Cacti Uses

Chlorenchyma In Cactus

Stomatal frequency for photosynthetic tissue in cacti Subfamily Frequency (number per mm2) Pereskioideae leaf, 17-99 (51) stem, 2-20 (11) Opuntioideae leaf, 7-16 (12) (Pereskiopsis spp.) stem, 9-115 (80) (Opuntia spp.) Data indicate the range, with the mean in parentheses, and are from Mauseth and Sajeva (1991), Pimienta-Barrios et al. (1993), Nobel (1994), Arias (1996), and Nobel and De la Barrera (2000). unlignified and more flexible than those of the palisade cells, readily allowing for...

Root Structure And Function

Development Aerial Roots

North Primary Structure Secondary Structure Root Types Development and Growth Indeterminate Root Growth Determinate Root Growth Lateral Root Development Root System Development Adaptations to Deserts and Other Arid Environments Root Distribution in the Soil Environmental Effects on Root Development Developmental Adaptations Water and Mineral Uptake Root Hydraulic Conductivity Mineral Uptake Mycorrhizal and Bacterial Associations Carbon Relations Conclusions...

List Of Steven Brack Cactus

CITES is the primary international legislation that deals with the conservation of plants and animals it now has over 130 member countries. CITES regulates trade in threatened wild species, placing them in one of three appendices. Those species listed in Appendix I Table 8.3 are considered to be at serious risk due to international trade thus, trade in these organisms between signatory countries is banned. Appendix II lists those species that may be threatened by excessive amounts of trade, but...

Shoot Anatomy And Morphology

Leaf Anatomical Characteristics

Mauseth Epidermis and Hypodermis Fundamental Tissue Chlorenchyma Inner Cortex Pith Mucilage Cells, Laticifers, and Sclereids Mineral Inclusions Vascular Tissue Cortical and Medullary Bundles Xylem Phloem Wood Conclusions and Future Prospects Literature Cited Basic anatomical features of Cactaceae have been studied since the 16th century Metcalfe and Chalk 1950 Conde 1975 . More recently, other features have been observed for cultivated plants, such as...

Tia Stenopetala Cactus

A small floral diameter (40-45 mm), such as Ferocactus histrix and Diadasia spp., medium-sized bees are less-frequent visitors. Instead, smaller bees (e.g., Ashmeadiella spp., 5-7 mm in body length) are the major pollinators (del Castillo 1994). These bees also are less common flower visitors for opuntias and, because of their small size, when they do enter flowers, they may do so without touching the stigma (del Castillo and Gonz lez-Espinosa 1988). Cacti with small, bowl-shaped flowers, such...

Cacti Seedlings In The Nature

Data are based on the uptake of a vital dye (neutral red) by cells in tissues exposed to the extreme temperature for 1 hour for plants that have been gradually adjusted to low or high day night air temperatures. The indicated temperature will cause Data are based on the uptake of a vital dye (neutral red) by cells in tissues exposed to the extreme temperature for 1 hour for plants that have been gradually adjusted to low or high day night air temperatures. The indicated temperature will cause...

Pichia Captophila

Phoma Life Cycle

Biotic pathogenic agents of cactus pear diseases Bacterial spot Erwinia carotovora, E. cacticida Crown gall Agrobacterium tumefaciens Yeast Diseases Soft rot Candida boidimi Fungal Diseases Armillaria rot Armillaria mellea Alternaria golden spot Alternaria alternata Foot rot Phytophthora cactorum, P. nicotianae Gray mold Botrytis cinerea Other fungal agents Aecidium sp., Cercospora sp., Colletotricum sp., Cytospora sp., Hansfordia sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Gleosporium herbarum, Mycospherella...

Hylocereeae

Calcium Crystal Erupts From Skin

Strict consensus tree of 22,400 equally parsimonious trees from analysis of the rbcL gene for the family Cactaceae. A total of 1,434 bp of sequence was used for comparisons. Some important nodes in this tree are still unresolved. 4. Spination on stems of cactus epiphytes, especially on adult shoots, has been highly reduced or totally eliminated. One might expect that these cacti lack spines because hanging plants are not easily eaten by mammals, but the most likely explanation is...

Evolution And Systematics

Coryphantha Bumamma

Gibson Cactaceae, a Family of Order Caryophyllales Classification of Cactaceae within Suborder Portulacineae Cactaceae, a Monophyletic Family Defining Subfamilies of Cactaceae Transitions from Structural Analyses to Molecular Systematics Molecular Systematics of Cactoideae Identifying the Oldest Taxa Epiphytic Cacti Columnar Cactus Lineages Cacteae and Notocacteae Solving Classification Problems Using Molecular Techniques Phylogenetic Studies of Subfamily...

Schlumbergera Kautskyi

Calculations are based on 12 loci for Christmas cactus and 13 loci for Easter or 18 crop plants (Doebley 1989). culling undesirable plants, random loss of alleles, and changes in gene frequencies because of adaptation to the ex situ environment. O'Leary and Boyle (1999) found that a collection of 40 Easter cactus clones (which included field-collected clones, older cultivars, and modern cultivars) exhibit greater genetic diversity than a subset of 13 modern cultivars that make up the bulk...

Germination Cactai Seeds

344 49 192 10 355 41 220 25 325 26 225 26 63 29 21 4 126 35 65 9 151 20 102 31 10 styles). Adapted from Rosas and Pimienta (1986). Mandujano et al. 1996). For Echinocactus, Ferocactus, Myr-tillocactus, Pachycereus, and Stenocereus, flower differentiation and fruit development start earlier, and fruit ripening occurs at the end of the spring (Trujillo 1982 Gibson and Nobel 1986 del Castillo 1988a Pimienta-Barrios 1999). Another common reproductive feature of cacti is that flower development is...

Carmen Senz Hernndez Joel Corrales Garca and Gildardo Aquino Prez

Introduction Processing of Nopalitos Harvest Storage Minimally Processed Nopalitos Industrial Techniques Nopalitos as Products In Brine Pickled Sauces, Marmalades, Jams, Candies, and Juices Mucilage Dietary Fiber from Cladodes Use of Cladodes in Medicine Cochineal Pre-Colonial and Colonial History Decline and Resurgence Importance and Uses Carminic Acid Biology of Cochineal Origin and Diversity Morphology and Life Cycle Host Environmental Factors and Natural Enemies D. coccus versus Wild...

Eulogio Pimienta Barrios and Rafael F del Castillo

Gennaro 1996 Cactus

Flower Types, Pollinators, and Pollination Cacti are native to the Americas, where they are widely distributed. More than 70 of the species occur in arid and semiarid regions of Mexico, Peru, Argentina, and Chile (Gibson and Nobel 1986 Arias-Moreno 1997). Water is the major limiting factor for plant productivity in such environments (Fischer and Turner 1978), although other factors, such as strong drying winds, extreme temperatures, limited nutrients, and high light intensity, can exacerbate...

J F M A M J Jasondj F M A M J Jasond

The time of reproductive development, fruit dehiscence, and seed germination with respect to drought and rainfall periods for Opuntia and Stenocereus spp. Adapted from Pimienta-Barrios 1999 . propagation through vegetative parts is common for them in both natural and cultivated populations in arid regions Grant and Grant 1971 Nava et al. 1981 Pimienta-Barrios 1990 Mandujano et al. 1996, 1998 Negr n-Ortiz 1998 . Vegetative apomixis is particularly important, because the propagules...

Alejandro Casas and Giuseppe Barbera

Human-Cactus Interactions in Mesoamerica Archaeological and Historical Evidence Ethnobotanical Information Domestication of Cacti Columnar Cacti Opuntia Species Diffusion of Cacti to Other Regions of the World Colonial Period Spread of Platyopuntias in Europe History of Name Naturalization in Europe Platyopuntias in Sicily Expansion to Other Mediterranean Regions Conclusions and Future Prospects Literature Cited Mesoamerica, the culturally defined region from central Mexico to northwestern...

Codex Fiorentino Cactaceas

Smith (1967) reported remains of nine cactus species (Table 9.1) from archaeological excavations of prehistoric Mesoamerican sites in caves of the Tehuac n Valley. For caves at Guil Naquitz, Smith (1986) reports stems, fruits, and seeds of Opuntia species in almost all of the strati-graphic zones studied, from nearly 12,000 years BP, as well as a gumball that could have come from a columnar cactus. Callen (1967) identified the following types of cactus remains in human copro lites of Tehuac n...

Avinoam Nerd Noemi Tel Zur and Yosef Mizrahi

Environmental Constraints Fruit Properties Columnar Cacti Stenocereus queretaroensis Other Stenocereus Species Cereus peruvianus Vine and Columnar Cacti as World Fruit Crops Hylocereus Selenicereus megalanthus Stenocereus and Cereus Conclusions and Future Prospects Literature Cited Medium to large edible cactus fruits are produced by members of subfamily Cactoidae, tribe Cacteae. They are known in Latin America as pitahaya or pitaya pitahaya generally refers to fruits of vine (climbing) species...

Dragon Fruit Under Shadenet Pics

Cactusexpert

Chromosomes in the Cactaceae have a base number of n 11 Gibson and Nobel 1986 . Cultivated Hylocereus species H. costaricensis, H. polyrhizus, and H. undatus and most investigated Selenicereus species are diploids 2n 22 , although the highly cultivated S. megalanthus syn. Mediocactus megalanthus or M. coccineus Moran 1953 Infante 1992 Weiss et al. 1995 is tetraploid 2n 44 Beard 1937 Spencer 1955 Lichtenzveig et al. 2000 . Selenicereus megalanthus has morphological features of both Hylocereus...

Helmuth G Zimmermann and Giovanni Granata

Introduction Insect Herbivores Cactus Hosts Classification of Cactus-Feeding Insects Host Specificity of Cactus-Feeding Insects Insect Adaptations to Their Cactus Hosts Endophagous Herbivores and Survival External Herbivores Insect Pests on Cultivated Cacti Distribution of Pests Predicting Future Pests Diseases of Cultivated Cacti Bacteria Yeasts Fungi Native Fungi on Cacti Other Diseases Conclusions and Future Prospects Literature Cited One of the earliest published records of a cactus-feeding...

Brad Chapman Candelario Mondragon Jacobo Ronald A Bunch and Andrew H Paterson

Pollination Emasculated Flowers Image

Breeding and Biotechnology Research Objectives Expanding Markets Breeding Breeding programs Germplasm Pools The Cultivated Gene Pool The Semidomesticated and Wild Gene Pool Germplasm Collections Breeding Systems and Techniques Controlled Pollination Clonal Propagation Apomixis Future Directions Biotechnology Overview of Plant Molecular Tools DNA and Protein Analysis Tissue Culture and Transformation Evolutionary Relationships Molecular Tools for Cacti Future Directions Conclusions Literature...

Thomas H Boyle and Edward F Anderson

Biodiversity of Natural Communities of Cacti Genetic Diversity in Wild Cacti Breeding Systems and Sexual Expression in the Cactaceae Biodiversity of Cultivated Cacti Conservation of Cacti Why Cacti Are Threatened Determination of Threatened Cacti Conservation of Specific Cacti Importance of Artificial Propagation CITES The Convention on Biological Diversity In situ and ex situ Conservation Conclusions and Future Prospects Literature Cited Cacti have been exploited since pre-Columbian times....

Park S Nobel and Edward G Bobich

Introduction Early Research Net CO2 Uptake Water-Use Efficiency Net CO2 Uptake Stems Temperature Water PPF Nutrients and Salinity Atmospheric CO2 Net CO2 Uptake Fruits Productivity Responses to Environmental Factors Environmental Productivity Index Application of EPI to a Barrel Cactus Application of EPI to a CultivatedPlatyopuntia Survival Gravity and Wind Conclusions and Future Prospects Literature Cited The Desert Botanical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington located just...

Basellaceae

Strict consensus tree of equally parsimonious trees from analysis of the ndhF gene sequence for the portulacaceous alliance, which includes Cactaceae, Portulacaceae, Didiereaceae, and Basellaceae (after Appleqvist and Wallace 2000). unresolved is whether investigators eventually will recognize more than one family of the cacti for this evolutionary branch. All recent familial classifications of Cactaceae have recognized three major clades, most commonly classified as subfamilies...

Weberbaurocereus

Climatic effects on regeneration trends for two columnar cacti in the northern Sonoran Desert. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 83 452-474. Parker, K. C. 1995. Effects of complex geomorphic history on soil and vegetation patterns on arid alluvial fans. Journal of Arid Environments 30 19-39. Petit, S. I995. The pollinators of two species of columnar cacti on Cura ao, Netherlands Antilles. Biotropica 27 538-54I. Porsch, O. 1939. Das Best ubungsleben der...

Paolo Inglese Filadelfio Basile and Mario Schirra

The Cactus Pear Industry Worldwide Supply and Demand Analysis Selling Arrangements and Methods The Cactus Pear Orchard Site Selection Cultivars Orchard Design and Planting Plant Training and Pruning Fruit Thinning Fertilizer Application Irrigation Fruit Characteristics Harvesting Productivity Out-of-Season Crop Quality Postharvest Physiology Conclusions and Future Prospects Literature Cited Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill.) is cultivated for fruit production in both hemispheres and on...

Eric Mellink andMnica E Riojas Lpez

Consumption of Vegetative Structures Cladode Preferences Seasonal Effects for Herbivory Nutritional Qualitites of Cladodes Spine Effects on Herbivory Consumption of Reproductive Structures Flower Consumption Fruit Consumption Evolutionary and Ecological Context Past and Present Herbivory Pressures Gal pagos Islands Alienized Relations Concluding Remarks Literature Cited In arid lands, platyopuntias (prickly pear cacti, also called nopales singular, nopal ) often appear as lush, exhuberant...

Ali Nefzaoui and Hichem Ben Salem

Increasing Usage of Cacti in Arid Zones Use of Cacti as Fodder Nutrient Contents Intake and Digestibility Cladode Consumption and Sheep Rumen Fermentation Cladodes as a Water Source Some Practical Considerations Integration of Platyopuntias with Other Feed Resources in the WANA Region Conclusions Literature Cited The future of arid and semiarid regions depends on the development of sustainable agricultural systems and on the cultivation of appropriate crops. Such crops must successfully...