Heliocereus elegantissimus nom nov

Cereus coccineus Salm-Dyck in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 122. 1837. Not C. coccineus De Candolle, 1828.

Cereus speciosissimus coccineus Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 773. 1885.

Cereus speciosus coccineus Graebener, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 19: 137. 1909.

Heliocereus coccineus Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 433. 1909.

Stems at first erect, low, 1 to 2 dm. high; branches often decumbent, light green, 3 to 5 cm. broad, mostly 3 or 4-angled; ribs strongly undulate; areoles large, 1.5 to 2 cm. apart, yellow-felted; spines acicular, short, 1 cm. long or less, the radial ones bristly and white, the inner ones stiff and recurved; flowers scarlet, 10 to 15 cm. broad; perianth-segments lanceolate, acuminate, 7 cm. long or less; ovary 3 to 4 cm. long, oblong, with a few scattered spreading scales; style red, slender, not longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes white.

Type locality: Mexico.

Distribution: Mexico.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 118; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 135; Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 1: pl. 15, all three as Cereus coccineus.

Plate xvii, figure 1, shows a flowering branch of a plant in the collection of the New York Botanical Garden.

2. Heliocereus schrankii (Zuccarini) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 434. 1909.

Cereus schrankii Zuccarini in Seitz, Allg. Gartenz. 2: 244. 1834.

Stems ascending, branching; joints 1 to 2 cm. broad, 3 or 4-angled, somewhat winged, when young reddish, in age green; areoles 1.5 to 2 cm. apart, somewhat elevated; spines 6 to 8, acicular, white when young, yellowish brown in age; flowers dark red, large, 14 cm. broad; stamens numerous; style stout, red, longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes white; ovary oblong, 4 cm. long, spiny.

Type locality: Zimipan, Mexico.

Distribution: Known only from the type locality.

We know this plant only from descriptions and the cited illustration. It must be closely related to the preceding species and may not be specifically distinct from it.

Illustration: Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 1: pl. 27, as Cereus schrankii.

3. Heliocereus speciosus (Cavanilles) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 434. 1909.

Cactus speciosus Cavanilles, Anal. Cienc. Nat. Madrid 6: 339. 1803.

Cactus speciosissimus Desfontaines, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 3: 193. 1817.

Cereus bifrons Haworth, Suppl. Pl. Succ. 76. 1819.

Cereus speciosissimus De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 468. 1828.

Cereus speciosus Schumann in Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: 179. 1894. Not Sweet, 1826.

Stems clambering or hanging, strongly 3 to 5-ribbed, old parts bright green, young parts reddish; ribs strongly undulate; areoles distant, often 3 cm. apart, usually large, with felt and acicular spines; spines numerous, yellow or brownish in age, 1 to 1.5 cm. long; flowers scarlet, 15 to 17 cm. long, lasting for several days; perianth-segments oblong, 10 to 12 cm. long, with rounded, often apiculate tips; filaments weak, red; style little longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes white; ovary bearing scattered minute scales; fruit ovoid, 4 to 5 cm. long.

Type locality: Described from a garden plant.

Distribution: Central Mexico and reported from Central America.

Dr. Rose found this species very common on the pedregal near the City of Mexico. It there forms large masses, usually growing in the pot holes and at the mouths of dark caves, clambering over the rocks and occasionally giving off roots. Mr. Pringle found it at high elevations on the mountain ranges south of the City of Mexico.

Cereus speciosissimus grandiflorus (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 122. 1837) is a hybrid with Se-lenicereus grandiflorus.

Cereus speciosissimus hansii Baumann (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 773. 1885; C. hansii Haage in Förster, Handb. Cact. 428. 1846) is a hybrid with Epiphyllum ackerman-nii. Cereus jenkinsoni (Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 2. 237. 1830; C. speciosissimus jenkinsonii Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 121. 1837) is a hybrid obtained in 1824. Cereus jenkinsonii verus Haage (Förster, Handb. Cact. 429. 1846) is another hybrid. Here also belongs Cereus speciosissimus lateritius Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 121. 1837), which was earlier described and figured as Cactus speciosissimus lateritius (Edwards's Bot. Reg. 19: pl. 1596. 1833) and, afterwards, as Cereus lateritius Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 53. 1850). The variety of Cereus speciosissimus, albiflorus (Cereus albiflorus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 54. 1903), though first mentioned in 1837, was without description, but was taken up and described along with coccineus, hoveyi, and peacocki by Rümpler (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 772, 773) in 1885.

Cereus speciosissimus aurantiacus (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 122. 1837; C. aurantiacus Förster, Handb. Cact. 428. 1846) is very briefly described.

The following are some of the hybrids of Cereus speciosissimus with Epiphyllum phyl-lanthoides which are listed by Walpers (Repert. Bot. 2: 278. 1843): bodii, bollwillerianus, bowtrianus, curtisii, eugenia, guillardieri, ignescens, kiardii, longipes, lothii, maelenii, mexicanus Salm-Dyck, roidii, sarniensis, superbus, unduliflorus, vandesii, vitellinus, and suwaroffii. Some of these names had been previously used by Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 121. 1837) as varieties of this species, as follows: var. curtisii, eugenia, guillardieri, ignescens, kiardii, lothii, and roydii.

Among other named hybrids, Pfeiffer gave var. devauxii (Cereus devauxii Förster, Handb. Cact. 428. 1846). Förster (Handb. Cact. 428 to 431. 1846) also mentioned 66 hybrids with this species, among which are: blindii Haage, colmariensis Haage, danielsii Haage, edesii Booth, elegans Booth, finkii Salm-Dyck, gebvillerianus Haage, gloriosus Haage, hitch-ensii and its varieties hybridus and speciosus, kampmannii Haage, kobii, latifrons, loudonii, macqueanus Salm-Dyck, maurantianus, merckii Booth, mittleri Salm-Dyck, muhlhausianus, peintneri Haage, rintzii Salm-Dyck and the two varieties roseus albus and roseus superbus, seidelii Booth, seitzii, selloii, smithii (Epiphyllum smithianum Marnock, Floricult. Mag. 8: pl. 13), suwarowii, and triumphans. In addition to these there are many hybrids with only an English name. There are also many quadrinomials.





M. E. Eaton del.

1. End of flowering branch of Heliocereus elegantissimus.

2. End of flowering branch of Heliocereus speciosus.

3. A tip of a fruiting branch of Harrisia portoricensis.

(All natural size.)

Cereus setiger Haworth, Phil. Mag. 7: 110. 1830, although said to have come originally from Brazil, probably belongs here. Cereus aurantiacum superbus Haage (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 428. 1853), a hybrid of this species, is only mentioned.

Cereus josselinaeus D. Gaillard (Rev. Hort. 5: 56. 1841) is probably only a form.

Cereus serratus Weingart (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 22: 185. 1912) is of this relationship. Rother believed it was of hybrid origin and Weingart at first agreed, but afterwards considered it distinct.

Cereus mexicanus Lemaire (Förster, Handb. Cact. 430. 1846) is a hybrid of which He-liocereus speciosus is one parent.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 17; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 36, as Cereus speciosus; Herb. Gener. Amat. 5: pl. 351; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 49: pl. 2306; Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 10: pl. 924; Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 3: pl. 9; Edward's Bot. Reg. 6: pl. 4; 28: pl. 49; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. 410. f. 6857, as Cactus speciosissimus; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. f. 35, as Cereus speciosissimus.

Plate xvii, figure 2, shows a flowering joint of a plant in the collection of the New York Botanical Garden.

4. Heliocereus cinnabarinus (Eichlam).

Cereus cinnabarinus Eichlam in Weingart, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 20: 161. 1910.

Stems erect or in time creeping and more or less rooting, very slender, 1 to 1.5 cm. in diameter; ribs few, sometimes only 3 or 4; areoles 2 to 3 cm. apart; spines about 10, bristlelike, 6 to 8 mm. long; flowers about 1 cm. long, the tube bent just above the ovary, more or less funnelform; outer perianth-segments narrow, acute, green; inner perianth-segments oblong to spatulate, sometimes 2.5 cm. broad, abruptly acuminate, somewhat erose toward the apex; style rose-colored; stigma-lobes 7, white.

Type locality: Vulcan Agua, Guatemala.

Distribution: Guatemala.

We know the plant from specimens collected by E. W. Nelson on the volcano of Santa Maria, altitude 2,600 to 3,800 meters, January 24, 1896 (No. 3719).

It is like Heliocereus elegantissimus, but with slenderer stems, lower ribs, weaker spines, and abruptly acuminate inner perianth-segments.

This must be a very beautiful species and, growing at such high altitudes in Guatemala, suggests the possibility of its cultivation in the open in certain parts of the United States.

5. Heliocereus amecamensis* (Heese) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 433. 1909

Cereus amecamensis Heesef in Rother, Prakt. Ratgeb. 11: 442. 1896.

Cereus amecaensis Heese, Gartenwelt 1: 317. 1897.

Plant pale green when young, similar to H. speciosus in habit and spines; ribs to 5; flower 11 cm. long, 8 to 12.5 cm. in diameter; flower-tube 3.5 cm. long, 1 cm. in diameter, green, with green scales and whitish bristles; outer perianth-segments yellowish green, grading into oblanceolate white inner segments, 7 cm. long, 2 cm. wide; stamens white except the pale-green bases, attached all over the tube; anthers creamy white; style white, slightly exserted beyond the stamens, strongly curved down in the tube; stigma-lobes 11, linear, light creamy white; ovary cylindric, 6 mm, long.

Type locality: Amecameca, Mexico.

Distribution: Central Mexico.

This species has been introduced into Europe by Dr. C. A. Purpus, where it is now much cultivated.

Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 135: pl. 8277; Rother, Prakt. Ratgeb. 11: 442; Garden 76: 306, all as Cereus amecamensis; Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 157; Gard. Mag. 55: 427; Gartenwelt 1: 316, 317. f. 1 to 3, as Cereus amecaensis.

* Confusion of the type locality, Amecameca, with another Mexican town, Ameca, doubtless accounts for the two spellings of the name of this plant.

f Rother here spells this name Hesse, doubtless erroneously.

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