Cephalocereus arrabidae Lemaire

Pilocereus arrabidae Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 429. 1862.

Cereus warmingii Schumann in Martius, Fl. Bras. 42: 204. 1890.

Pilocereus exerens Schumann in Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 361: 181. 1894.

Cephalocereus exerens Rose, Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 2: 715. 1914.

Rather low but sometimes 3 meters high, often much branched at base, usually pale, somewhat glaucous; branches 6 to 10 cm. in diameter; ribs 6 to 8, high, obtuse; areoles rather close together, producing long hairs when young, but no tufts of hairs or wool at flowering time; spines 5 to 10, acicular to subulate, unequal, the longest up to 4 cm. long, brownish or sometimes yellowish; flowers 6 cm. long; inner perianth-segments white; fruit depressed, 6 cm. broad; seeds black, shining.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Along the sandy coast of Brazil.

The synonymy of this coastal species of Brazil is very complicated, for it has been confused with a Mexican species of uncertain relationship. An attempt is here made to account for the various names. Schumann took up the specific name exerens for it, basing it on Cereus exerens, an unpublished name of Link. Pilocereus arrabidae Lemaire seems to be the oldest definite name for the plant. This is not to be confused with Cereus arrabidae (Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 1: 333. 1840) as it has been in the Index Kewensis.

BRITTON AND ROSE, VOL

PLATE VI

BRITTON AND ROSE, VOL

PLATE VI

Long Stemmed Succulent Cacti

1. Top of flowering stem of Cephalocereus arrabidae.

2. Top of flowering stem of Cephalocereus nobilis.

3. Top of flowering stem of Cephalocereus barbadensis.

(Natural size.)

Schumann refers here Cereus virens Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 99. 1837; Pilocereus virens Lemaire, Illustr. Hort. 13: Misc. 20. 1866), but Pfeiffer really did not propose a new name, although the plant he described may have been different from De Candolle's (Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 116. 1828), which came from Mexico, for the latter is definitely stated to have been sent by T. Coulter from there, and is described as a simple, light green, 5-ribbed plant; it may be a Lemaireocereus. Schumann refers Cereus sublanatus Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 337. 1834) here, but this reference is to be questioned. If the two are the same the name sublanatus must be taken up instead of arrabidae.

Cereus exerens Link (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 99. 1837) was never described but given as a synonym of Cereus virens. Cereus retroflexus Pfeiffer (Allg. Gartenz. 3: 380. 1835) and C. re-flexus Steudel (Nom. ed. 2. 1: 335. 1840) were given as synonyms of C. tilophorus. Cereus ericomus, given as a synonym of Pilocereus exerens, was given by SalmDyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 47. 1850) as a synonym of C. virens.

Illustrations: Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 39, as Pilocereus exerens; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 2: 41, as Pilocereus virens; Martius, Fl. Bras, 42: pl. 40, as Cereus macrogonus; Vellozo, Fl. Flum. 5: pl. 18, as Cactus hexagonus; also pl. 19, as Cactus heptagonus.

Fig. 62.—Fruit of Cephaloce- Fig. 63.—Cephalocereus arrabidae.

reus arrabidae. X0.7.

Fig. 62.—Fruit of Cephaloce- Fig. 63.—Cephalocereus arrabidae.

reus arrabidae. X0.7.

Plate vi, figure 1, shows a flowering joint of a plant brought by Dr. Rose to the New York Botanical Garden from Iguaba Grande, Brazil, in 1915. Figure 62 shows the fruit collected by Dr. Rose at Bahia in the same year; figure 63 is from a photograph taken by Paul G. Russell on Juparyba Island, Bay of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the same year.

23. Cephalocereus urbanianus (Schumann) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 420. 1909.

Pilocereus urbanianus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 193. 1897.

Cereus urbanianus Berger, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 16: 63. 1905. Not Gurke and Weingart. 1904.

Simple and columnar or branching at base, sometimes 4 meters high, 3 cm. in diameter; branches 4 to 5 cm. in diameter, woolly at apex; ribs 8 to 12, obtuse; spines 10 to 13, spreading, stiff but flexuous; central spines distinct from the radials; flowers on one side of the stem, the flowering areoles bearing long brown wool and bristle-like spines often 4 to 6 cm. long; flower 3 to 4 cm. long; ovary bearing small scales; fruit depressed, 3 cm. broad; seeds black, smooth, shining.

Type locality: Guadeloupe Island, West Indies.

Distribution: Guadeloupe, Martinique, and, apparently, Grenada.

We have not seen this species alive; it is based upon Père Duss's No. 3506, of which material is preserved in the herbaria of the New York Botanical Garden and the United States National Museum. Specimens from Woodlands, St. George's, Grenada (W. F Broadway, No. 1766) appear to be referable to this species.

24. Cephalocereus nobilis (Haworth) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 418. 1909.

Cereus nobilis Haworth, Syn. Pl. Succ. 179. 1812.

Cactus strictus Willdenow, Enum. Suppl. 32. 1813. Not C. strictus Haworth, 1803.

Cactus haworthii Sprengel, Syst. 2: 495. 1825.

Cactus niger Salm-Dyck in Sprengel, Syst. 2: 495. 1825.

Cereus strictus De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 465. 1828.

Cereus haworthii De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 465. 1828.

Cereus aureus Salm-Dyck in De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 465. 1828.

Cereus curtisii Otto in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 81. 1837.

Cereus lutescens Salm-Dyck in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 84. 1837.

Cereus violaceus Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 57. 1839.

Cereus nigricans Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 57. 1839.

Pilocereus curtisii Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 24. 1845.

Pilocereus consolei Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 427. 1862.

Pilocereus haworthii Console in Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 428. 1862.

Pilocereus nigricans Sencke in Lemaire, Illustr. Hort. 13: Misc. 20. 1866.

Pilocereus lutescens Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 675. 1885.

Pilocereus strictus Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 687. 1885.

Pilocereus nobilis Schumann in Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 181. 1894.

Pilocereus strictus consolei Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 190. 1897.

Plant much branched and spreading, the ultimate branches slender, erect, green, shining when young, not at all glaucous, 8 to 10-ribbed; areoles about 1 cm. apart, at first producing only a little wool and this appressed against the ribs, but wool in flowering areoles very dense but short, white; spines up to 3.5 cm. long, acicular, at first yellow, soon brown; flower-buds obtuse or nearly truncate; flowers 4 to 6 cm. long; upper scales and outer perianth-segments broad, rounded at apex; inner perianth-segments purple; style exserted; fruit depressed-globose.

Type locality: West Indies.

Distribution: St. Christopher to Grenada.

The plant has escaped from cultivation on the island of St. Thomas, and has been grown at Hope Gardens, Jamaica.

As to the locality for C. curtisii, Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 81. 1837) gives Grenada, following Hooker, who originally published it as from Grenada, while Pfeiffer and Otto (Abbild. Be-schr. Cact. 1: pl. 11) give New Granada also as its original habitat.

Cereus aureus pallidior Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 63. 1834), given by name only, is referred by Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 84. 1837) as a synonym of C. lutescens Salm-Dyck.

Cereus mollis and C. nigricans (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 83. 1837) and C. mollis nigricans (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 349. 1853) were given as synonyms of Cereus strictus. C. niger* Salm-Dyck (Observ. Bot. 3: 4. 1822) and C. niger gracilior Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 63. 1834) may also belong here. Cereus trichacanthus (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 46. 1850) was given as a synonym of Cereus lutescens and Pilocereus trichacanthus (Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 675. 1885) of Pilocereus lutescens. Here also, Echinocereus trichacanthus, only a name, is referred by the Index Kewensis.

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 16: pl. 4, f. 2, as Cereus strictus; Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 1: pl. 11, as Cereus curtisii; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 59: Pl. 3125, as Cereus royeni; Krook, Handb. Cact. 92, as Pilocereus.

Plate vi, figure 2, shows a flowering branch of a plant in the collection of the New York Botanical Garden. Figure 64 is from a photograph of the plant growing on St. Thomas, taken by W. R. Fitch in 1913.

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