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gaied by seed or cuttings, which, because of their broad leaves and limited succulence, should be rooted at once without the usual drying period.

The Prickly Pears and ChoHas—The Opuntieae

Members of the second tribe of the Cactus family range rom low shrubby plants to large treelike forms, sometimes with woody stems. But unlike the Peresfcieae, they are full stem succulents with only small, cylindrical, transient leaves that usually fall off as the stem matures, Spines are usually present and always accompanied by tufts of characteristic barbed hairs called glochids (glo'-kid). The wide-opent wheel-shaped flowers are attached to the plant without a stalk and have a very short tube. ^—\

Of the nine genera in this tribe the one called Opuntia (oh-pun'-shi-ah) is ihe best known and most widely distributed. It is native to virtually all parts of the American continent from British Columbia to the southernmost tip o; South America Although it has more than three hundred species, showing a bewildering variety of forms and habits, they can be separated into three distinct groups according to the form of their stems or branches. First —the plaiyopun-tias, or Prickly Pears—whose younger stems, ai least, are flattened into pads or discs, one growing out of the other. Second—the tall cylindropuntias, or Chollas (cho'-yah)— whose cylindrical branches are joined together like sausages in long links. And third—the low-growing tephrocacti (tef-ro-kak'-tie)—with many short cylindrical or globe-shaped stems joined together only a link or two at a time.

Of all cacti the opuntias are probably the most important economically. Fruit of the Prickly Pears are highly prized in Mexico and aiong the Mediterranean, and the young stems are eaten as a green vegetable or used for cattle fodder. Before the advent of chemical dyes vast plantations of platyo-

puntias were maintained to feed ihe cochineal insect, which.

when dried and powdered, produces a fine red dye still sometimes used in lipsticks.

As ornamental plants in landscaping the opuntias are more unusual than pleasing Their stiff, formal appearance does not blend well with other plants, and their sharp spines and bristles can be a real hazard in the garden. But when planted en masse as hedges or in large natural groups where they can develop freely they make a striking show. Most species grow rapidly and bloom profusely with brilliant silky flowers, and the brightly colored fruit of some is wonderfully decorative As house plants the opuntias are not quite so popular as they once were—probably because many species do not flower until the plants have grown quite large, because they take up a good deal of space, and because so many are wickedly armed. But by carefully selecting species suited to pot culture these problems can be eliminated.

Of the hundreds of species available the following are some of the most useful and interesting for the beginner Among the pi a tyo pun tias O. microdasys, popular!) called Bunm Ears, has long been a favorite house plant This beautiful dwarf Mexican species has fiat, oblong, spineless pads covered with bright golden tufts of soft glochids. It is available in a number of varieties with variously colored glochids ranging from white through yellow, red, and brown. An equally popular species is the Beaver Tail. O. basilaris, a low, spreading plant whose broad, spineless pads are actually shaped like beavers* tails and bear large purple flowers. Another curiously formed species is 0, erectociada. commonly called Dominoes. It is a dwarf, clustering plant whose fiat trapeziform pads suggest free-form sculpture. The tall angular pads of O. monacan-tha variegaia, strangely marked with green, white, and pink, have won for it the popular name Joseph's Coat. And perhaps the most striking of all the Prickly Pears is the Grizzly Bear Cactus, 0. ermacea, which is prized for its thick hairy coat of whiLe or yellowish »white spines. In the variety ursina these soft, flexible spines are sometimes a foot long.

Among the cylindropuntias there are three small species which have found great favor as house plants. The cylindrical branches of O, mammilla!a spat into crests at the tips to resemble boxing gloves, hence its popular name. The branches of O. vilis make a small treelike growth for which it is given the name Mexican Dwarf Tree. Ii is wonderfully adapted to dish gardens, where it resembles a miniature Joshua tree. And the Old Man Opuntia* O. vestita, is a cylindrical Bolivian species beautifully covered with woolly white hair and striking awi-shaped leaves on its new growth.

Among the strange and sometimes difficult tephrocacti there are two very popular and relatively easy species. The spineless blue-gray O. strobiliformis looks for all the world like a pine cone. And the Paper-spined Opumia. O. glomeraia, is a short globular plant with fantastic papery spines sometimes four inches long. These spines are quite soft, flat, and thin, and seem as if made of old parchment. It is a "must'* for every collection.

Because the opuntias are so numerous and varied, growing in a wide range of climates and soils, only the most general instructions can be given for growing them. Most species are of the easiest culture, preferring a rather poor sandy soil, a warm sunny location, and very moderate watering. Given too much bhade or rich soil, especially indoors, the opuntias lose their character and grow rampant with long snaky branches. Properly grown, many species can take temperatures well below zero if kept dry.

Opuntias are very easy to grow from cuttings, and the green fruit of some species will form new plants if set in damp soil. Opuntia seeds are usually large and germinate easily, and seedlings or cuttings of the less spiny platyopuntias make excellent grafting stocks, the cactus family

The Cere us Tr/be—The Cereeae

The Cereus (see-ree-us) tribe, with one hundred and thirteen genera and thousands of species and varieties, is the third, last, and most important tribe in the Cactus family. Its members may be recognized by their very succulent stems, which never show leaves except in the seedling stage, which bear spines but no glochids. and usually have funnel-shaped flowers with a long lube.

_ Because of its great size this tribe has been divided into eight subtribes. The first six subtrtbes have plants with stems and branches that have ribs, angles, or tubercles; their areoles generally bear spines; and their flowers have a long tube. The last two subtribes are epiphytic, or tree-dwelling, plants. Their stems and branches are generally spineless, flattened, weak, and drooping.

'The Cereus tribe ranges from our extreme souihern states Ihrough Mexico and Central America and the adiacem islands, south to Argentina and Chile. Its members are found from the seashore to altitudes of twelve thousand feet in the Andes They range in height from one inch to sixty feet, and some species form many-branched, treelike plants weighing tons. ■ he description, culture, and uses of these cacti ar^ so varied that I hey must be discussed separately under each ^ubiribe and genus.

The Torch Cacti—The Subtribe Cereande

Members of this first and largest subdivision of the Cereus irihe have been called the Torch Cacti. Inr their stitT, upright sterns often bear such a profusion of blooms that they look like torches aflame. There are forty-four genera in this subtrine. 50 varied in form and usefulness thai it is best to de-

scribe Lhem as belonging to one or another of lour popular groups.

The first and largest, both in number and sheer physical size, are strong, ribbed columnar cacti which branch from thick stems to form a heavy treelike growth resembling giant d, candelabra. The second group are large columnar plants too, but branch from the base |o resemble organ pipes. The third group arc known as the Ofd Man Cacti because their strong columnar branches bear profuse hairs at their sides or tips. And the fourth group are relatively small, thin, clambering plants which might be called the Slender Torches.

The Candelabra Cacti. Of the large Candelabra Cacu those found in the genus Cereus are perhaps the most commonly grown. They are very large, strong-growing plants of easy culture that make splendid backgrounds in outdoor plantings where temperatures do not fall below 20" F. While these plants may reach sixty feet in a century or two and weigh tons, like their giant relative the Saguaro (sah-wah'-ro), Carnegiea gigamea, they are so beautiful and interesting as seedling plants thai a p ace should be found for them in every collection. Such voun»: plants are especially prized indoors for iheir beautifully colored stems and large, white, night-blooming flowers.

Perhaps the most popular species is the Peruvian Torch, Cereusperuvianus, a free-blooming plant with ribbed sea-green stems and brown or black spines. Another favorite is C. dayamit, unexcelled for its profuse blooms and large red fruit. And. finally. Lhe very unusual C. jamacaru. whose young stems are a distinct blue green in contrast to its yellow spines and foot-long white blooms.

AH the ten or more species in the Mexican genus Pachyce-reus (pak-ee-see'-ree-us) are also giant treelike plants, but young seedlings make very attractive potted specimens. They require a loose soil with considerable leaf mold added, plenty of water in warm weather, and a minimum temperature of

the torc h and c limbing < ao i

40nFt Pachyctreus pringlei. the Mexican Giant Cactus, with blackish-green limed stems and numerous short gray spines, is probably the best-known species, Bui P, pecten-aboriginum is also noted for its extraordinarily spiny fruit, which resemble chestnut burs and are used by the Indians as combs, hence its popular name Indian Comb Cactus.

The genus Stetsonia (stet-so'-nee-ah) from northwestern Argentina contains only one treelike species, S coryne, which makes a very decorative potted plant when smalL Its dark gray-green, club-shaped stems bear long white radiai spines that contrast beautifully with a formidable black central spine in each areole.

Myrtiilocactus geometrizans {mur-til'-o-kak'-tus) is another popular Candelabra Cactus whose columnar branches are tinged with a bright bluish-white haze which turns smoky violet in winter. The prominent ribs bear short, stout spines and flowers that look like myrtle blossoms, followed by edible purple fruit.

The Organ Pipe Cadi. Unlike the giant Candelabra Cacti, those columnar species which branch from the base to form the Organ Pipe Cacti seldom exceed fifteen or twenty feet in height. But they are still relatively large plants, suitable only for background plantings, where climate permits, or as potted specimens indoors while still young.

Many of the popular species in the genus Lemaireocereivi (le-may'-ra-see'-ree-Usjj are irue Organ Pipe Cacti. They range in habitat from southern Arizona to Venezuela and the West Indies, and are exceptionally beautiful and interesting plants. A sunny location liberal watering in summer, and a minimum temperature above 30' F- are ¿ill they require.

The best-known species is undoubtedly L marginatus, a dark green columnar cactus with deeply fluted ribs edged with short white spines L pruinosus is another very easy and cflfective species covered with brown-black spines and a powdery blue bloom that gives it the common name Blue Mitre.

The Arizona Organ Pipe, L. thurberi, is a very popular species also, wiih heavy rounded ribs and brown to purple spines, but it is not so easy to grow in its seedling stage

The unique forms and large while nocturnal flowers of the genus Trichocereus (trik-o-see'-ree-us) make it one of the most popular of the Organ Pipes for the beginning collector. These plants, native to the Andes from Chile to Ecuador, are exceptionally neat and easy to grow in the window garden or outdoors where temperatures remain above 20 F. T. spachianus, the White lorcii Cactus, is as well known for its large snow-white flowers as it is as an understock for grafting other cacti. Somewhat similar and equally popular are T candicans and T. schickendantzii—strong, short, columnar plants bearing fine white blooms.

The highly ornamental genus Lo/j/iocerei/jOo-fo-see'-ree-us) is native to southern Arizona. Lower California, and Sonora. Its members are stout columnar cacti generally branching from the base. They arc especially interesting because each areole on the flowering parts of the plant produces an extraordinary number of spines and two or more small, night-blooming pink flowers. They are of easy culture, especially the species L. schottii. A monstrose variety of this species, popularly called the Totem Pole Cactus. L schottU var mon-

strosus, is a knobby, ribless, spineless freak that seems to be carved out of green soap,

The Old Man Cacti Probably more collections have been started by the attraction of these woolly-headed columnar cacti than all other kinds combined. Of the several genera and species of "Old Men" the most popular is easily the Mexican Old Man, Cephalocereus senilis (sef'-ah~loh-see#-ree-us), whose stout columnar body is completely covered with long snowy-white hairs. It is a ''must'1 for every collection, Another very popular plant in this genus is the Golden Old Man, C. chrysaemthust whose blue ribbed stems bear a profusion of bright yellow spines and masses of lighter wool.

In olher genera the Peruvian Old Man, Espostoa ianata (es-po'-sto-ah), is a handsome, easily grown plant completely covered with white cottony hair. And equally popular is (he Old Man of the Andes, Oreocereus celsianus (o'-ree-o-see ~ ree-us)t an exceptionally line plant with stout brown spines and a head of wispy white hair,

The Slender Torches. The las I group of plants in the sub-

tribe Cereanae are quite unlike the large Candelabra and Organ Pipes or the stout Old Men. They are relatively thin, weak-stemmed plants whose great attraction ties not in imposing forms and handsome hair, but in the remarkable beauty and profusion of their blooms.

Some of the most prolific bloomers among all cacti are found in the several species of the genus Monvillea (mon-vi!'-ee-ah), slender, long-stemmed, night-blooming cacti from South America. ITiey are half-erect plants suitable for a mid-

foreground position in landscaping or as fairly compact pot-l ted plants, M> cavendishii is perhaps the most prolific bloomer and M. spegazzinii is especially prized for its beau-f liful blue marbled sterns. The rnonvilleas require rather more leaf mold, shade, and warmth than most cacti, bin are well worth the added care.

The Snake Cactus, Nyctocereus serpentina fnik-toe-see'-ree-us), is another slender night bloomer whose large, fragrant white flowers are outstanding, The tail, g; aceful, col-

umnar plants, studded with short red and yray spines, are easily grown and universally popular.

Another beautiful group of straight Slender Torch Cacti is found in the genus Cleistocactus (klice-toe-kak'-tus). The handsome Scarlet Bugler, C baumannii, with its dark spines and bright tubular blooms, has been well loved for more than a century. And the Silver Torch, C strausii, is a many-ribbed, slender beauty whose long spiny hairs give an illusion of soft, silvery silkiness to the plant. Very similar but with stouter branches and whiter spines is the popular White

AM the cleistocacti are of the easiest culture, and can take temperatures to 20°F„ bui the white-

spined species should be given somewhat less water than the others.

Perhaps the most striking flowers among the Slender Torches belong to the genus Heiiocereus (hee'-lee-oh-see'-ree-us) These are clambering tropical plants, native to Mexico and Central America, whose spectacular day-blooming flowers are considered by many the finest in the Cactus familv The Sun Cereus, H. speciosus, is perhaps the best-known species. Its magnificent scarlet flowers have been extensively crossed with the epiphyllums to give us the so-called Orchid Cacti, or modern hybrid epiphyllums The heliocerei appreciate generous soil and watering but, being tropical plants, will not take temperatures much below 50*F.

To conclude this list of Slender Torch Cactj we must add those almost vinelike plants of prolific blooming habit that make up the genus Eriocereus (ehr'-ee-oh-see'-ree-us). They are strong-growing cacti requiring rather large pots, rich soil and abundant watering, and can take temperatures to 20CF. E. botiplandii, with huge white night flowers from spring until late fail, is probably the best-loved variety But the Pink Moon Cactus; E regeliL with very similar pmk blooms, is a close rival.

The Climbing Cocfi-The Subtribe Hvlocereanae

After the sprawling vinelike growth of some of the Slender Torches, it is not surprising to find that the second subtribe of the Cereus tribe consists of true climbing cacti. All the Hylocere-anae (hy-Ioh-see'-ree-ay'-nee) have thin stems, often reaching amazing lengths, and aerial roots by which the\ dra* humidity from the air and cling to rocks or the bark of trees. These devices have permitted them to sometimes leave the ground entirely and become epiphytes (ejj'-ee-fne), or tree dwellers, getting nourishment from the humus collected in the forks of trees without any contact with the soil below.

Perhaps the best known of the Climbing Cacti is Hylocereus undatus (hy-loh-see'-ree-us), whose three-winged stems bear the immense white nocturnal blooms pictured on the jacket of this book. It is a magnificent, easily grown, free-blooming plant thai has been widely used for hedges in Hawaii and cultivated in other tropical countries for its fine fruit. Elsewhere ii requires ample room espaliered on a trellis or the rafters of a greenhouse rich soil and abundant watering, and temperatures not much below 50? F.

Another vinelike Climbing Cactus, but with slender ribbed stems, is the very popular Selenicereus macdonaldiae (see-lee' ni-see'-ree-us). It shares with a score cf other ntght-blooming cacti the well-deserved but much overused titles of Queen of the Night and Night-biooming Cereus, For sheer size and spectacle no other cactus can match its gold and white blossoms, often a foot in diameter and as much in length. Equally line are the species S. grandiflorus and S. pteranthus. While somewhat more hardy than Hylocereus, the selenicerei do besl when given ample room, generous treatment, and temperatures above 40 °F.

The slender, whiplike stems of the Rat-tail Cactus, Aporo-cactus Jlageliiformis (ap'-oh-roh-kak'-tus), are much shorter i hart the other Climbing Cacti, yet they may reach three feei in length when grown as hanging-basket plants. It is for this graceful weeping habit and a profusion of bright red flowers in spring thai it has been a favorite pot plant the world over. Occasionally n is grafted on tall nyciocereus or selenicereus understocks and trained over a framework to form a striking umbrella-shaped standard. The Rat-tail Cactus likes rich soil, abundant water when growing, and protection from the frost in winter.

the cactus i-amily

The Hedgehog Cacti-The Subtribe Echinocereanae

Unlike the slender, tropical. Climbing Cacti which make up the second subtribe of the Cereus clan, the members of the third subtribe are short, cylindrical, or globe-shaped desert or brushland plants, rarely a foot in height, usually heavily armed with spines, which produce their brilliantly colored flowers from areoles at the base and sides of their stems. They may be divided into two groups: the first, the Hedgehog Cacti of our Southwest and Mexico; and second, their several relatives from South America.

The largest and best-known genus is probably Echinocereus (ee-ky'-noh-see'-ree-us), native to our Southwest and Mexico, from whose name the whole subtribe gets its scientific as well as its popular name, Hedgehog Cacti. Popular species include E. reichenbachii, the ¡.ace Cactus, so called because its numerous spines form a lacy cover over the plant; and E. rigi-dissimus, the Rainbow Cactus, a rather difficu t plant to grow but highly prized for its multicolored spines, which form horizontal bands of pink, wliite, red. and brown. The flowers of both these species are purplish pink and quite large. Equally popular for its amazingly large yellow flowers is E. dasyacan-thus, a shon-spined, easily grown species. A very long-spined, pink-(lowered species whose soft white hairs resemble the Mexican Old Man Cactus (Cephaloceteus senilis) is E deiaetii. And to conclude the list every collection should include the handsome violet-red flowers of E. pentahphus, which are borne on a curious clustered plant with finger-like stems.

Because of their beautiful flowers, interesting spine growth easy culture, and small size, virtually all the echinocerei make

fine pot plants and can easily become a specially with the collector They are readily grown from seed or cuttings, require little water, and flower best when winter temperatures are kept above freezing, though many species are quite hardy.

Of the South American hedgehogs none has been more widely grown or loved than the genus Echinopsis (ek-ee-nop'-sis). Its many species are popularly called Easter Lily Cacti, because their small globular or cylindrical plants, heavily ribbed and spined, produce a wealth of large trumpet-shaped blooms of outstanding beauty. The flowers are generally pink or uhite and open in the evening and last through the next day until noon or later. The echinopses are of the easiest culture, preferring a rich soi! ample food and water in the growing season, and will lake light shade. They are readily grown from seed and from the numerous offsets produced at the base of the plants. Several species, such as E, multiplexp are very hardy and have been used for bedding out of doors in sections of the United States and Canada where the plants are under snow all winter. They are extremely beautiful and free-fi owe ring as potted plants, but when pink and white species are massed together out of doors in patterned beds they are simply spectacular.

Actualijy any and all available species of Echinopsis are desirable. but some of the most popular white-flowered kinds are E. caiochiora, the Shining Ball, a handsome apple-green globular plant wiih short yellow spines and large white flowers; £. eyriesii, another fine white species; E. huottii, E. silvestrii, and E. obrepanda. Ot the pink species the Pink Easter Lily Cactus. E. multiplex. is easily the most popular; but there are many other fine sorts, such as E. campylacantha, E. oxvgona, and the Lilac Easter Lily Cactus. E, rhodotricha var. argent inensis. In addition to these species many fine new hybrids have been developed by crossing Echinopsis with the closely related lobivias and trichocerei. The resulting plants display the same fine flowers as the ec linopses, but in a wide range of colors from salmon pink through orange and red.

There are three other genera of South American Hedgehog Cacti which are closely related to Echinopsis but differ from the cactus family the cactus family

tIE HEDGEHOG CACTI

it by having smaller plants, smaller flowers, and the habit of blooming by day. But despite their modest appearancc they are among the most popular of all cacti for their brilliant silky flowers and small size, which makes them ideal pot plants.

The first of these are the lobivias (loh-biv -ee-ah), short, cylindrical, spiny plants which are popularly called Cob Cacti, They are actually difficult to distinguish from the echinopses except their flowers have shorter tubes and open by day, The Golden Easter Lily Cactus, L aureat looks for all the world like a sparkling yellow echinopsis, Equally popular and free-blooming are the Orange Cob Cactus, L. famati-mensis; the scarlet L hertrichiana; and the lovely carmine L hai kebergii he lobivias are all very easily grown and can take considerable cold in winter-

Closely related to the lobivias but smaller in every way are ■he tiny rebuuas (reh-boot'-ee-ah). They are no larger than a man's thumb, bear nipples instead of ribs, and produce a fan-tasiic number of showy blooms in a circle near the base of the plant, which gives them the popular name Crown Cacti, Their small size, free-blooming, and easy culture make them ideal house plants. 1 hey require rather more water than most cacti and a parti} shaded location indoors or out. Rebut i a minuscula is perhaps the most popular species, with scarlet flowers often as large as the plant itself Other fine species are the rosy-violel R. violaciflora and the dark red R. kupperiana;

Just as dainty as the rebuuas are the tiny cylindrical stems of the Peanut Cactus, Chamaecereus sitvesirii (kam-ee-see'-ree-us). This popular miniature cactus branches freely from the base to form clusters of peanut-shaped stems which are completely covered in spring with beautiful dark red flowers, The Peanut Cactus is quite hardy and easily grown out of doors in milder climates, where it revels in full sun and liberal watering Its joints are easily detached and rooted, and they are sometimes also grafted on pereskia or cereus understock to form specimen plants. Although there is only one species of chamaecereus, it has been crossed with the lobivias to produce a number of fine free-flowering hybrids.

The living ftoclc, Barrel, Star, Chin, and Bo» Cacfi-

The Subtribe Echinocactanae

This fourth subtribe of the Cereus line is second largest in size, with thirty-seven genera, among which are found some of the real curiosities and novelties of the Cactus family. Although they range vastly in size and form, they may be differentiated from all preceding genera by one common characteristic: the flowers arise from young undeveloped areas in the center of the plant The subtribe may be divided into five popular groups for easy recognition.

The Living Rock Cacti. The Living Rock Cacti are the mimicry plants of the Cactus family. With their curious rocklike forms and textures they have learned to protect themselves from the foragers of the southwestern and Mexican deserts they inhabit. Many of them have strong turnip-like roots by which they pull themselves into the soil in times of drought, blending even more closel) with ihe soil and rocks. Because of their excellent camouflage ihey are as a rule practically spineless, only their lough skin and stonelike texture protect them. Most of them are slow-growing plants, sometimes a little difficult to keep and propagate, but wonderful novelties for any collection.

The most popular of these cacti is undoubtedly the Mexican Living Rock, Ariocarpusfissuratus (a'-ree-oh-kar'-pus), a curious plant made up of overlapping hom> tubercles covered with a tough, leathery skin through which the underlying green shows faintly 1 he top ufrthe plan! is tilled with gray wool out of which spring lovely pink blossoms. Along similar lines, yet distinct, are the Pine Cone Cactus Encephalth it by having smaller plants, smaller flowers, and Lhe habit oi blooming by day. But despite their modest appearance they are among the most popular of all cacti for their brilliant silky flowers and small size, which makes them ideal pot plants.

The first of these are the lobivias (loh-biv'-ee-ah), short, cylindrical, spiny plants which are popularly called Cob Cacti, They are actually difficult to distinguish from the echinopses except their flowers have shorter tubes and open by day. The Golden Easier Lily Caclus, L aurea, looks for alt the world like a sparkling yellow echinopsis. Equally popular and free-blooming are the Orange Cob Cactus, L. famatimens is; the scar lei L kertrickiana; and the lovely carmine L. backebergil The lobivias are ail very easily grown and can take considerable cold in winter.

Closely related to the lobivias bui smaller in every way are the tiny rebutias (reh-boof ee-ah). They are no larger than a man's thumb, bear nipples instead of ribs, and produce a fan-lasuc number of showy blooms in a circle near the base ot the plant, which gives them the popular name Crown Cacti. Their small size, free-bloomingt and easy culture make them ideal house plants. They require rather more water than most cacti and a partly shaded location indoors or out Rebutia minuscula is perhaps the most popular species, with scarlet flowers often as large as the plant itself. Other fine species are the rosy-violet R. violaciflora and the dark red R> kupperi ana.

Just as dainty as the rebutias are the liny cylindrical stems of the Peanut Cactus, Chamaecereus siJvestrU (karn-ee-sce'-ree-us). This popular miniature cactus branches freely from I he base to form clusters of peanut-shaped stems which are completely covered in spring with beautiful dark red flowers. The Peanut Cactus is quite hardy and easily grown out of doors in milder climates, where it revels in full sun and liberal watering. Its joints are easily detached and rooted, and the cactus family

(hey arc sometimes also grafted on pereskia or eereus understock to form specimen plants. Although there is only one species of chamaecereus, it has been crossed with the lobivias to produce a number of line free-flowering hybrids.

The Living Roclc, Barret, Star, Chin, and Bat I Cacti-

The Sob tribe Echinocactanae

This fourth subtribe of the Cereus line is second largest in size, with thirty-seven genera, among which are found some of the real curiosities and novelties of the Cactus family, Although they range vastly in size and form, they may be differentiated from all preceding genera by one common characteristic: the flowers arise from young undeveloped areas in the center of the plant. The subtribe may be divided into five popular groups for easy recognition.

The Living Rock Cacti, The Living Rock Cacti are the mimicry plants of the Cactus family. With their curious rock-iike forms and textures they have learned to protect themselves from the foragers of the southwestern and Mexican deserts they inhabit. Many ot them hd\c strong turnrp-like roots by which the) pull themselves inn» the soil in times of drought blending even more closely with the soil and rocks Because of their excellent camouflage they are as a rule practically spineless, only their tough skin and stonelike texture protect them. Most of them are Slow-Growing plants, sometimes a little difficult to keep and propagate, hut wonderful novelties for any collection.

I he most popular of these cacti is undoubtedly the Mexican Living Rock, Ariocarpus fissure*tux (a'-ree-oh-kar-pusi a curious plant made up of overlapping horny tubercles covered with a tough, leathery skin through which the underlying green shows faintly- The top of the plant is filled with gray wool out of which spring lovely pink blossoms. Along similar lines, yet distinct, arc the Pine Cone Cactus, Encephuto-

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