Paolo Inglese Filadelfio Basile and Mario Schirra

The Cactus Pear Industry Worldwide Supply and Demand Analysis Selling Arrangements and Methods The Cactus Pear Orchard Site Selection Cultivars Orchard Design and Planting Plant Training and Pruning Fruit Thinning Fertilizer Application Irrigation Fruit Characteristics Harvesting Productivity Out-of-Season Crop Quality Postharvest Physiology Conclusions and Future Prospects Literature Cited Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill.) is cultivated for fruit production in both hemispheres and on...

Basellaceae

Strict consensus tree of equally parsimonious trees from analysis of the ndhF gene sequence for the portulacaceous alliance, which includes Cactaceae, Portulacaceae, Didiereaceae, and Basellaceae (after Appleqvist and Wallace 2000). unresolved is whether investigators eventually will recognize more than one family of the cacti for this evolutionary branch. All recent familial classifications of Cactaceae have recognized three major clades, most commonly classified as subfamilies...

Info

References Buxbaum (1950, 1955) Gibson (1973, 1988a,b) Rowley (1976) Bregman (1988, (1994) Zappi (1994) Barthlott and Porembski (1996) Porembski (1996) Barthlott When doing any type of contemporary phylogenetic analysis, the researcher must include at least one species that has the presumed primitive features of the group being studied. For Cactaceae as a whole, this has been easy because the leaf-bearing species of Pereskia and Maihuenia are undisputed choices, and they are then assumed to...

Hylocereeae

Calcium Crystal Erupts From Skin

Strict consensus tree of 22,400 equally parsimonious trees from analysis of the rbcL gene for the family Cactaceae. A total of 1,434 bp of sequence was used for comparisons. Some important nodes in this tree are still unresolved. 4. Spination on stems of cactus epiphytes, especially on adult shoots, has been highly reduced or totally eliminated. One might expect that these cacti lack spines because hanging plants are not easily eaten by mammals, but the most likely explanation is...

Table

Stomatal frequency for photosynthetic tissue in cacti Subfamily Frequency (number per mm2) Pereskioideae leaf, 17-99 (51) stem, 2-20 (11) Opuntioideae leaf, 7-16 (12) (Pereskiopsis spp.) stem, 9-115 (80) (Opuntia spp.) Data indicate the range, with the mean in parentheses, and are from Mauseth and Sajeva (1991), Pimienta-Barrios et al. (1993), Nobel (1994), Arias (1996), and Nobel and De la Barrera (2000). unlignified and more flexible than those of the palisade cells, readily allowing for...

Schlumbergera Kautskyi

Calculations are based on 12 loci for Christmas cactus and 13 loci for Easter or 18 crop plants (Doebley 1989). culling undesirable plants, random loss of alleles, and changes in gene frequencies because of adaptation to the ex situ environment. O'Leary and Boyle (1999) found that a collection of 40 Easter cactus clones (which included field-collected clones, older cultivars, and modern cultivars) exhibit greater genetic diversity than a subset of 13 modern cultivars that make up the bulk...

Echinocereus Ferreirianus

Cacti listed in Appendix I of CITES (as of 1996), including endangered species for which international trade is banned Sclerocactus brevihamatus subsp. tobuschii S. erectocentrus (Echinomastus erectocentrus) S. mariposensis (Echinomastus mariposensis) Echinocereus ferreirianus subsp. lindsayi

S

Smith (1967) reported remains of nine cactus species (Table 9.1) from archaeological excavations of prehistoric Mesoamerican sites in caves of the Tehuac n Valley. For caves at Guil Naquitz, Smith (1986) reports stems, fruits, and seeds of Opuntia species in almost all of the strati-graphic zones studied, from nearly 12,000 years BP, as well as a gumball that could have come from a columnar cactus. Callen (1967) identified the following types of cactus remains in human copro lites of Tehuac n...

Helmuth G Zimmermann and Giovanni Granata

Introduction Insect Herbivores Cactus Hosts Classification of Cactus-Feeding Insects Host Specificity of Cactus-Feeding Insects Insect Adaptations to Their Cactus Hosts Endophagous Herbivores and Survival External Herbivores Insect Pests on Cultivated Cacti Distribution of Pests Predicting Future Pests Diseases of Cultivated Cacti Bacteria Yeasts Fungi Native Fungi on Cacti Other Diseases Conclusions and Future Prospects Literature Cited One of the earliest published records of a cactus-feeding...

Avinoam Nerd Noemi Tel Zur and Yosef Mizrahi

Environmental Constraints Fruit Properties Columnar Cacti Stenocereus queretaroensis Other Stenocereus Species Cereus peruvianus Vine and Columnar Cacti as World Fruit Crops Hylocereus Selenicereus megalanthus Stenocereus and Cereus Conclusions and Future Prospects Literature Cited Medium to large edible cactus fruits are produced by members of subfamily Cactoidae, tribe Cacteae. They are known in Latin America as pitahaya or pitaya pitahaya generally refers to fruits of vine (climbing) species...

Root Structure And Function

Root Structure Cactus

North Primary Structure Secondary Structure Root Types Development and Growth Indeterminate Root Growth Determinate Root Growth Lateral Root Development Root System Development Adaptations to Deserts and Other Arid Environments Root Distribution in the Soil Environmental Effects on Root Development Developmental Adaptations Water and Mineral Uptake Root Hydraulic Conductivity Mineral Uptake Mycorrhizal and Bacterial Associations Carbon Relations Conclusions...

Evolution And Systematics

Gibson Cactaceae, a Family of Order Caryophyllales Classification of Cactaceae within Suborder Portulacineae Cactaceae, a Monophyletic Family Defining Subfamilies of Cactaceae Transitions from Structural Analyses to Molecular Systematics Molecular Systematics of Cactoideae Identifying the Oldest Taxa Epiphytic Cacti Columnar Cactus Lineages Cacteae and Notocacteae Solving Classification Problems Using Molecular Techniques Phylogenetic Studies of Subfamily...

Ali Nefzaoui and Hichem Ben Salem

Increasing Usage of Cacti in Arid Zones Use of Cacti as Fodder Nutrient Contents Intake and Digestibility Cladode Consumption and Sheep Rumen Fermentation Cladodes as a Water Source Some Practical Considerations Integration of Platyopuntias with Other Feed Resources in the WANA Region Conclusions Literature Cited The future of arid and semiarid regions depends on the development of sustainable agricultural systems and on the cultivation of appropriate crops. Such crops must successfully...

J F M A M J Jasondj F M A M J Jasond

The time of reproductive development, fruit dehiscence, and seed germination with respect to drought and rainfall periods for Opuntia and Stenocereus spp. Adapted from Pimienta-Barrios 1999 . propagation through vegetative parts is common for them in both natural and cultivated populations in arid regions Grant and Grant 1971 Nava et al. 1981 Pimienta-Barrios 1990 Mandujano et al. 1996, 1998 Negr n-Ortiz 1998 . Vegetative apomixis is particularly important, because the propagules...

Ppf

Net CO2 uptake is negative for stems maintained continually in the dark Fig. 4.2C , as only respiration occurs under such circumstances because photosynthesis requires light. Net CO2 uptake increases as the total daily PPF increases and becomes half-maximal at about i3 mol m-2 day-1 for O. ficus-indica Fig. 4.2C because most CO2 uptake occurs at night, data on the light responses of cacti are generally based on the total daily PPF . Net CO2 uptake approaches light saturation at about 30 mol m-2...

Index

Adventitious roots, 8, 43-46, 169, 187 Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 245-246 Alcoholic beverages, 148-151, 158, 165 Algeria, 159, 200, 201, 202 Allozymes, 127-128 Alternaria golden spot, 245, 247-248 Ants, 79, 97, 99, 240, 241 Apical meristem shoot, 30, 34, 35, 266 root, 42, 45-47, 49 Archaeology, 143, 146, 151, 159, 190, 222 Areoles, 3, 5, 34, 43, 75-76, 154, 262 Argentina, 1, 75, 168, 191, 201, 242-245, 262 Arid regions, 49, 75, 81-82, 109, 114, 126, 158, 167, 199-201, 204-205, 256, 258...

Shoot Anatomy And Morphology

Leaf Anatomical Characteristics

Mauseth Epidermis and Hypodermis Fundamental Tissue Chlorenchyma Inner Cortex Pith Mucilage Cells, Laticifers, and Sclereids Mineral Inclusions Vascular Tissue Cortical and Medullary Bundles Xylem Phloem Wood Conclusions and Future Prospects Literature Cited Basic anatomical features of Cactaceae have been studied since the 16th century Metcalfe and Chalk 1950 Conde 1975 . More recently, other features have been observed for cultivated plants, such as...

Brad Chapman Candelario Mondragon Jacobo Ronald A Bunch and Andrew H Paterson

Pollination Emasculated Flowers Image

Breeding and Biotechnology Research Objectives Expanding Markets Breeding Breeding programs Germplasm Pools The Cultivated Gene Pool The Semidomesticated and Wild Gene Pool Germplasm Collections Breeding Systems and Techniques Controlled Pollination Clonal Propagation Apomixis Future Directions Biotechnology Overview of Plant Molecular Tools DNA and Protein Analysis Tissue Culture and Transformation Evolutionary Relationships Molecular Tools for Cacti Future Directions Conclusions Literature...

Preface

The Cactaceae, a family of approximately 1,600 species, is native to the New World but is cultivated worldwide. In response to extreme habitats, cacti have evolved special physiological traits as well as distinctive appearances. The stem morphology, spine properties, and often spectacular flowers have caused hobbyists to collect and cultivate large numbers of cacti. Both cactus form and function relate to nocturnal stomatal opening and Crassulacean acid metabolism, which lead to efficient use...

List Of Steven Brack Cactus

CITES is the primary international legislation that deals with the conservation of plants and animals it now has over 130 member countries. CITES regulates trade in threatened wild species, placing them in one of three appendices. Those species listed in Appendix I Table 8.3 are considered to be at serious risk due to international trade thus, trade in these organisms between signatory countries is banned. Appendix II lists those species that may be threatened by excessive amounts of trade, but...

A

Epiphyllum Phyllanthus

Root tips of Stenocereusgummosus at A 24 hours, B 36 hours, and C and D 48 hours after the start of radicle protrusion. Root hairs arrows approach the tip in A and B and later cover the tip completely in C . In D , the five most apical cells arrow have not formed root hairs. Scale bars A 400 pm, B-C 100 pm, D 50 pm. root and subsequently cover it completely Fig. 3.4 Dubrovsky 1997b . The size of the root apical meristem for cacti with determinate root growth is relatively small,...

Dragon Fruit Under Shadenet Pics

Cactusexpert

Chromosomes in the Cactaceae have a base number of n 11 Gibson and Nobel 1986 . Cultivated Hylocereus species H. costaricensis, H. polyrhizus, and H. undatus and most investigated Selenicereus species are diploids 2n 22 , although the highly cultivated S. megalanthus syn. Mediocactus megalanthus or M. coccineus Moran 1953 Infante 1992 Weiss et al. 1995 is tetraploid 2n 44 Beard 1937 Spencer 1955 Lichtenzveig et al. 2000 . Selenicereus megalanthus has morphological features of both Hylocereus...

Selection

2 Daily stirring with wooden paddle 3 In wooden or plastic containers 4 During approximately 6 hours, until reaching 1-2 salt 5 Optional manual or mechanical 6 In plastic bags or glass or plastic jars 8 Brine must cover nopalitos completely to avoid air reaching the pads 2 Daily stirring with wooden paddle 3 In wooden or plastic containers 4 During approximately 6 hours, until reaching 1-2 salt 5 Optional manual or mechanical 6 In plastic bags or glass or plastic jars 8 Brine must cover...

Weberbaurocereus

Climatic effects on regeneration trends for two columnar cacti in the northern Sonoran Desert. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 83 452-474. Parker, K. C. 1995. Effects of complex geomorphic history on soil and vegetation patterns on arid alluvial fans. Journal of Arid Environments 30 19-39. Petit, S. I995. The pollinators of two species of columnar cacti on Cura ao, Netherlands Antilles. Biotropica 27 538-54I. Porsch, O. 1939. Das Best ubungsleben der...

Pichia Captophila

Opuntia Diseases

Biotic pathogenic agents of cactus pear diseases Bacterial spot Erwinia carotovora, E. cacticida Crown gall Agrobacterium tumefaciens Yeast Diseases Soft rot Candida boidimi Fungal Diseases Armillaria rot Armillaria mellea Alternaria golden spot Alternaria alternata Foot rot Phytophthora cactorum, P. nicotianae Gray mold Botrytis cinerea Other fungal agents Aecidium sp., Cercospora sp., Colletotricum sp., Cytospora sp., Hansfordia sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Gleosporium herbarum, Mycospherella...