Toad Cactus. This species has innumerable varieties, forms and hybrids, ranging from S. vari egat a var. cristal at wiih freakish crested stems, to the handsome Black Starfish S. berlinensis. Equally popular are the Hairy Starfish Flower, S. hirsuta; the nearly scentless Bearded Starfish Flower, S. pulvinata, whose four-inch blooms are wonderfully fringed with reddish-brown hairs; and S. geitlejfii, whose exquisite six-inch flowers are creamy yellow banded with purple stripes. But the most spectacular of all are the giants of this clan—S, nobihs, with pale yellow-red flowers a foot across; and the Giant Starfish, 5. gigantea, whose astounding blooms reach eighteen inches in diameter
Very closely related to these stapelias is the genus Caralluma (kar-a-lu'-ma). Indeed, it is the basic genus of the tribe from which all other genera are derived. All its one hundred or more species resemble the stapelias, but with smaller flowers borne in greater profusion. '1 he carallumas have a very wide range of distribution, from Abyssinia and Arabia to North and South Africa, and even the southwestern shores of Spain, but while they are intensely interesting plants relatively few are seen in collections, G europaea and C hurchardii are admired for their quaintly irregular square stems and clusters of half-inch flowers, which in the latter species are covered with snowy-while hairs, his covering of sensitive, vibrating hairs is especially developed in C lutea, whose three-inch canary-yellow flowers attract insects not only by color and smelh but by a continuously trembling fringe of inviting red hairs.
The fifty species of the genus Huernia (hur'-ni-ah), which range from southern Arabia to South Africa, are all small neat plants with four- or five-angled stems not unlike the stapelias. But they add to the typical five-pointed star flower of the Stapeliads five smaller intermediate points, which gives them a unique, ten-pointed, belMike (lower. Outstanding species are //. primulina, with creamy one-inch flowers;
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