Eulychnia iquiquensis Schumann

Cereus iquiquensis Schumann, Monatsschr.

Plant 2 to 7 meters high, when old quite spineless below, but very spiny toward the top; trunk usually very short, 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, its outer layers pulpy and yellow, terete, with many branches from near the base, these nearly erect or more or less spreading and again branching; ribs 12 to 15, 110 broader at base than above, somewhat tuberculate, separated by acute intervals; areoles approximate, sometimes with only a very little space between them, 5 to 10 mm. in diameter, with short white wool, on many old stems and branches the areoles die and fall, leaving a row of indentations along the top of the rib; spines various, on vigorous sterile shoots about 12 to 15 at an areole, most of them about 1 cm. long, while 1 or 2 are very stout, porrect, elongated, and sometimes 12 cm. long; on flowering branches the spines numerous, soft and hair-like or some of them bristle-like; flowers borne near the tops of branches, 6 to 7 cm. long including the ovary; flower-buds globular, covered with long, white, silky hairs; inner perianth-segments white, short; fruit globular, 5 to 6 cm. in diameter, fleshy, said to be acid, densely clothed with white hairs; seeds not known.

Type locality: Iquique, Province of Tarapaca, Chile.

Distribution: On top and slopes of the coastal hills in the Provinces of Atacama, An-tofagasta, and Tarapaca, Chile.

According to published records, this species is known only from the original collection made by Carlos Reiche in 1904, and has never been in cultivation. Dr. Rose collected living, herbarium, and formalin specimens in 1914 not only at Iquique, but also at Anto-fagasta. It grows only on the coastal hills, which at both towns come down almost to the sea or rise from a narrow coastal plain, and is not found on the pampas, which extend east of the coastal hills to the Andes. In both the Provinces of Antofagasta and Tarapaca, it is the most conspicuous plant seen, in fact it is the only woody plant met with on their western borders. It is called by the natives copado, and the old dead branches are carried

to the towns and used for firewood. The flowers begin to appear late in October; the fruit is eaten by animals, doubtless by birds, as all old fruits had large holes on one side, and no seeds remained.

Plate xv, figure 1, shows the top of plant collected by Dr. Rose at Antofagasta, 1914. 3. Eulychnia acida Philippi, Linnaea 33: 80. 1864.

Cereus acidus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 22. 1903.

Plant various in habit, usually 3 to 7 meters high, with a definite trunk 1 meter long and then more or less branching, forming a more or less rounded top, but sometimes without trunk, forming a low mass 1 meter high or less, with branches often procumbent or ascending; ribs 11 to 13, broad and low; spines various, nearly porrect, grayish in age but brownish when young, sometimes 20 cm. long; flowers 5 cm. long, turbinate, 13 cm. in circumference at top; ovary and tube covered with small, ovate, imbricating scales, fleshy at base but with acute, callous tips; limb somewhat oblique; inner perianth-segments at first pale rose-colored, then white, 20 to 22 mm. long; throat very short, covered with stamens; stamens white, 1 to 1.5 cm. long, included; style 2 cm. long, stiff, white, with 12 to 15 stigma-lobes; fruit fleshy, somewhat acid.

Type locality: Near Illapel and Choapa, Chile.

Distribution: From near Choapa to Copiapo, in western Chile.

This species is called tuna de cobado by the natives, according to Philippi.

This species was originally described from material, obtained by Landbeck near Illapel and Choapa, but nothing of the type has been preserved in the Philippi herbarium at Santiago. Dr. Rose, however, visited both Illapel and Choapa in 1914, and was able to decide definitely upon the species described by Philippi. At both places E. acida was quite common, usually growing with Cereus chiloensis, but from which it differs so much in habit and flowers that one is soon able to distinguish the two readily.

It is sometimes referred to as Cereus chilensis acidus (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 159. 1898), but the name has never been formally published.

Figure 123 shows a flower collected by Dr. Rose at Illapel, Chile, in 1914.

4. Eulychnia castanea Philippi, Linnaea 33: 80. 1864.

Cereus castaneus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 22. 1903.

Fig. 123.—Flower of Eulychnia acida. X0.7 Fig. 124.—Flower of Eulychnia castanea. X0.7.

Forming dense thickets sometimes 20 meters broad; branches 6 to 8 cm. in diameter, spreading at base or decumbent, with ascending tips, reaching a height of 1 meter or less; ribs 9, 10, or 11, low and rounded; areoles about 1 cm. apart, large and circular; spines, when young, yellow with brown tips, gray or nearly white in age; radial spines 8 to 10, unequal but short, usually 5 to 20 cm. long central spine 1 , 6 to 10 cm. long, stout, porrect; flowers borne near the tips of the branches, 3 to 5 cm. long; ovary tuberculate, its numerous areoles with short brown wool and slender brown bristles I to 1-5 cm. long, resembling somewhat a chestnut bur; areoles subtended by minute scales each with a callous tip; inner perianth-segments 1 to 1.5 cm. long, broad, with mucronate tips, white or pinkish; fruit globular, said to be insipid, 5 cm. in diameter, fleshy, the small scales persistent, but nearly devoid of bristles except near the top, crowned by the withering perianth; seeds 1.5 mm. long, dull black.

Type locality: Near Los Molles, Province of Aconcagua, Chile.

Distribution: On bluffs near and facing the sea along the shores of Aconcagua from Los Molles to Los Vilos.

The history of this species, though short, is interesting. It was collected by Landbeck, at Los Molles, Chile, in November 1862, and was described by Rudolph Philippi in 1864. The type material, consisting of two flowers and a few bunches of spines, is preserved in the Museo Nacional de Santiago. Unfortunately, the original material and labels had been mixed with other species, but Dr. Rose, who studied the Philippi collection in 1914, was able to make the separation, and through the kindness of the Director, brought back a flower and cluster of spines, which are now preserved in the United States National Herbarium in Washington. From i862 to i9i4 there is no record that this species has been seen by botanists. Dr. Rose, while exploring in Chile, after several efforts was finally successful in obtaining living, herbarium, and formalin material (No. 19393), and also a fairly good photograph.

Figure 124 shows a flower collected by Dr. Rose at the type locality in 1914.

12. LEMAIREOCEREUS Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 424. 1909.

Stenocereus Riccobono, Boll. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8: 253. 1909.

Plants usually large, tall, and branching, but rarely low, nearly prostrate, simple, forming thickets; areoles rather large, felted; spines usually stout and numerous; flowers diurnal or in some species nocturnal, one at an areole, tubular-funnelform or campanulate, the short tube tardily separating with the style from top of the ovary; stamens numerous, borne in many rows all along the inner surface of the throat; ovary more or less tubercled, bearing scales felted in the axils, the areoles at first spineless or nearly so, soon developing a cluster of spines; fruit globular to oval, often edible, irregularly bursting when old, exposing the seeds, at first very spiny, but when ripe the spines are often deciduous; seeds many, black.

The genus commemorates Charles Lemaire (1801-1871), a distinguished French cactolo-gist and horticulturist; it consists of about 2i species, distributed from southern Arizona and Cuba to Peru and Venezuela.

Type species: Cereus hollianus Weber.

Continue reading here: Key to Species

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