widely distributed by several Costa Rican collectors; it grows well under glass, and flowers frequently. It is the only Hylocereus in cultivation with red flowers except H. extensus.

Plate xxvii, figure 3, is from a plant obtained by Mr. William R. Maxon in San Jose, Costa Rica, in 1906, which flowered at the New York Botanical Garden. Figure 267 is from a photograph of a specimen which flowered in Washington from specimens received from the New York Botanical Garden in 19 10 (No. 22197).

Flower near end of branch of Hylocereus undatus. X 0.7.

12. Hylocereus extensus (Salm-Dyck).

Cereus extensus Salm-Dyck in De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 469. 1828.

Creeping and probably often climbing, bearing the usual aerial roots of the genus; joints green, rather slender, 1.5 cm. in diameter, 3-sided, the obtuse angles not at all winged; areoles remote, small, woolly and often setose; spines 2 or 3, rarely 4, very short and stout, dark brown, 1 to 2 mm. long; flowers large and handsome; tube green, cylindric; scales of the ovary ovate; scales of the tube rather short, becoming elongated above and passing into the narrow outer perianth-segments, greenish yellow, tipped and margined with red; inner perianth-segments oblong to obovate, acute, rose-red; style thick, longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes linear, entire; fruit not known.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Trinidad, according to Curtis's Botanical Magazine.

The above description is based on the figure and description found in Curtis's Botanical Magazine as below cited. This may or may not belong to the plant described by De Candolle (Prodr. 3: 469), for he describes the radial spines as 10 to 12, pilose and white, and the centrals as 2 to 4, small, rigid, and yellow;, it is hardly the Cereus extensus of Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 119), where the inner perianth-segments are said to be white and obtuse.

Cereus subsquamatus Pfeiffer (Allg. Gartenz. 3: 380. 1835) is referred here by Pfeiffer.

Illustration: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 70: pl. 4066, as Cereus extensus.

13. Hylocereus napoleonis (Graham) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 429. 1909.

Cereus napoleonis Graham in Curtis's, Bot. Mag. 63: pl. 3458. 1836.

Stems much branched, light green, the joints with 3 acute angles and concave sides; angles tuberculate, with repand intervals, not at all horny; areoles about 4 cm. apart; spines 4 or 5, rigid, about 9 mm. long, with swollen bases; flowers 20 cm. long and nearly as broad; tube 7.5 cm. long, green, bearing a few subappressed, deep red scales, gradually enlarging upward; outer perianth-segments yellow, lanceolate, linear; inner, perianth-segments pure white, spatulate-lanceolate, crenate at apex; stamens numerous, yellow; pistil stout; stigma-lobes numerous, entire.

Type locality: Unknown; described from a cultivated plant.

Distribution: West Indies and southern Mexico, according to Schumann; but we know it definitely only from the original illustration.

The origin of this species has long been in doubt. It was described by Graham at the time it flowered in the botanical garden at Edinburgh. The plant had then been in cultivation for about ten years, having been sent by a Mr. McKay of Clapton, but without any record of its source. It is possible that this species should be referred to the true H. triangularis, although Pfeiffer states in the most emphatic terms that they are very distinct. According to Loudon (Gard. Dict. 2: 65. 1827) Cactus napoleonis occurs in a list of new plants offered by L. C. Noisette, a nurseryman in Paris. This was about nine years before the name was published in the Botanical Magazine.

Cereus triangularis major Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 4: 80. 1836 and Cactus napoleonis Hortus, unpublished names, are often given as synonyms.

Cereus lanceanus (G. Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3. 285. 1839), C. inversus, and C. schomburgkii are names of garden plants which are referred to this relationship by Förster (Handb. Cact. 422. 1846).

Plants from Santo Domingo resemble the original illustration in armament. We have these in cultivation, both at Washington and at New York, but they have not flowered (Rose, Nos. 3734, 3839, and 4147). Boldingh (Fl. Ned. West Ind. 296) records the plant from Aruba.

Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 117. 1837) referred here Burmann's plate of Plumier (pl. 199, f. 2) which is perhaps the best disposal to make of it. The fruit, however, has spiny areoles and in this respect resembles Acanthocereus pentagonus. Gosselin considered it an undescribed species which he called Cereus plumieri (Gosselin, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 54: 668. 1907).

Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 63: pl. 3458; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 2. f. 17363, both as Cereus napoleonis; (?) Plumier, Pl. Amer. ed. Burmann, pl. 200, f. 1, as Cactus etc.

14. Hylocereus trigonus (Haworth) Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: 556. 1909.

?Cactus triangularis foliaceus Jacquin, Stirp. Amer. 152. 1763.

Cereus trigonus Haworth, Syn. Pl. Succ. 181. 1812.

Cereus venditus Paulsen, Journ. Bot. 56: 235. 1918.

Stems slender, 2 to 3 cm. broad, clambering over bushes or rocks, sometimes 10 meters long, deep green; joints 3-angled, the margin of the ribs not horny, strongly undulate, the areoles borne on the tops of the undulations; spines usually 8, 4 to 7 mm. long, stiff, at first greenish, soon dark brown; accessory spines or bristles usually 2; perianth large; ovary bearing large foliaceous scales; fruit oblong or oblong-obovoid, red, 10 cm. long, becoming nearly smooth.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Hispaniola, Porto Rico, Vieques, Culebra, St. Jan, St. Thomas, Tortola, Virgin Gorda, and St. Croix. Recorded by Boldingh (Fl. Ned. West Ind. 297) from St. Eustatius, Saba, and St. Martin.

This species, although known to Plumier and illustrated by Burmann (i750-i76o), was not taken up as a species until 1812, when it was described by Haworth. In 1803 Haworth had described it as a variety of Cactus triqueter (Misc. Nat. 189), but had said it was twice the size. Cereus venditus Paulsen is based upon the juvenile form of this species from a plant collected on the Island of St. Jan.

Illustrations: Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. i908: pl. i2. Plumier, Pl. Amer. ed. Burmann, pl. 200, f. 2, as Cactus etc.; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: pl. 25, as Cereus sp.;? Jacquin, Stirp. Amer. pl. 181, f. 65, as Cactus triangularis foliaceus; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. f. 6872, as Cactus trigonus.

Plate xxxvi, figure 1, represents a fruiting joint of a Porto Rican plant in the collection of the New York Botanical Garden. Figure 268 is from a photograph taken by F. E. Lutz near Arecibo, Porto Rico.

15. Hylocereus triangularis (Linnaeus) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 429. 1909.

Cactus triangularis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 468. 1753.

Cereus compressus Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8. No. 10. 1768.

Cereus triangularis Haworth, Syn. Pl. Succ. 180. 1812.

High-clambering or creeping vines, sharply 3-angled, 3 to 4 cm. broad, giving off numerous long aerial roots; margin not horny, nearly straight or slightly elevated at the areoles; areoles about 2 cm. apart; principal spines 6 to 8, acicular, but with swollen bases; flowers 20 cm. long or more; outer perianth-segments linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 6 to 8 cm. long, longer than the inner segments; inner perianth-segments white, oblong; scales on the ovary and flower-tube oblong, green, 2 to 5 cm. long; fruit red.

Type locality: Jamaica.

Distribution: Very common on rocks and trees along the coast of Jamaica.

Plants of H. triangularis were collected by John F. Cowell in Panama, probably not native there, however.

Cereus triangularis pictus De Candolle (Prodr. 3: 468) is said to have yellow or yellow and green joints, with spines often setiform, not rigid.

Fig. 268.—Hylocereus trigonus.

Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 220. 1850) described C. triangularis uhdeanus, based upon a cultivated Mexican plant. It is described with 4 to 6 radial spines and 1 central, yellow, minute. Salm-Dyck was uncertain whether it was a garden variety or a distinct species.

Cereus anizogonus Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 52. 1850) was given as a synonym of Cereus triangularis.

Miller, who first published Cereus compressus distinguished it from C. triangularis, but based it upon Plukenet's illustration (Opera Bot. 1: pl. 29, f. 3), which Linnaeus referred to Cactus triangularis, and which we believe represents the Jamaican plant. Mar-tyn in a later edition of Miller's Gardeners' Dictionary refers Miller's Cereus compressus to Cactus pentagonus (?), which seems hardly correct. The Index Kewensis refers Cereus compressus to Mexico. Cephalocereus compressus (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. Index, vol. 1 to 20. 36. 1912) belongs here.

Illustrations: Plukenet, Opera Bot. 1: pl. 29, f. 3, as Cereus erectus cristatus; Bradley, list. Succ. Pl. ed. 2. pl. 3, as Cereus americanus triangularis etc.

Figure 269 shows a joint of a plant collected by Dr. Britton near Mandeville, Jamaica, in 1907.

Fig. 269.—Joint of Hylocereus triangularis. X0.5.
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