Appendix

We bring together here records of some species described in Germany during the war period, 1916-1918, cited from periodicals only recently received in the United States, together with a few supplementary observations upon other species described in this volume.

Cereus hexagonus. (See page 4, ante.)

Dr. Britton has recently studied this species on the western mainland of Trinidad and the small islands, Gasparee, Monos, and Chacachacare, adjacent. Here it inhabits rocky hillsides, attaining a height up to 15 meters; planted individuals observed were considerably taller. At St. Joseph large numbers of young plants up to 4 meters tall were seen growing upon branches of saman trees, evidently germinated from seeds carried by birds from the fruit of large planted specimens nearby, an interesting illustration of induced epiphytic habit of a typically saxicolous plant. Repeated field observations showed that this Cereus is usually 4-ridged when young, becoming 6-ridged later in life, many plants bearing some joints 4-ridged, some 6-ridged.

Illustration: Loudon, Encycl. Pl. 410. f. 6854, as Cactus hexagonus.

Cereus chalybaeus. (See page 16, ante.)

Cereus beysiegelii (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 29: 48. 1919) is an abnormal form, similar to Cereus peruvianus monstruosus, which Mr. W. Weingart says looks like Cereus chalybaeus on account of its black spines and turquoise-green skin. Its origin is unknown.

23. Cereus grenadensis sp. nov. (See page 18, ante.)

Fig. 303.—Cereus grenadensis. Fig. 304.—Section of flowering branch of C. grenadensis

23. Cereus grenadensis sp. nov. (See page 18, ante.)

Tall, much branched, up to 7 meters high, the trunk short, sometimes 2.5 dm. in diameter, the branches grayish green, erect-ascending, about 7 cm. in diameter, 7 to 9-ribbed, the ribs about 1 cm. high, transversely grooved above each areole; areoles about 1 cm. apart, borne in slight depressions of the ribs, gray-pulverulent; spines about 17, subulate, straight, brownish or gray, the largest about 2 cm. long, the shortest about 3 mm, the central one often twice as long as any of the others; flowers many, borne towards the ends of the branches, about 7 cm. long, short-funnelform, open in the early morning, the buds rounded; outer perianth-segments with broad purple rounded or apiculate tips, the few inner ones rounded, purplish; ovary oblong, with a few naked areoles; stamens many, not exserted; immature fruit green, ellipsoid, 3 to 4 cm. long.

Collected on island of Grenada, British West Indies, by N. L. Britton and T. E. Hazen, February 24, 1920. Type from a slope on the harbor of St. George's.

As observed on the date of collection, this cactus is abundant about the harbor of St. George's and a conspicuous element of the vegetation; it was also studied on hills elsewhere in the southern part of the island, but only the type plant was seen in bloom. The species is closely related to Cereus répandus Miller of Curaçao, differing in its shorter spines, somewhat smaller, purple flowers, continuous unconstricted branches and transversely grooved ribs, and also to Cereus margaritensis Johnston of Margarita, from which it differs by straight spines, somewhat larger flowers, and grooved ribs. The fruit was said by negroes to be edible when ripe. It is called dildo, a common West Indian name for the tall-branching, cereus-like cacti.

Figure 303 shows the type plant; figure 304 shows one of its branches photographed by T. E. Hazen.

Cephalocereus californicus Hortus is credited by the Index Kewensis to Schumann (Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: 182. 1894), although it is not quite certain whether Schumann intended to list this name under Cephalocereus or as Cereus californicus. The Cereus californicus Nuttall we have already referred to Opuntia serpentina (see 1: 58, ante).

Cereus chlorocarpus De Candolle (Prodr. 3: 466. 1828; Cactus chlorocarpus Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 6: 67. 1823) which originally came from the Peruvian and Ecuadorean boundary has not been identified. It is evidently not a true Cereus.

Cereus columnaris Loddiges (Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. 61. 1845) is said to have been introduced into suburbs of Calcutta in 1840. Otherwise it is unknown. This name may apply to Cereus hexagonus (L.) Miller.

Cereus flavispinus hexagonus Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 63. 1834) is only a name.

Cereus geminisetus Reichenbach (Terscheck, Suppl. Cact. Verz. 3) we know only from Walpers's (Repert. Bot. 2: 340. 1843) brief description of a sterile plant of unknown origin.

Cereus heteracanthus Tweedie (Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3. 284. 1839) was described simply as a variable-spined Cereus.

Cereus ictidurus (Hort. Univ. 1: 224. 1839), called the martin's-tail-cereus, reported as soon to be figured and described, we do not know.

Cereus zizkaanus or C. ziczkaanus (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 44. 1895) is figured in the Gardeners' Chronicle for 1873 (75. f. 15) where it is referred to Cereus eburneus with a question. It is said to have come from Gruson's garden. This is doubtless the same as Cereus chilensis zizkaanus, sometimes spelled zizkeanus (see page 137, ante).

Pilocereus pfeifferi, sometimes credited to Otto, occurs frequently in German cactus works, but we have seen no description. The name is not found in the Index Kewensis or in Schumann's Monograph. Dr. Rose saw a living specimen in the Berlin Botanical Garden labeled "Pilocereus pfeifferi, Mexico" which he noted at the time as near Lemaire-ocereus treleasei.

Monvillea cavendishii. (See page 21, ante.)

Related to this species is the following which we know only from description: Cereus chacoanus Vaupel, Monatsschr. Kakteenk, 26: 121. 1916.

Erect, 2 to 4 meters high, 6 cm. in diameter; ribs 8; spines 9 or 10; central spine solitary, 6 cm. long; flowers funnelform, 15 cm. long; outer perianth-segments rose-colored; inner perianth-segments white; fruit subglobose to ovoid, 3 cm. long.

Type locality: Gran Chaco, Paraguay.

Distribution: Paraguay.

Cephalocereus hoppenstedtii. (See page 27, ante.)

A wonderful display of this plant is shown in the photograph taken by C. A. Purpus near the type locality in 1912. A mountainside is shown with many of the plants which form the conspicuous objects in the landscape.

Cereus hoogendorpii (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 80. 1894) and Pilocereus hoogendorpii (Schumann in Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: 181. 1894), only names, are the same as this plant, according to Schumann.

Espostoa lanata. (See page 61, ante.)

Our attention has been called to a paper by Vincenzo Riccobono (Bull. R. Ort. Firenze IV. 4: 94. 1919) on the first flowering of Pilocereus dautwitzii in Europe and a flower of the plant has also been sent us by Riccobono. This seems to be the same plant as the one collected by Dr. Rose in southern Ecuador in 1918.

Illustration: Gartenflora 22: 115, as Pilocereus dautwitzii.

Lemaireocereus hystrix. (See page 86, ante.)

Cereus olivaceus, Lemaire, Rev. Hort. IV. 8. 643. 1859.

The plant upon which Cereus olivaceus was based came from Santo Domingo.

Lemaireocereus griseus. (See page 87, ante.)

Both Cereus eburneus Salm-Dyck and Cactus eburneus Link (Enum. Hort. Berol. 2: 22) were published in 1822 and to both Cactus peruvianus Willdenow (Enum. Hort. Berol. Suppl. 32. 1813) was referred. Willdenow's plant, from the description, suggests a Cephalocereus but is referred to Cereus eburneus by the Index Kewensis. Link also refers it to Hortus Dyckensis and to Haworth (Syn. Pl. Succ. 179), while Salm-Dyck's description indicates that he had a plant before him different from Willdenow's. The Cereus eburneus described by Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 90) was certainly a complex, a part coming from Curaçao and a part from Chile. For this reason, doubtless, Schumann (Gesamtb., Kakteen 59, 108) has referred both names to Cereus coquimbanus and Cereus eburneus.

Leocereus. (See page 108, ante.)

Cereus oligolepis Vaupel (Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 5: 285. 1913) we know only from description. It is evidently not a Cereus but it suggests one of the species of Leocereus and comes from Campo der Serra do Mel on the Rio Surumu, northern Brazil, the region where these plants are found. It may be briefly described as follows: Plant 1 meter high; ribs 5, 1 cm. high; areoles 1 cm. apart; radial spines 8 to 10, 5 mm. long; central spine 1, 2 cm. long; ovary bearing small scales.

Cereus xanthochaetus Reichenbach (Terscheck. Suppl. Cact. Verz. 4) we know only from the description of Walpers (Repert. Bot. 2: 340. 1843). He describes it as follows: Erect, light green; ribs 7, nearly continuous, compressed above, obtuse; areoles yellowish tomentose; spines 21, slender, yellowish, straight, the upper spines longer than the others.

Heliocereus schrankii. (See page 127, ante.)

Related to this species is Cereus ruber (Weingart, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 22. 1905). The flowers are described as orange-yellow, passing into scarlet. It is said to come from Brazil, but no species of Heliocereus are known from South America. Weingart (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 29: 57. 1919) expresses his belief that C. ruber is of hybrid origin.

Trichocereus pasacana. (See page 133, ante.)

Of this relationship the following species are known only from descriptions:

Cereus tacaquirensis Vaupel, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 26: 122. 1916.

Columnar, 2.5 meters high; ribs low, about 1 cm. high, obtuse; spines numerous, setiform; hardly pungent, unequal, the longest 8 cm. long; flowers large, white, 20 cm. long, funnelform; inner perianth-segments oblong-spatulate; stamens in 2 series, shorter than the perianth-segments.

Type locality: Tacaquira, Bolivia. Distribution: Southern Bolivia.

Cereus tarijensis Vaupel, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 26: 123. 1916.

Columnar, 1.5 meters high, 2.5 dm. in diameter; areoles broadly elliptic to oval; radial spines 10 to 13, stout, pungent, unequal, reddish brown; central spine solitary, 7 cm. long; flower 10 cm. long; outer perianth-segments lanceolate; inner perianth-segments spatulate.

Type locality: Escayache, near Tarijo, Bolivia. Distribution: Southern Bolivia.

8. Borzicactus aurivillus (Schumann). (See page 163, ante.)

Cereus aurivillus Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk 13: 67. 1903. Cylindric, 2.5 dm. high or more, 2.5 cm. in diameter; ribs 17, crenate; areoles closely set, only 5 to 7 mm. apart, elliptic, bearing yellow curly wool; spines 30 or more, nearly equal, short, colorless except the yellow bases; flower from near the top of the plant, somewhat zygomorphic, 6 cm. long; inner perianth-segments obtuse.

Type locality: Probably Peru. Distribution: Andes of Peru.

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 29: 7, 9, as Cereus aurivillus. Oreocereus celsianus. (See page 171, ante.)

Restudy of Pilocereus straussii may show that it is specifically distinct from Oreocereus celsianus. The name Cereus straussii was really published by Heese in Gartenflora (62: 383) in 1907, although the illustration accompanying it bears the legend, Pilocereus straussii.

Illustrations: Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 483. f. 15, as Pilocereus celsianus bruen-nowii; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 100. f. 39, as Pilocereus celsianus; Gartenflora 62: 383. f. 55, as Pilocereus straussii.

Cleistocactus baumannii. (See page 174. ante.) Of this relationship is the following:

Cereus tupizensis Vaupel, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 26: 124. 1916.

Slender, 2 to 3 meters high; ribs unknown; areoles large, oval; spines 15 to 20, subulate, pungent, reddish brown; central spines 2, one above the other, 4.5 cm. long; flower tubular, somewhat zygomorphic, 8 cm. long, pale salmon-colored; outer perianth-segments small; inner perianth-segments broader than the outer; stigma-lobes 8, 4 mm. long.

Type locality: Tupiza, Bolivia. Distribution: Southern Bolivia.

5a. Hylocereus venezuelensis sp. nov. (See page 186, ante.)

Vines rather slender, climbing, bluish, 3-angled, the joints 3 to 4 cm. broad; margin of ribs not horny; spines 2 or 3, short, stubby, brown to black; flowers very fragrant, large, 2.5 dm. long; scales on ovary and perianth-tube green with purple margins; inner perianth-segments large, oblong, white above, pink below; stigma-lobes cream-colored, deeply cleft.

Collected by J. N. Rose near Valencia, Venezuela, in 1917 (No. 21835). We were at first disposed to refer this plant to H. polyrhizus but when it flowered in the New York Botanical Garden in June 1920, it produced a flower strikingly different in its stigma-lobes, which are deeply cleft as in H. lemairei. In H. polyrhizus the stigma-lobes, so far as we know, are always entire. According to W. Weingart, a keen student of these plants, H. lemairei and H. monacanthus are the only two species he knows with bifid stigma-lobes; they may also occur in H. bronxensis.

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