Index

Adhesives, 148-151

Adventitious roots, 8, 43-46, 169, 187 Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 245-246 Alcoholic beverages, 148-151, 158, 165 Algeria, 159, 200, 201, 202 Allozymes, 127-128 Alternaria golden spot, 245, 247-248 Ants, 79, 97, 99, 240, 241

Apical meristem: shoot, 30, 34, 35, 266; root, 42, 45-47, 49

Aposematic, 237, 239

Archaeology, 143, 146, 151, 159, 190, 222

Arid regions, 49, 75, 81-82, 109, 114, 126, 158, 167, 199-201, 204-205, 256, 258

Ariocarpus fissuratus, 24-25, 67

Armillaria, 245-246

Artificial selection, 144-145, 152, 154, 159

Atacama Desert, 70

Atmospheric CO2, 63, 256

Australia, 84

Axillary buds, 34, 75

Aztec, 156, 222

Aztekium, 11, 44 Aztekium ritteri, 131

Backebergia militaris, 36

Bacteria and bacterial infections, 52, 177, 244-247 Bacterial spot, 245-247

Barrel cacti, 10, 11, 17, 62, 64, 68, 83, 91, 143, 148-151. See also individual species

Betalains, 2, 222

Biodiversity, 91-92, 100, 103, 125-130, 136-138 Biological control, 235, 241, 243-244, 249, 250 Biomass productivity, 65-66, 170, 172, 201, 256 Biomechanics, 36, 69 Biotechnology, 255-257, 265-268 Birds, 93, 97-99, 102, 109, 110, 113, 116-119 Bison, 84

Bolivia, 201, 236, 244, 249 Boron, 52

Breeders and breeding, 127, 129, 256-265, 267-268

Breeding system evolution, 127-128

Brine (for nopalitos), 215-217 Burbank, Luther, 258, 260, 261 Burro, 119

C3, 23, 26, 58, 60, 62, 63, 65, 68-69, 94 C4, 26, 60, 62, 65, 68-69 Cacteae, 11

Cactoblastis cactorum, 84, 238-245, 250

Cactoideae, 5, 6, 8, 10, 16-17, 24, 26-27, 29-30, 33-34, 59

CactusNet, 179, 258

Cactus pear, 163-179, 236, 241, 244-251, 257-265. See also Cladodes; Fruits; Opuntia ficus-indica

Calcium oxalate, 5, 7, 16, 17, 29, 42-43, 115, 202, 212

Calymmanthium, 8, 10

CAM. See Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) Canada, 68, 84, 134, 165, 256, 257 Canary Islands, 157, 168, 228, 241 Candies, 218

Carbohydrate source/sink, 63

Carmine and carminic acid, 212, 222-224, 228, 240, 250 Carnegieagigantea, 35, 36, 49, 58-59, 67, 69, 79, 94, 96, 98, 101 Caryophyllales, 2-3, 16 Casparian strip, 42

Cattle, 120, 147, 151, 200, 202-204, 206, 257 Cell cycle, 46

Cellulose, 202, 204-205, 207, 219. See also Cell walls

Cephalia, 32, 34-36

Cephalocereus columna-trajani, 25

Cephalocereus senilis, 29

Cerambycidae, 236-238, 250

Ceratitis capitata, 169, 237, 241-243

Cereus jamacaru, 186, 241

Cereus peruvianus, 186, 191-192, 194, 262

Cereus validus, 59, 62, 69

Chihuahuan Desert, 91, 95, 100-103, 145

Chile, 1, 75, 137, 165, 201, 203, 228, 242, 244, 245, 262

Chlorophyll, 26, 30, 36, 264

Christmas cactus, 129

Chromosomes, 80, 86, 168, 186, 225, 227, 256, 259, 266, 267

CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), 131-136, 139

Cladodes: abiotic responses, 63; anatomy and morphology, 37; conservation and diffusion, 156-157; evolution and molecular aspects, 13, 264-265; human consumption, 169, 171, 212-213, 219-221; nonvertebrate consumption and interactions, 237, 242, 247-249; orientation, 58, 62, 179; vertebrate consumption, 109-115, 118, 120, 199-207, 203-207

CO2 uptake, 58-66

Coccidae, 225

Cochineal, 147, 156, 157, 170, 212, 222-229. See also Dactylopius Cold, resistance to, 83, 256, 258-260, 266, 267 Collared peccary, 112-115, 118, 120

Collecting and collectors, 129, 131, 133, 135-136, 139, 151, 155 Colombia, 186, 193, 201 Color-break, 173, 189, 191

Columnar cacti: abiotic responses, 66, 68; anatomy and morphology, 29, 34, 37; biotic responses, 77-78, 82, 91-92, 9596, 98, 101, 103; conservation and diffusion, 125, 143-144, 146-155; evolution, 8, 10-13, 17; human consumption, 189195, 264. See also individual species

Companion cells, 32

Consensus tree, 4, 9, 15

Conservation, 126, 129-139, 201-202

Convergent evolution, 7

Coreidae, 237, 241

Cortical bundles, 30

Coryphantha, 2, 67, 93-94

Cosmetics, uses of cacti in, 221, 222, 223

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), 1, 16, 23, 26, 58-59, 62, 70, 75, 194, 236, 239, 240, 256, 267

Crown gall, 245-246

Curculionidae, 236-237, 241, 250

Cylindropuntia, 14, 236, 238

Cylindropuntias, 42, 78, 84

Dactylopiidae, 236-238, 240, 241, 250

Dactylopius, 224, 226, 238, 240, 242

Dactylopius coccus, 222, 224-227, 229, 235, 238, 240, 250

Dactylopius opuntiae, 224, 238, 240-244

Desert. See specific deserts

Desertification, 158-159, 200, 201

Diabetes mellitus, 219, 221, 229 Diarrhea, 115

Diaspis echinocacti, 236, 241-243, 250 Dichogamy, 79

Dietary fiber, for humans, 218-219 Digestibility, for animals, 203-207 Dioecy, 80, 128 Diptera, 237

Diseases, 236, 244-251, 256, 259 DNA, 2-3, 8, 11, 266, 267 Domestication, 143-155, 256, 257

Drought, 27, 29, 44, 48, 58, 61, 68, 81, 83, 200-201, 206, 256, 258, 259

Easter cactus, 128-129 Echinocactus platyacanthus, 93 Echinocereus engelmannii, 93-94, 218 Echinocereus schmollii, 31 Echinocereus sciurus, 27-28 Echinopsis chamaecereus, 130 Ecuador, 186, 193 Eggstick, 239

Emasculation (flower), 262-264 Embolisms, 33, 51

Endangered species, 131-137, 151, 264 Endodermis, 42-43

Environmental Productivity Index (EPI), 64-66 Enzyme, 128-129. See also PEPCase; Rubisco Epicuticular wax, 178 Epidermis, 25, 28, 29, 37, 43, 237, 246 Epiphyllum, 59

Epiphyllumphyllanthus, 43, 50-51

Epiphytes, 1, 3, 7, 8, 10, 17, 41, 43, 60-61, 70, 75, 78

Erwina, 246

Escontria chiotilla, 28, 102 Espostoa melanostele, 36 Ethnobotany, 147-151

Evolution, 7, 14-17, 23, 75, 78, 80, 86, 97, 267; and animals/ humans, 117, 119-120, 126, 128, 144, 236, 244

Fences, 148-151, 158

Ferocactus, 93

Ferocactus acanthodes, 27, 49, 51-53, 58-59, 63-65, 67, 69, 94, 218

Ferocactus peninsulae, 45-46, 48 Ferocactus wislizenii, 57, 67 Fiber, 202, 203, 207, 212, 218-219, 228 Firewood, 125, 148-151 Flower buds, 151

Flowers, 3, 7, 36, 76-82, 86, 95, 99; and animals/humans, 110-112, 116, 118, 125, 128-129, 147-151, 175-176, 249, 262-263

Fodder, 147-151, 199-202, 206-207, 260, 261 Foot rot, 245, 247-248 Forage, 160, 199-201, 204, 258, 265 Freezing damage, 58, 67, 83

Frost and frost tolerance, 83, 256, 258-260, 266, 267

Fruits, 3, 63-64, 82, 83, 97; development, manipulation, and production, 171-172, 174-177, 189, 191, 259; harvest, marketing, and selling arrangements, 166-167, 173-174, 179, 189, 195, 249, 256-257, 259-260; human consumption, 146-155, 158, 163-179, 185-195, 261, 265; nonhuman consumption, 109-112, 117, 242, 250; quality/sugars, 152, 173, 176-178, 189

Fundamental tissue, 26

Fungi and fungal infections, 176, 236, 244-250 Fungicides, 177, 179, 246, 247

Galápagos Islands, 79, 113, 115-120, 137

Genetic diversity, 126-128, 138

Germplasm, 128, 138-139, 168, 187, 255-256, 258-262, 266268

Glucose, 219, 221

Goats, 204-206

Grafting, 264-265

Gray mold, 245, 249-250

Growth rings, 33-34, 37

Hailstorms, 167, 244, 246 Hallucinations, 125, 134 Harrisia, 12, 16, 235 Hatiora, 128-129 Hawkmoths, 7, 95, 103, 187 Heavy metals, 52

Hedges, 148-151, 158

Hemiepiphytes, 34, 60

Houses, 148-151, 218-219

Human diets, 143, 146-151, 218-219, 228

Hybridization, 69, 129, 257-259, 261, 265-267

Hydraulic conductivity (Lp), 50-51

Hylocereeae, 10, 17

Hylocereus costaricensis, 186, 187, 193, 262

Hylocereus polyrhizus, 186-189, 193, 262

Hylocereus undatus, 59-61, 63, 75, 147, 155, 159, 185-189, 192-193, 194, 262

Idioblasts, 27, 29 Iguanas, 110, 112, 115, 118 Indian figs, 155, 157 Inferior ovary, 75

Insects, 93, 98, 117, 235-244, 256, 262 Intercellular air spaces, 26

IOS (International Organization for Succulent Plant Study), 6

Irrigation, 172-173, 176, 187, 191, 194, 260

Israel, 159, 168, 169, 174, 186-189, 191-193, 201, 258-260

Italy, 165-169, 174, 176, 201, 244, 245, 258, 259, 261, 264. See also Sicily

Larvae (Cactoblastis), 239, 240 Lateral roots, 43, 45-46, 48, 51, 264 Laticifers, 26, 29 Leaves, 3, 5, 13, 16, 24, 26, 29, 34 Lepidoptera, 242 Libriform fibers, 30, 32, 37 Life cycle, 97-100, 103, 225 Light, 58, 62, 99

Light responses, 58, 62, 64, 170. See also PPF Index (EPI)

Lignin and lignification, 36-37, 202, 219

Livestock. See specific animals

Lizards, 98, 110, 117

Lophocereus schottii, 94, 96

Lophophora, 3, 44-45

Lophophora williamsii, 134-135, 147 Low-temperature hardening, 66

Maihuenia, 5, 7, 27, 59 Maihuenioideae, 5, 6, 58 Mammals, 93, 98, 109, 111-112, 116, 119 Mammillaria, 11, 29, 77, 94 Mammillaria dioica, 52, 59, 67 Mammillaria magnimamma, 35

Markets and marketing: fruits, 166-167, 176, 178, 192-194, 256257, 259-260; nopalitos, 215-217

Marmalades, 165, 212, 215, 217-218

Medicines, 147-151, 156, 219-221, 223

Mediterranean fruit fly, 169, 237, 241-243

Mediterranean region, 157-160, 163, 242-243, 249

Medullary bundles/rays, 27, 30

Melocactus peruvianus, 36

Mescaline, 7, 134

Mesoamerica, 143-147, 151, 156, 159, 221, 258 Metapopulation, 101 Metaxylem, 42

Mexico: cactus biotic responses, 75, 83-84, 91, 101, 103; conservation, diffusion, and evolution, 11, 133, 134, 137, 144-151, 156; human cactus consumption, 163, 165, 168, 169, 176, 178, 189, 190, 192, 193, 212, 214-217, 220-222, 256-262, 264, 265, 268; nonhuman cactus consumption and interactions, 114, 119, 200, 201, 224, 226-228, 242-245, 249

Microorganisms, 212, 214

Mites, 226, 237, 240

Mojave Desert, 137

Molecular biology, 6, 265 -268

Mucilage, 27, 50, 64, 151, 155, 214, 218, 219, 236, 239, 240, 263, 266

Mucilage cells, 8, 16, 25-29, 32, 42, 44 Mycorrhizae, 52 Myrtillocactus geometrizans, 93 Myrtillocactus schenckii, 25

Native American Church, 133-134

Nectar and nectary, 76-79, 95, 110-111, 116, 118, 128

Negev Desert, 168, 191

Neobuxbaumia macrocephala, 96

Neobuxbaumia mezcalaensis, 96, 159

Neobuxbaumia tetetzo, 93, 95-96, 98-100, 102, 159 Neoteny, 6

Net CO2 uptake. See CO2 uptake; Fruits; Photosynthesis Nicaragua, 186, 193

Nocturnal acid accumulation, 62. See also CO2 uptake; Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)

Nopalea, 29, 212, 257

Nopalea cochenillifera, 213, 224, 226

Nopal flour, 219

Nopalito processing, 214-218

Nopalitos, 154, 157, 171, 212-218, 228, 257-258, 260, 261 Nopal products, 215-218 Notocacteae, 11

Nurse plants, 52-53, 92-95, 97, 99, 101 Nutrients, 51-52, 82, 99, 115, 117, 171-172 Nutrition (animal), 117, 202-207 Nymph (cochineal), 225

Obesity, 219, 221, 229

Opuntia, 12, 143-147, 155; anatomy and morphology, 26, 34; human consumption, 167, 220-221, 255, 260, 266; nonhuman consumption, 112, 203, 236, 239, 241-244, 246, 249-250; responses, 68, 83-86

Opuntia acanthocarpa, 59, 67, 218

Opuntia basilaris, 27, 59, 67, 218

Opuntia echios, 35, 138

Opuntia engelmannii, 203

Opuntia ficus-indica: abiotic responses, 59, 61-63, 66, 67, 69; anatomy and morphology, 37, 43, 45-46, 49, 51-53; biotic responses, 59, 61-63, 66, 67, 69, 75, 80-81, 85; conservation and diffusion, 128, 155-157; human consumption, 163-179, 212-215, 218, 256-257, 259-260, 263-264, 266-267; nonhuman consumption and interactions, 114, 199-207, 224, 236-241, 244, 247

Opuntia fragilis, 66, 67, 84, 85, 126

Opuntia leucotricha, 62

Opuntia littoralis, 69

Opuntiapolyacantha, 59, 67, 202, 204

Opuntia rastrera, 85, 98

Opuntia robusta, 147, 203, 212, 214, 259

Opuntia streptacantha, 85, 98, 259

Opuntia stricta, 59, 84

Opuntia versicolor, 57 Opuntia violacea, 112

Opuntioideae, 5-7, 13-16, 24, 26-27, 33-34, 58-59, 236, 238

Orchard design and management (O. ficus-indica), 169, 174, 178

Ornamentals, 125, 128-129, 148-151, 156, 159 Osmotic pressure, 58, 63, 66, 68, 69 Outcrossing, 79-80, 86, 128 Overgrazing, 199, 205-206 Ovule, 77, 80, 82, 119

Oxalates, 5, 7, 16, 17, 29, 42-43, 115, 202, 212, 236 Pachycereeae, 10, 13, 16

Pachycereuspringlei, 31, 37, 45-46, 52, 59, 69, 76, 93, 96, 99-103, 128

Pachycereus schottii, 127

Packrats, 111-116, 120

Pads. See Cladodes

Parasitoids, 226, 239-240

Parthenocarpy, 257

Pathogens, 176-177

Peccary, 112-115, 118, 120

Penicillium, 250

Peniocereus striatus, 31

Pereskia grandifolia, 35, 59

Pereskiopsis, 29, 59

Perianth, 77

Pericycle, 42-43, 48

Periderm, 26, 42, 51

Pests, 165, 169, 193, 222, 224-225, 229, 237-244, 250, 259

Petals, 110-112

Peyote, 134-135, 147

Phellem/Phelloderm, 48

Philippines, 186

Phoma sorghina, 245, 249-250

Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase), 58, 60, 63 Phosphorus (P), 52, 172, 202, 203, 206, 207, 212 Photoblastic, 92 Photoinhibition, 62

Photosynthetic enzymes. See PEPCase; Rubisco

Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), 60-62, 93

Photosynthesis, 36, 57-58, 66. See also C3; C4; Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM); CO2 uptake

Phototropism, 58, 62

Phytochrome, 82

Phytophthora cactorum, 245, 247-249 Phytoplasmas, 244-245, 250 Pitahayas, 147, 185-186, 194-195 Pitayas, 147, 185-186, 194-195 Pith, 26-27, 29, 30, 32 Placentation, 3

Planting, of crops, 169, 174-175, 188, 194 Plant spacing (O. ficus-indica), 170-171, 174 Platyopuntia, 238

Platyopuntias, 12, 14, 155-160, 221, 264; anatomy and morphology, 27, 34, 37, 42; nonhuman consumption, 109-119, 199207, 224, 227; responses, 58, 62-67, 69, 84

Pleistocene, 103, 112, 118, 120

Polaskia chende, 25

Pollen, 5, 77-81, 95, 110-111, 116-118, 128, 186, 262, 266

Pollination and pollinators, 7, 10, 77-82, 95-96, 99, 103, 118119, 128, 187, 191, 257, 262-264

Population and population dynamics, 98-100, 103

Postharvest: fruits (O. ficus-indica), 173, 176-178, 257; stems (O. ficus-indica), 213, 215

Productivity (biomass), 65-66, 170, 172, 201, 256 Propagation, 134-135, 145, 159, 169 Protandry, 262

Protein, 117, 202-204, 207, 212, 266 Protozoa, 204-205

Pruning (O. ficus-indica), 170-171, 175-176 Pterocactus tuberosus, 35 Pubescence, 62

Pulp (fruit), 152, 176, 189, 193, 257 Pyralidae, 236-241, 250

Quiabentia, 59

Rabbits, 111-113, 115, 119 Radicle, 42-43, 46-47, 50 Rain, 60, 201, 240

Rain roots, 48

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), 259, 266

Rathbunia alamosensis, 35

Receptacle, 76-77

Respiration, 52, 66, 212-213

Rhipsalideae, 10

Rhipsalis baccifera, 43, 51

Rhipsalis pentaptera, 129

Rhizosheaths, 50-53

Ribs, 5

Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), 58-60,

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